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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 231, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608630

RESUMEN

An unbalanced microbial ecosystem on the human skin is closely related to skin diseases and has been associated with inflammation and immune responses. However, little is known about the role of the skin microbiome on skin aging. Here, we report that the Streptococcus species improved the skin structure and barrier function, thereby contributing to anti-aging. Metagenomic analyses showed the abundance of Streptococcus in younger individuals or those having more elastic skin. Particularly, we isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus infantis, and Streptococcus thermophilus from face of young individuals. Treatment with secretions of S. pneumoniae and S. infantis induced the expression of genes associated with the formation of skin structure and the skin barrier function in human skin cells. The application of culture supernatant including Streptococcal secretions on human skin showed marked improvements on skin phenotypes such as elasticity, hydration, and desquamation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed overlaps in spermidine biosynthetic and glycogen biosynthetic processes. Streptococcus-secreted spermidine contributed to the recovery of skin structure and barrier function through the upregulation of collagen and lipid synthesis in aged cells. Overall, our data suggest the role of skin microbiome into anti-aging and clinical applications.

2.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583877

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the long-term effects of frequent chewing of unflavored and odorless gum (hereafter, gum base) on oral hygiene and mental health. This single-arm study, which started with a 4-week control and ended with a 4-week intervention period, was conducted in two phases: one in 2017 and one in 2018. The participants comprised 36 dental hygiene students (17 in 2017, 19 in 2018). During the intervention period, all participants were required to chew a piece of gum base 7 times a day for 10 min each time. The unstimulated salivary flow rate and masticatory efficiency were measured and chewing number counted. Two questionnaires -the Profile of Mood States, second edition (POMS2) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30)- were administered to assess mental health. In both phases, the unstimulated salivary flow rate showed a significant increase after the intervention period (p<0.05). In 2017, the GHQ-30 scores and masticatory efficiency showed a tendency toward a negative correlation after the intervention period (r=-0.4647, p=0.06). In 2018, a significant negative correlation was observed between chewing number and the POMS2 scores after the intervention period (r=-0.6296, p<0.01). These findings suggest that frequent chewing of gum base increases unstimulated salivary flow rate. However, no significant change was observed in the mental health.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 975, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579944

RESUMEN

Although tumor genomic profiling has identified small subsets of gastric cancer (GC) patients with clinical benefit from anti-PD-1 treatment, not all responses can be explained by tumor sequencing alone. We investigate epigenetic elements responsible for the differential response to anti-PD-1 therapy by quantitatively assessing the genome-wide chromatin accessibility of circulating CD8+ T cells in patients' peripheral blood. Using an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq), we identify unique open regions of chromatin that significantly distinguish anti-PD-1 therapy responders from non-responders. GC patients with high chromatin openness of circulating CD8+ T cells are significantly enriched in the responder group. Concordantly, patients with high chromatin openness at specific genomic positions of their circulating CD8+ T cells demonstrate significantly better survival than those with closed chromatin. Here we reveal that epigenetic characteristics of baseline CD8+ T cells can be used to identify metastatic GC patients who may benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555876

RESUMEN

Biogas consisting primarily of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) can be upgraded to a transportation fuel referred to as renewable natural gas (RNG) by removing CO2 and other impurities. RNG has energy content comparable to fossil compressed natural gas (CNG) but with lower life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, a light-duty cargo van was tested with CNG and two RNG blends on a chassis dynamometer in order to compare the toxicity of the resulting exhaust. Tests for reactive oxygen species (ROS), biomarker expressions (CYP1A1, IL8, COX-2), and mutagenicity (Ames) show that RNG exhaust has toxicity that is comparable or lower than CNG exhaust. Statistical analysis reveals associations between toxicity and tailpipe emissions of benzene, dibenzofuran, and dihydroperoxide dimethyl hexane (the last identification is considered tentative/uncertain). Further gas-phase toxicity may be associated with tailpipe emissions of formaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, propene, and methyl ketene. CNG exhaust contained higher concentrations of these potentially toxic chemical constituents than RNG exhaust in all of the current tests. Photochemical aging of the vehicle exhaust did not alter these trends. These preliminary results suggest that RNG adoption may be a useful strategy to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels without increasing the toxicity of the vehicle exhaust.

