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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2022 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933538

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive tumor with a low rate of metastatic disease. Previous series have shown a superiority of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) compared with wide local excision (WLE). Likewise, there is paucity of data examining the long-term follow-up of patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the outcome of surgical treatment of primary DFSP of the trunk and extremities. METHODS: We reviewed 236 patients (115 females, 121 males, mean age 41 ± 15 years) undergoing MMS (n = 81, 34%) or WLE (n = 155, 66%) to treat a primary DFSP. Mean tumor size and follow-up was 4 ± 2 cm and 7 years, respectively. Final margins were negative in 230 (97%) patients. RESULTS: There was no difference (p > 0.05) in patient age, sex, tumor size, negative margin excision, or history of a previous inadvertent excision between patients who underwent WLE and those undergoing MMS. There were two cases of local recurrence and two cases of metastasis, with no difference in the 5-year local recurrence-free survival (98% vs. 99%, p = 0.69) or metastatic-free survival (98% vs. 100%, p= 0.27) between WLE and MMS. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in oncologic outcome comparing MMS with WLE for DFSP outside the head and neck. The goal of treatment for DFSP is to achieve a negative margin, regardless of surgical treatment modalities. A 'less is more' approach to follow-up can likely be taken for patients with completely resected DFSP in easy-to-examine anatomical areas. In these patients, no formal follow-up should be required.

2.
ISME J ; 2022 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941171

RESUMEN

The nitrogen cycle plays a major role in aquatic nitrogen transformations, including in the terrestrial subsurface. However, the variety of transformations remains understudied. To determine how nitrogen cycling microorganisms respond to different aquifer chemistries, we sampled groundwater with varying nutrient and oxygen contents. Genes and transcripts involved in major nitrogen-cycling pathways were quantified from 55 and 26 sites, respectively, and metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were analyzed from a subset of oxic and dysoxic sites (0.3-1.1 mg/L bulk dissolved oxygen). Nitrogen-cycling mechanisms (e.g. ammonia oxidation, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) were prevalent and highly redundant, regardless of site-specific physicochemistry or nitrate availability, and present in 40% of reconstructed genomes, suggesting that nitrogen cycling is a core function of aquifer communities. Transcriptional activity for nitrification, denitrification, nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) occurred simultaneously in oxic and dysoxic groundwater, indicating the availability of oxic-anoxic interfaces. Concurrent activity by these microorganisms indicates potential synergisms through metabolite exchange across these interfaces (e.g. nitrite and oxygen). Fragmented denitrification pathway encoding and transcription was widespread among groundwater bacteria, although a considerable proportion of associated transcriptional activity was driven by complete denitrifiers, especially under dysoxic conditions. Despite large differences in transcription, the capacity for the final steps of denitrification was largely invariant to aquifer conditions, and most genes and transcripts encoding N2O reductases were the atypical Sec-dependant type, suggesting energy-efficiency prioritization. Results provide insights into the capacity for cooperative relationships in groundwater communities, and the richness and complexity of metabolic mechanisms leading to the loss of fixed nitrogen.

3.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26280, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911308

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To examine rates of counseling on driving for individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluate the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) as a screening tool for further driving evaluation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was completed by individuals recruited via ResearchMatch (a national web-based recruitment tool) between March 5 and April 20, 2020. Individuals with a current US driver's license, ≥18 years old, with self-reported OA and/or RA diagnosis were surveyed about driving difficulty and vehicle modification and completed a HAQ-DI assessment. Respondents were dichotomized based on reporting vehicle modification(s) due to arthritis versus no modification(s) for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 4,435 recruited patients, 304 (6.9%) met inclusion/exclusion criteria and completed the surveys. Of all respondents, 259 (85.2%) reported at least some difficulty with one or more driving activities, but only 47 (15.5%) reported discussion with a physician and/or healthcare professional. A total of 184 (60.5%) respondents had HAQ-DI ≥ 1 and were more likely to report vehicle modification(s) compared to respondents with HAQ-DI score < 1 (OR = 5.00, 95% CI = 2.69-9.32, p < 0.011) after controlling for age, gender, type of arthritis, and driving behaviors. CONCLUSION: Few respondents report discussion of driving difficulties with healthcare providers, although many report driving-related impairments, particularly those with HAQ-DI scores ≥ 1. Our data suggest a strong association between HAQ-DI scores and vehicle modification. The HAQ-DI may serve as a screening tool to predict a patient's need for driving evaluation and vehicle modification(s).