5.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513768

RESUMEN

The rapidly growing Li-ion battery market has generated considerable demand for Li-ion batteries with improved performance and stability. All-solid-state Li-ion batteries offer promising safety and manufacturing enhancements. Herein, we examine the effect of substitutional doping at three cation sites in garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) oxide ceramics produced by a sol-gel synthesis technique with the aim of enhancing the properties of solid-state electrolytes for use in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. Building on the results of mono-doping experiments with different doping elements and sites-Al, Ga, and Ge at the Li+ site; Rb at the La3+ site; and Ta and Nb at the Zr4+ site-we designed co-doped (Ga, Al, or Rb with Nb) and tri-doped (Ga or Al with Rb and Nb) samples by compositional optimization, and achieved a LLZO ceramic with a pure cubic phase, almost no secondary phase, uniform grain structure, and excellent Li-ion conductivity. The findings extend the current literature on the doping of LLZO ceramics and highlight the potential of the sol-gel method for the production of solid-state electrolytes.

6.
Lab Chip ; 21(3): 521-533, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507201

RESUMEN

Acoustic microfluidics has emerged as a versatile solution for particle manipulation in medicine and biology. However, current technologies are largely confined to specialized research laboratories. The translation of acoustofluidics from research to clinical and industrial settings requires improved consistency and repeatability across different platforms. Performance comparisons will require straightforward experimental assessment tools that are not yet available. We introduce a method for characterizing acoustofluidic devices in real-time by exploiting the capacity of swimming microorganisms to respond to changes in their environment. The unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is used as an active probe to visualize the evolving acoustic pressure field within microfluidic channels and chambers. In contrast to more familiar mammalian cells, C. reinhardtii are simple to prepare and maintain, and exhibit a relatively uniform size distribution that more closely resembles calibration particles; however, unlike passive particles, these motile cells naturally fill complex chamber geometries and redistribute when the acoustic field changes or is turned off. In this way, C. reinhardtii cells offer greater flexibility than conventional polymer or glass calibration beads for in situ determination of device operating characteristics. To illustrate the technique, the varying spatial density and distribution of swimming cells are correlated to the acoustic potential to automatically locate device resonances within a specified frequency range. Peaks in the correlation coefficient of successive images not only identify the resonant frequencies for various geometries, but the peak shape can be related to the relative strength of the resonances. Qualitative mapping of the acoustic field strength with increasing voltage amplitude is also shown. Thus, we demonstrate that dynamically responsive C. reinhardtii enable real-time measurement and continuous monitoring of acoustofluidic device performance.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484848

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the number of admissions of pregnant adolescents to U.S. juvenile residential systems (JRS) and the outcomes of pregnancies that ended while in custody. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Three non-randomly selected JRS in three U.S. states. PARTICIPANTS: Designated reporter at each JRS reporting aggregate data on various pregnant admissions, outcomes, and systems' policies. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Monthly number of pregnant people admitted, pregnant people at the end of the month, births, preterm births, cesarean deliveries, miscarriages, induced abortions, ectopics, maternal and newborn deaths, and administrative policies. RESULTS: There were 71 admissions of pregnant adolescents reported over 12 months from participating JRS. At the time of the census, six out of the 183 female adolescents (3.3%) were pregnant. Eight pregnancies ended while in custody. Of these, one pregnancy was a live full-term birth, four were miscarriages, and three were induced abortions. There were no newborn deaths or maternal deaths. Administrative policies and services varied among the JRS. For example, all JRS had a prenatal care provider on-site, whereas two JRS helped cover the costs of abortions. CONCLUSION: This study was the first to report the estimates of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes among justice-involved youth in JRS. Our findings indicate that there are pregnant adolescents in JRS and the vast majority return to their communities while pregnant, highlighting the importance of continuity of care. More work is needed to understand the complexities of health care needs of justice-involved pregnant youth during and after their incarceration.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(1): 1294-1313, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406502

RESUMEN

Although several evidence has suggested the impact of exercise on the prevention of aging phenotypes, few studies have been conducted on the mechanism by which exercise alters the immune-cell profile, thereby improving metabolism in senile obesity. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week treadmill exercise sufficiently improved metabolic function, including increased lean mass and decreased fat mass, in 88-week-old mice. The expression level of the senescence marker p16 in the white adipose tissue (WAT) was decreased after 4-weeks of exercise. Exercise induced changes in the profiles of immune-cell subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells, central memory CD8+ T cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils, in the stromal vascular fraction of WAT. In addition, it has been shown through transcriptome analysis of WAT that exercise can activate pathways involved in the interaction between WAT and immune cells, in particular NK cells, in aged mice. These results suggest that exercise has a profound effect on changes in immune-cell distribution and senescent-cell scavenging in WAT of aged mice, eventually affecting overall energy metabolism toward a more youthful state.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332259

RESUMEN

KUDC8001T was isolated from the rhizosperic soil of Elymus tsukushiensis in the Dokdo Islands, Republic of Korea. Strain KUDC8001T was Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped. KUDC8001T was catalase- and oxidase-positive. This strain is capable of growing at 4-37 °C and pH 7.0-8.0 and exhibited optimal growth at 25 °C and pH 7.0. It could be grown in R2A, nutrient agar and ISP2 agar plates. The cell width ranged from 0.7 to 1.0 µm, and length ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 µm. The genomic G+C content was 40.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the strain KUDC8001T belongs to the genus Adhaeribacter, which is most closely related to the strain A. pallidiroseus HMF7616T (97.5%). The DNA relatedness of KUDC8001T with the type strains of A. pallidiroseus HMF7616T, A. swui 17 mud1-7T and A. arboris HMF7605T was ≤80.3 % based on average nucleotide identity calculations and ≤86.9 % based on average amino acid identity calculations. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization values of the strain KUDC8001T with the most closely related strains were 22.1, 24.0 and 24.4 %. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic, genetic and chemotaxonomic features, the strain KUDC8001T should be considered as a novel species in the genus Adhaeribacter, for which we have proposed the name Adhaeribacter radiodurans sp. nov. The type strain is KUDC8001T (=KCTC 82078T=CGMCC 1.18475T).


Asunto(s)
Bacteroidetes/clasificación , Elymus/microbiología , Filogenia , Microbiología del Suelo , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/aislamiento & purificación , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Islas , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , República de Corea , Rizosfera , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
10.
Nutr Res Pract ; 14(6): 568-579, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282120

RESUMEN

BACKGROUD/OBJECTIVES: Hepatic steatosis is the most common liver disorder, particularly in postmenopausal women. This study investigated the protective effects of standardized rice bran extract (RBS) on ovariectomized (OVX)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated with 200 µM oleic acid to induce lipid accumulation with or without RBS and γ-oryzanol. OVX rats were separated into three groups and fed a normal diet (ND) or the ND containing 17ß-estradiol (E2; 10 µg/kg) and RBS (500 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RESULTS: RBS supplementation improved serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in OVX rats. Histological analysis showed that RBS significantly attenuated hepatic fat accumulation and decreased hepatic lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Additionally, RBS suppressed the estrogen deficiency-induced upregulation of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1. CONCLUSIONS: RBS and γ-oryzanol effectively reduced lipid accumulation in a HepG2 cell hepatic steatosis model. RBS improves OVX-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating the SREBP1-mediated activation of lipogenic genes, suggesting the benefits of RBS in preventing fatty liver in postmenopausal women.