4.
Trials ; 23(1): 621, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latinas are at increased risk for many lifestyle-related chronic diseases and are one of the least physically active populations in the US Innovative strategies are needed to help Latinas achieve the health benefits associated with physical activity (PA). This manuscript describes the study protocol of the Pasos Hacia La Salud II Study, which builds upon our previous research to test an enhanced individually-tailored, text-message and website-delivered, Spanish-language intervention (enhanced intervention), in comparison to the original web-based Pasos Hacia La Salud Intervention (original intervention). METHODS: Sedentary Latinas between the ages of 18-65 will be recruited and will complete an orientation and baseline assessments. Participants will be subsequently randomized to the original intervention, or the Enhanced Intervention, which has greater targeting of theoretical constructs such as self-efficacy, enjoyment, and social support, and which uses text messages and more dynamic and refined website features to encourage increased website use. Using a linear mixed effects regression model, we will simultaneously estimate the intervention effects on mean accelerometer-measured hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, with a subject-specific intercept (intent-to-treat sample). Change in self-reported MVPA, measured via the 7-day Physical Activity Recall, will be assessed as a secondary outcome using a similar model. We will investigate potential mediators of the intervention effect using a multiple mediation approach, and potential moderators by evaluating potential interactions. As an exploratory outcome, we will study the differences (among both study arms) in cost, in US dollars, per minute increases in weekly mean MVPA. DISCUSSION: The original Pasos PA intervention showed efficacy in helping Latinas increase PA; we expect the Enhanced Intervention to help a larger proportion of participants to increase and maintain their PA long term. This web- and text-based enhanced intervention could have great reach and dissemination potential, which could be capitalized on in the future to help to advance health equity. Adaptations made in response to the COVID-19 pandemic are also described in this manuscript. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Number: NCT03491592 . First posted April 9, 2018.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Promoción de la Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispánicos o Latinos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Tecnología , Adulto Joven
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(8): 1659-1669, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894081

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify periods of heightened susceptibility to the effects of pre- and postnatal secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure on body composition at age 12 years. METHODS: The study used data from 217 children from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio. Using multiple informant models, the study estimated associations of maternal serum cotinine (16 and 26 weeks of pregnancy) and child serum cotinine concentrations (at age 12, 24, 36, and 48 months) with measures of body composition obtained with anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at 12 years. We examined whether there were differences between these associations for pre- and postnatal exposure periods and potential effect measure modification by sex. RESULTS: Postnatal cotinine concentrations were associated with higher weight, BMI, body fat and lean mass, waist circumference, and visceral, android, and gynoid fat. Each 10-fold increase in postnatal cotinine was associated with 76% increased risk of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.13-2.75). Associations between prenatal concentrations and measures of body composition at 12 years were generally null. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal exposure to SHS may increase adolescent adiposity and lean mass. Future studies should determine whether early-life exposures to SHS are associated with other cardiometabolic risk markers.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Adolescente , Composición Corporal , Niño , Cotinina , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad/inducido químicamente , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Circunferencia de la Cintura
6.
Pulm Circ ; 12(3): e12110, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35874854

RESUMEN

Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) require lifelong anticoagulant therapy. The safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) in the chronic and transitional management of CTEPH has not been investigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of 405 consecutive pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) cases at the University of California, San Diego, from July 2015 through July 2017. PEA specimen was reviewed for the presence of acute or subacute thrombotic material distinct from the expected chronic disease removed at the time of PEA by two investigators blinded to the patient information. Of 405 PEA cases, 166 patients (41.0%) were anticoagulated with one of three available DOACs; 239 (59.0%) presented on either oral vitamin-K antagonist or chronic injectable therapy. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between DOAC and non-DOAC groups. Evidence of recent thrombus was observed in 22 (13.3%) in the DOAC group versus 16 (6.7%) within the non-DOAC group. The odds ratio of DOACs usage and evidence of recent thrombus was 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.0, p = 0.03) after adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index, and history of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. CTEPH patients referred for PEA while on DOAC therapy were twice as likely to have associated acute or subacute thrombi present at the time of surgery compared with those on more traditional, non-DOAC anticoagulant therapies. This raises questions of the safety and efficacy of DOACs in the chronic management of CTEPH.

7.
Ecol Lett ; 25(8): 1760-1782, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791088

RESUMEN

Pathogen transmission depends on host density, mobility and contact. These components emerge from host and pathogen movements that themselves arise through interactions with the surrounding environment. The environment, the emergent host and pathogen movements, and the subsequent patterns of density, mobility and contact form an 'epidemiological landscape' connecting the environment to specific locations where transmissions occur. Conventionally, the epidemiological landscape has been described in terms of the geographical coordinates where hosts or pathogens are located. We advocate for an alternative approach that relates those locations to attributes of the local environment. Environmental descriptions can strengthen epidemiological forecasts by allowing for predictions even when local geographical data are not available. Environmental predictions are more accessible than ever thanks to new tools from movement ecology, and we introduce a 'movement-pathogen pace of life' heuristic to help identify aspects of movement that have the most influence on spatial epidemiology. By linking pathogen transmission directly to the environment, the epidemiological landscape offers an efficient path for using environmental information to inform models describing when and where transmission will occur.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Ecología , Epidemiología , Movimiento , Geografía
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 272: 109499, 2022 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835006

RESUMEN

Respiratory viral infections are among the major causes of disease in poultry. While viral dual infections are known to occur, viral interference in chicken airways is mechanistically hardly understood. The effects of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection on tissue morphology, sialic acid (sia) expression and susceptibility of the chicken trachea for superinfection with IBV or avian influenza virus (AIV) were studied. In vivo, tracheal epithelium of chickens infected with IBV QX showed marked inflammatory cell infiltration and loss of cilia and goblet cells five days post inoculation. Plant lectin staining indicated that sialic acids redistributed from the apical membrane of the ciliated epithelium and the goblet cell cytoplasm to the basement membrane region of the epithelium. After administration of recombinant viral attachment proteins to slides of infected tissue, retained binding of AIV hemagglutinin, absence of binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of IBV M41 and partial reduction of IBV QX RBD were observed. Adult chicken trachea rings were used as ex vivo model to study the effects of IBV QX-induced pathological changes and receptor redistribution on secondary viral infection. AIV H9N2 infection after primary IBV infection was delayed; however, final viral loads reached similar levels as in previously uninfected trachea rings. In contrast, IBV M41 superinfection resulted in 1000-fold lower viral titers over the course of 48 h. In conclusion, epithelial changes in the chicken trachea after viral infection coincide with redistribution and likely specific downregulation of viral receptors, with the extend of subsequent viral interference dependent on viral species.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222385, 2022 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857325

RESUMEN

Importance: Programs that provide affordable and stable housing, such as federal rental assistance, may be associated with improved mean blood glucose levels and related diabetes outcomes. Objective: To assess whether 2 different types of federal rental assistance programs are associated with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among middle-aged and older US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) linked with US Department of Housing and Urban Development records of rental assistance participation. Adults aged 45 years or older who were receiving 2 types of rental assistance (project-based housing or housing vouchers) at the time of the NHANES interview and those who would receive rental assistance within the subsequent 2 years (waitlist group) were included. Data were collected from January 1999 to December 2016 and analyzed in October 2021. Exposures: Rental assistance participation, including project-based housing (subsidized housing developments including public housing) and housing vouchers (tenant-based subsidies for private market housing). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was continuous HbA1c level, a common measure of blood glucose reflecting diabetes control. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the 2 rental assistance programs and HbA1c level. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between rental assistance programs and HbA1c cut points (prediabetes: 5.7% to ≤6.5%; diabetes: >6.5%; uncontrolled diabetes: ≥9% [to convert to proportion of total Hb, multiply by 0.01]). Analyses used weights created by the National Center for Health Statistics that adjust for linkage eligibility. Results: Among 1050 adults in the study (41.6% aged ≥65 years; 70.1% female), 795 were receiving rental assistance at time of the NHANES interview (450 lived in project-based housing, and 345 had housing vouchers), and 255 received rental assistance within 2 years after the interview. Participants in project-based housing had lower HbA1c levels compared with individuals in the waitlist group (ß, -0.290; 95% CI, -0.599 to 0.020), but the difference was not significant. No significant differences in HbA1c levels were found between those receiving housing vouchers and those in the waitlist group (ß, 0.051; 95% CI, -0.182 to 0.284). Receiving project-based housing was associated with a reduced likelihood of uncontrolled diabetes (-3.7 percentage points; 95% CI, -7.0 to -0.0 percentage points) compared with being in the waitlist group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of a nationally representative sample of US adults, living in project-based, federally subsidized housing was associated with a reduced likelihood of uncontrolled diabetes. The findings suggest that affordable housing programs may be associated with improved diabetes outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia , Vivienda Popular , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales
10.
Sports Med Open ; 8(1): 90, 2022 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834023