11.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296191

RESUMEN

A series of asymmetric donor-acceptor (D-A) perylene-based compounds, 3-(N,N-bis(4'-(R)-phenyl)amino)perylene (Peri-DPA(R)), were successfully prepared to explore their intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) properties. To induce ICT between the donor and acceptor, diphenylamine (DPA) derivatives (electron donor units) with the same functional groups (R = CN, F, H, Me, or OMe) at both para positions were linked to the C-3 position of perylene to produce five Peri-DPA derivatives. A steady-state spectroscopy study on Peri-DPA(R)s exhibited a progressively regulated ICT trend consistent with the substituent effect as it progressed from the electron-withdrawing group to the electron-donating group. In particular, a comparative study using a D-A-D (donor-acceptor-donor) system demonstrated that not only the electron push-pull substituent effect but also subunit combinations influence photophysical and electrochemical properties. The different ICT characters observed in Lippert-Mataga plots of D-A(CN) and D-A-D(CN) (CN-substituted D-A and D-A-D) led to the investigation on whether ICT emission of two systems with differences in subunit combinations is of the same type or of a different type. The femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) spectroscopic results provided direct evidence of ICT origin and confirmed that D-A(CN) and D-A-D(CN) exhibited the same transition mix of ICT (from donor to acceptor) and reverse ICT (rICT, from arylamine to CN unit). Density functional theory (DFT)/TD-DFT calculations support the presence of ICT for all five compounds, and the experimental observations of rICT presented only for CN-substituted compounds.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270003

RESUMEN

Strain M2T, isolated from marine sediment collected at Jeju Island, was an aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that formed circular, raised, yellow colonies. Strain M2T grew at 15-42 °C, pH 5.5-9.0 and with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M2T was closely related to Kineobactrum sediminis F02T (98.0 % sequence similarity). Ubiquinone-8 was determined to be the sole respiratory quinone. Summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c/C16 : 1 ω7c) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c) were identified as the predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content and digital DNA-DNA relatedness between strain M2T and K. sediminis F02T were 60.7 mol% and 19.5 %, respectively. Phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were identified as the major polar lipids. Thus, polyphasic characterization revealed that strain M2T represents a novel species in the genus Kineobactrum, for which the name Kineobactrum salinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M2T (=KCTC 72815T=VTCC 910108T).

13.
Food Waterborne Parasitol ; 21: e00096, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299933

RESUMEN

Food and waterborne protozoan pathogens can cause serious disease in people. Three common species Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia enterica and Toxoplasma gondii can contaminate diverse shellfish species, including commercial oysters. Current methods of protozoan detection in shellfish are not standardized, and few are able to simultaneously identify multiple species. Here, we present a novel metabarcoding assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene followed by next generation sequencing (NGS) for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and T. gondii spiked into oyster samples. We further developed a bioinformatic pipeline to process and analyze 18S rRNA data for protozoa classification. The ability of the NGS assay to detect protozoa was later compared with conventional PCR. Results demonstrated that background amplification of oyster and other eukaryotic DNA competed with that of protozoa for obtained sequence reads. Sequences of target protozoans were obtained across all spiking levels; however, low numbers of target sequences in negative controls imply that a threshold for true positives must be defined for assay interpretation. While this study focused on three target parasites, the ability of this approach to detect numerous known and potentially unknown protozoan pathogens make it a promising screening tool for monitoring protozoan contamination in food and water.

14.
Aesthet Surg J ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reduction mammoplasty is a common procedure associated with a very high patient satisfaction rate. It has been shown to alleviate symptoms related to macromastia, such as back, neck, and shoulder pain, poor posture, bra strap grooving, paresthesia, and rashes. Despite the manifold benefits of reduction mammaplasty, some insurance companies require minimum resection weights of at least 500-grams per breast in order to distinguish between a reconstructive and aesthetic procedure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the origins of the 500-gram rule used in reduction mammaplasty. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted for studies published through July 2020 with multiple search terms related to resection weight criteria for breast reduction. Data on criteria, outcomes, and patient satisfaction were collected. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles were selected from the 27 articles that were identified. 500-gram rule appears to be arbitrary. It appears that it is not based on any available hard evidence. However, numerous studies show that patients who have less than 500-grams of tissue removed from each breast still experience significant symptomatic relief from reduction mammaplasty with a marked improvement in quality of life. CONCLUSION: The 500-gram rule should be re-evaluated as criterion for pre-authorization reduction mammaplasty for insurance companies. It may influence surgeons to choose between form and function. Many additional patients might then benefit from this procedure with significant benefits.

15.
J Anesth ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221959

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Many studies have been published on the beneficial effects of oral carbohydrate solutions (OCS) administered prior to surgery. However, the risk of pulmonary aspiration cannot be excluded in all patients undergoing anesthesia. But, there are few studies on the safety of OCS at lung aspiration. METHODS: Experiments were conducted with mice (Nine- to ten-week-old male BALB/c mice weighted 23-26 g). Lung aspiration was performed by intratracheal administration of OCS and its major constituents, fructose and maltodextrin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 3 and 24 h after lung aspiration. The level of Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) were measured in BALF. The total white blood cell, neutrophil counts, wet to dry ratio and histological examination were performed in BALF and lung tissue, respectively, at 24 h after aspiration. RESULTS: The OCS increased the level of TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-2 at 3 h and the neutrophil count at 24 h in BALFs, compared to a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. The increase in IL-6 level induced by OCS was maintained for 24 h. The OCS also increased the number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils in BALFs. Compared to fructose, maltodextrin significantly increased the production of MIP-2 in BALFs. OCS and maltodextrin also increased neutrophil recruitment in lung tissue. CONCLUSION: Aspiration of OCS may cause inflammation of the lungs. The preoperative use of OCS may require caution under specific clinical conditions, such as patients at risk of lung aspiration.

16.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 315, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osseointegrated implants are considered as clinically non-movable. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of bone remodeling and in intermittent, low doses, result in osteoanabolic effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PTH and corticotomy, both under traction force, on osseointegrated implants. METHODS: Four implants-two in each hemimandible-were placed in each of the three study mongrels. Each mongrels were designated as control, normal dose PTH (PTH-1), and high dose PTH (PTH-2) groups, with each groups further subdivided into non-surgery implant and surgery implant. After osseointegration, mechanical force with NiTi closed coil springs (500 g) was applied around each implants. Corticotomy was performed around one of four implants in each mongrels. Parathyroid hormone was administered locally on a weekly basis for 20 weeks. Clinical movement of the implants were evaluated with the superimposed 3D- scanned data, bone- microarchitectural and histologic examinations. RESULTS: Superimposition analysis showed continuous movement of the non-surgery implant of PTH-1 group. Movement was further justified with lowest bone implant contact (adjusted BIC; 44.77%) in histomorphometric analysis. Upregulation of bone remodeling around the implant was observed in the normal dose PTH group. In the surgery implants, the remarkably higher adjusted BIC compared to the non-surgery implants indicated increased bone formation around the implant surface. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the catabolic and anabolic balance of osseointegrated implants in terms of bone remodeling can be shifted via various interventions including pharmacological, surgical and mechanical force. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Upregulated bone remodeling by PTH and corticotomy under continuous mechanical force showed the possible implications for the movement of osseointegrated dental implant.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197991