RESUMEN

As type 2 diabetes remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, identifying the most appropriate preventive treatment early in the development of disease is an important public health matter. In general, lifestyle interventions incorporating exercise and weight loss via caloric restriction improve cardiometabolic risk by impacting several key markers of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. However, variations in the effects of specific types of exercise interventions on these markers have led to conflicting results surrounding the optimal amount, intensity, and mode of exercise for optimal effects. Moreover, the addition of weight loss via caloric restriction to exercise interventions appears to differentially impact changes in body composition, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity compared to exercise alone. Determining the optimal amount, intensity, and mode of exercise having the most beneficial impact on glycemic status is both: (1) clinically important to provide guidelines for appropriate exercise prescription; and (2) physiologically important to understand the pathways by which exercise-with and without weight loss-impacts glycemic status to enhance precision lifestyle medicine. Thus, the purposes of this narrative review are to: (1) summarize findings from the three Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE) randomized trials regarding the differential effects of exercise amount, intensity, and mode on insulin action and glucose homeostasis markers; and (2) compare the STRRIDE findings to other published dose-response exercise trials in order to piece together the various physiologic pathways by which specific exercise interventions-with or without weight loss-impact glycemic status.

11.
Endosc Int Open ; 10(4): E282-E290, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836740

RESUMEN

Background and study aims A free resection margin (FRM) > 1 mm after local excision of a T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) is known to be associated with a low risk of local intramural residual cancer (LIRC). The risk is unclear, however, for FRMs between 0.1 to 1 mm. This study evaluated the risk of LIRC after local excision of T1 CRC with FRMs between 0.1 and 1 mm in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), poor differentiation and high-grade tumor budding (Bd2-3). Patients and methods Data from all consecutive patients with local excision of T1 CRC between 2014 and 2017 were collected from 11 hospitals. Patients with a FRM ≥ 0.1 mm without LVI and poor differentiation were included. The main outcome was risk of LIRC (composite of residual cancer in the local excision scar in adjuvant resection specimens or local recurrence during follow-up). Tumor budding was also assessed for cases with a FRM between 0.1 and 1mm. Results A total of 171 patients with a FRM between 0.1 and 1 mm and 351 patients with a FRM > 1 mm were included. LIRC occurred in five patients (2.9 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.0-6.7 %) and two patients (0.6 %; 95 % CI 0.1-2.1 %), respectively. Assessment of tumor budding showed Bd2-3 in 80 % of cases with LIRC and in 16 % of control cases. Accordingly, in patients with a FRM between 0.1 and 1 mm without Bd2-3, LIRC was detected in one patient (0.8%; 95 % CI 0.1-4.4 %). Conclusions In this study, risks of LIRC were comparable for FRMs between 0.1 and 1 mm and > 1 mm in the absence of other histological risk factors.

12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881004

RESUMEN

African swine fever virus (ASFv) is a virulent pathogen that threatens domestic swine industries globally and persists in wild boar populations in some countries. Persistence in wild boar can challenge elimination and prevent disease-free status, making it necessary to address wild swine in proactive response plans. In the U.S., invasive wild pigs are abundant and found across a wide range of ecological conditions that could drive different epidemiological dynamics among populations. Information on size of control areas required to rapidly eliminate ASFv in wild pigs and how this area should change with management constraints and local ecology are needed to optimize response planning. We developed a spatially-explicit disease transmission model contrasting wild pig movement and contact ecology in two ecosystems in southeastern U.S. We simulated ASFv spread and determined optimal response area (reported as radius of a circle) for eliminating ASFv rapidly over a range of detection times (when ASFv is detected relative to true date of introduction), culling capacities (proportion of wild pigs in the culling zone removed weekly), and wild pig densities. Large radii for response areas (14 km) were needed under most conditions but could be shortened with early detection (≤ 8 weeks) and high culling capacities (≥ 15% weekly). Under most conditions ASFv was eliminated in less than 22 weeks using optimal control radii, although ecological conditions with high rates of wild pig movement required higher culling capacities (≥ 10% weekly) for elimination within one year. Results highlight the importance of adjusting response plans based on local ecology and show wild pig movement is a better predictor of optimal response area than numbers of ASFv cases early in the outbreak trajectory. Our framework provides a tool for determining optimal control plans in different areas, guiding expectations of response impacts, and planning resources needed for rapid elimination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabn8097, 2022 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857579

RESUMEN

Preclinical studies show that locoregional CTLA-4 blockade is equally effective in inducing tumor eradication as systemic delivery, without the added risk of immune-related side effects. This efficacy is related to access of the CTLA-4 blocking antibodies to tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). Local delivery of anti-CTLA-4 after surgical removal of primary melanoma, before sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), provides a unique setting to clinically assess the role of TDLN in the biological efficacy of locoregional CTLA-4 blockade. Here, we have evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunomodulatory effects in the SLN and peripheral blood of a single dose of tremelimumab [a fully human immunoglobulin gamma-2 (IgG2) mAb directed against CTLA-4] in a dose range of 2 to 20 mg, injected intradermally at the tumor excision site 1 week before SLNB in 13 patients with early-stage melanoma (phase 1 trial; NCT04274816). Intradermal delivery was safe and well tolerated and induced activation of migratory dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the SLN. It also induced profound and durable decreases in regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies and activation of effector T cells in both SLN and peripheral blood. Moreover, systemic T cell responses against NY-ESO-1 or MART-1 were primed or boosted (N = 7), in association with T cell activation and central memory T cell differentiation. These findings indicate that local administration of anti-CTLA-4 may offer a safe and promising adjuvant treatment strategy for patients with early-stage melanoma. Moreover, our data demonstrate a central role for TDLN in the biological efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade and support TDLN-targeted delivery methods.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia , Ganglios Linfáticos , Melanoma , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Inyecciones Intradérmicas/efectos adversos , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Activación de Linfocitos , Melanoma/patología , Melanoma/terapia , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela
14.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100676, 2022 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858591

RESUMEN

The factors that influence the atherosclerotic disease process in high-risk individuals remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of vascular imaging, risk factor assessment, and biomarkers to identify factors associated with 3-year change in carotid disease severity in a cohort of high-risk subjects treated with preventive therapy (n = 865). The results show that changes in intima-media thickness (IMT) are most pronounced in the carotid bulb. Progression of bulb IMT demonstrates independent associations with baseline bulb IMT, the plaque gray scale median (GSM), and the plasma level of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (standardized ß-coefficients and 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.14 [-0.06 to -0.02] p = 0.001, 0.15 [0.02-0.07] p = 0.001, and 0.20 [0.03-0.07] p < 0.001, respectively). Plasma PDGF correlates with the plaque GSM (0.23 [0.15-0.29] p < 0.001). These observations provide insight into the atherosclerotic process in high-risk subjects by showing that progression primarily occurs in fibrotic plaques and is associated with increased levels of PDGF.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas , Placa Aterosclerótica , Aterosclerosis/complicaciones , Biomarcadores , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagen , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagen , Factores de Riesgo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
15.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 6(7): nzac101, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854938

RESUMEN

Background: Traditional Pacific diets have many health benefits, including maintenance of a healthy weight and prevention of various diseases. Few studies have evaluated the frequency at which traditional diets are consumed in the Pacific, especially among children. Objectives: This study examined the frequency of traditional and acculturated fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake among children in the US-affiliated Pacific (USAP) region. Methods: Diet records of 3319 children ages 2 to 8 y old were analyzed for frequency of traditional or acculturated F&V intake within USAP jurisdictions of American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM; FSM island states include Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawaii, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and Republic of Palau. Results: Of the 95,304 food items recorded among participating children in the USAP jurisdictions, 15.2% were F&Vs. Of the 10 jurisdictions, children in the islands of Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap, and Pohnpei recorded the highest frequencies of traditional F&V intake relative to their total F&V intake (67.8%, 64.8%, 56.7%, and 52.5%, respectively). American Samoa and RMI recorded moderate frequency of traditional F&V intake (38.9% and 46.4%, respectively), whereas children in Hawaii, Guam, and CNMI recorded the lowest frequencies of traditional F&V intake relative to their total F&V intake (10.4%, 12.4%, and 15.3%, respectively). Children in Hawaii, Guam, Palau, and CNMI recorded high frequencies of acculturated F&V intake (37.8%, 31.2%, 34.5%, and 27.9%, respectively). Conclusions: Overall, children in the USAP jurisdictions participating in this study recorded a low frequency of F&V intake. The differences in traditional F&V intake found between the USAP islands may be due to variation in economic income level and external influences on social and cultural norms among the island populations and variations of cost, accessibility, and convenience of each category of food to each island's population.