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the level of professional ethics awareness and medical ethics competency in order to grasp the criteria of ethics items for the Korean dental hygienist licensing examination. METHODS: Using a structured questionnaire, 358 clinical dental hygienists and e dental hygiene students were evaluated for their level of ethical awareness and medical ethics competency. The sub-factors of medical ethics were measured by classifying them into relationship with patients, medical and social relationships, and individual specialized fields. RESULTS: As a result of the survey, the vocational ethics completion rate in the university curriculum was 32.1%, but 95.2% of respondents said that vocational ethics is important. Medical ethics competency was average, with a score of 3.37 out of 5, followed by 'relationships with patients (3.75 points)', 'health and social relations (3.19 points)', and 'individual specialties (3.16 points).' The level of vocational ethics awareness was higher in the group who completed the vocational ethics curriculum than the group who did not complete the course or the group who did not know whether to complete it. CONCLUSION: Dental hygienists are aware of the importance of occupational ethics, but medical ethics competency has been found to be at a mid-level. Therefore, medical ethics should be treated as a required subject in university curriculum, and medical ethics competency evaluation should be strengthened through adding ethics items to the Korean dental hygienist licensing examination.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153143

RESUMEN

The heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS was authorized for sale in the US in 2019. We investigated how young adults with experience using multiple tobacco products reacted to, perceived, and developed interest in IQOS, informing policies that might prevent HTPs from becoming ubiquitous. We used a novel qualitative method in which 33 young adult tobacco users in California (fall 2019) "unboxed" an IQOS device, tobacco sticks, and marketing materials and narrated their impressions and opinions. We conducted content and thematic analyses of participants' reactions, sensory experiences, and interest. Multiple attributes influenced appeal for participants, including sleek electronic design, novel technology, perceived harmfulness, complexity, and high cost. The "no smoke" claim and heating technology suggested that smoking IQOS was safer than smoking cigarettes. Public health programs should closely monitor HTP marketing and uptake, particularly as "reduced exposure" claims were authorized in July 2020. Evidence-based regulations (e.g., requiring plain packaging for tobacco sticks), actions addressing IQOS' unique attributes (e.g., regulating device packaging to reduce high-tech appeal), and public education might help to counter the appeal generated by potentially misleading IQOS marketing tactics.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(22)2020 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202568

RESUMEN

This paper presents a strategy to cooperatively enhance the vehicular localization in vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks by exchanges and updates of local data in a consensus-based manner. Where each vehicle in the network can obtain its location estimate despite its possible inaccuracy, the proposed strategy takes advantage of the abundance of the local estimates to improve the overall accuracy. During the execution of the strategy, vehicles exchange each other's inter-vehicular relationship pertaining to measured distances and angles in order to update their own estimates. The iteration of the update rules leads to averaging out the measurement errors within the network, resulting in all vehicles' localization error to retain similar magnitudes and orientations with respect to the ground truth locations. Furthermore, the estimate error of the anchor-the vehicle with the most reliable localization performance-is temporarily aggravated through the iteration. Such circumstances are exploited to simultaneously counteract the estimate errors and effectively improve the localization performance. Simulated experiments are conducted in order to observe the nature and its effects of the operations. The outcomes of the experiments and analysis of the protocol suggest that the presented technique successfully enhances the localization performances, while making additional insights regarding performance according to environmental changes and different implementation techniques.

20.
BMB Rep ; 53(11): 600-604, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050988

RESUMEN

Macrophages are re-educated and polarized in response to myocardial infarction (MI). The M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype is a known dominator of late stage MI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising tool for cell therapy, particularly heart related diseases. In general, MSCs induce alteration of the macrophage subtype from M1 to M2, both in vitro and in vivo. We conjectured that hypoxic conditions can promote secretome productivity of MSCs. Hypoxia induces TGF-ß1 expression, and TGF-ß1 mediates M2 macrophage polarization for anti-inflammation and angiogenesis in infarcted areas. We hypothesized that macrophages undergo advanced M2 polarization after exposure to MSCs in hypoxia. Treatment of MSCs derived hypoxic conditioned medium (hypo-CM) promoted M2 phenotype and neovascularization through the TGF-ß1/Smad3 pathway. In addition, hypo-CM derived from MSCs improved restoration of ischemic heart, such as attenuating cell apoptosis and fibrosis, and ameliorating microvessel density. Based on our results, we propose a new therapeutic method for effective MI treatment using regulation of macrophage polarization. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(11): 600-604].

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