16.
Health Justice ; 10(1): 23, 2022 Jul 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877017

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the limitations the carceral environment may impose on mental wellness, mental healthcare is increasingly becoming a carceral endeavor. Over the course of the last several decades, prisons and jails have become the de facto mental healthcare provider for thousands of incarcerated individuals. Furthermore, practices like mandated mental healthcare for supervised individuals further broaden the population experiencing mental healthcare within the criminal legal system at large. This study examines the perspectives of nine individuals who experienced mental healthcare within the carceral state, whether in prison or on parole or probation, with a special focus on how attributes of the carceral state create ideological and functional barriers to effective mental healthcare. METHODS: Data for the parent study of this analysis was collected via in-depth, one-on-one interviews of about one hour's length, conducted at six-month intervals over the course of 2 years. These interviews were analyzed using an iterative process of open-coding, thematic code development, and code application to participant interviews. RESULTS: The results showed a common perception of mental healthcare received within the carceral state as serving goals of the prison system, including control and punishment, rather than therapeutic goals of healing and empowerment. This often had negative implications for the quality of the treatment received, including patterns of diagnostic ambiguity, treatment that was ill-fitting to participants' needs, and treatment that was undermined by the new trauma created by the prison environment. The results also highlighted racial disparities prevalent within the carceral system. Despite the barriers created by the subjection of therapeutic practices to carceral goals, participants demonstrated resourcefulness and creativity in engaging with these treatment modalities to reap benefits where possible. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results highlight the inappropriateness of combining therapeutic and carceral spaces, the need for greater public attention to how carceral mechanisms disadvantage vulnerable populations, and the need for a cultural reconceptualization of mental illness such that it is met not with criminal punishment but appropriate care.

17.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(8): 1223-1235, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857082

RESUMEN

ABSTARCT: Suppressing translation termination at premature termination codons (PTCs), termed readthrough, is a potential therapy for genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. Ataluren is a compound that has shown promise for clinical use as a readthrough agent. However, some reports suggest that ataluren is ineffective at suppressing PTCs. To further evaluate the effectiveness of ataluren as a readthrough agent, we examined its ability to suppress PTCs in a variety of previously untested models. Using NanoLuc readthrough reporters expressed in two different cell types, we found that ataluren stimulated a significant level of readthrough. We also explored the ability of ataluren to suppress a nonsense mutation associated with Mucopolysaccharidosis I-Hurler (MPS I-H), a genetic disease that is caused by a deficiency of α-L-iduronidase that leads to lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Idua-W402X mice, we found that ataluren partially rescued α-L-iduronidase function and significantly reduced GAG accumulation relative to controls. Two-week oral administration of ataluren to Idua-W402X mice led to significant GAG reductions in most tissues compared to controls. Together, these data reveal important details concerning the efficiency of ataluren as a readthrough agent and the mechanisms that govern its ability to suppress PTCs. KEY MESSAGES: Ataluren promotes readthrough of PTCs in a wide variety of contexts. Ataluren reduces glycosaminoglyan storage in MPS I-H cell and mouse models. Ataluren has a bell-shaped dose-response curve and a narrow effective range.


Asunto(s)
Iduronidasa , Mucopolisacaridosis I , Animales , Codón sin Sentido/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Iduronidasa/genética , Iduronidasa/metabolismo , Iduronidasa/uso terapéutico , Luciferasas , Ratones , Mucopolisacaridosis I/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucopolisacaridosis I/genética , Mucopolisacaridosis I/metabolismo , Oxadiazoles
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907589

RESUMEN

Symbiotic gut microbiota in the herbivorous marine fish Kyphosus sydneyanus play an important role in digestion by converting refractory algal carbohydrate into short-chain fatty acids. Here we characterised community composition using both 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun-metagenome sequencing. Sequencing was carried out on lumen and mucosa samples (radial sections) from three axial sections taken from the hindgut of wild-caught fish. Both lumen and mucosa communities displayed distinct distributions along the hindgut, likely an effect of the differing selection pressures within these hindgut locations, as well as considerable variation among individual fish. In contrast, metagenomic sequences displayed a high level of functional similarity between individual fish and gut sections in the relative abundance of genes (based on sequencing depth) that encoded enzymes involved in algal-derived substrate degradation. These results suggest that the host gut environment selects for functional capacity in symbionts rather than taxonomic identity. Functional annotation of the enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota was carried out to infer the metabolic pathways used by the gut microbiota for the degradation of important dietary substrates: mannitol, alginate, laminarin, fucoidan and galactan (e.g. agar and carrageenan). This work provides the first evidence of the genomic potential of K. sydneyanus hindgut microbiota to convert highly refractory algal carbohydrates into metabolically useful short-chain fatty acids.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Onychopapilloma is a benign tumour of the nail bed and distal matrix and commonly presents as longitudinal erythronychia, longitudinal leukonychia or longitudinal melanonychia. Because onychopapilloma is rare, its clinical characteristics and dermoscopic findings have not been well investigated in Asia. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and dermoscopic and pathologic findings of onychopapilloma in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and clinical/dermoscopic photographs of 39 patients diagnosed with onychopapilloma in the Pusan National University Hospitals (Busan and Yangsan) for 11 years (2010-2021). RESULTS: Among 39 patients, 23 (59.0%) were men, and 16 (41.0%) were women. The mean age was 46.1 (16-77) years. All lesions were single, and most of them were located on the fingers (92.3%), especially the thumb (66.7%). The most common clinical feature was longitudinal erythronychia (56.4%), and the most common dermoscopic finding was distal subungual hyperkeratosis (100%). We found two new dermoscopic features: macrolunula and trailing lunula along the longitudinal band. Among 18 patients who underwent surgical excision, only 6 (33.3%) showed typical acanthosis and papillomatosis on the nail bed. CONCLUSIONS: We found that Asian onychopapilloma has similar clinicodermoscopic findings to the Caucasian one, that is to say, longitudinal erythronychia and distal subungual hyperkeratosis were the most common nail change and dermoscopic finding, respectively. We propose two new dermoscopic features of onychopapilloma: macrolunula and trailing lunula along the longitudinal band.

20.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785488

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that Warburg-subtypes are related to potentially important survival differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. In the present study, we investigated whether mutational subgroups based on somatic mutations in RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and MET, which are known to promote the Warburg-effect, as well as mismatch repair (MMR) status, hold prognostic value in CRC. In addition, we investigated whether Warburg-subtypes provide additional prognostic information, independent of known prognostic factors like TNM stage. METHODS: CRC patients (n = 2344) from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) were classified into eight mutually exclusive mutational subgroups, based on observed mutations in RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and MET, and MMR status: All-wild-type + MMRproficient , KRASmut  + MMRproficient , KRASmut  + PIK3CAmut  + MMRproficient , PIK3CAmut  + MMRproficient , BRAFmut  + MMRproficient , BRAFmut  + MMRdeficient , other + MMRproficient , and other + MMRdeficient . Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to investigate associations between mutational subgroups and survival, as well as associations between our previously established Warburg-subtypes and survival within these mutational subgroups. RESULTS: Compared to patients with all-wild-type + MMRproficient CRC, patients with KRASmut  + MMRproficient , KRASmut  + PIK3CAmut  + MMRproficient , BRAFmut  + MMRproficient , or other + MMRproficient CRC had a statistically significant worse survival (HRCRC-specific ranged from 1.29 to 1.88). In contrast, patients with other + MMRdeficient CRC had the most favorable survival (HRCRC-specific 0.48). No statistically significant survival differences were observed for the Warburg-subtypes within mutational subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the prognostic potential of mutational subgroups in CRC. Warburg-subtypes did not provide additional prognostic information within these mutational subgroups. Future larger-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate our findings and to examine the potential clinical utility of CRC subtyping based on mutational subgroups.

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