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2.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21403, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559185

RESUMEN

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) undergoes characteristic structural changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during normal aging, which are exacerbated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although the pathogenic mechanisms of aging and AMD remain unclear, transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) is known to induce oxidative stress, morphometric changes, and EMT as a senescence-promoting factor. In this study, we examined whether intravitreal injection of TGF-ß1 into the mouse eye elicits senescence-like morphological alterations in the RPE and if this can be prevented by suppressing mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) signaling. We verified that intravitreal TGF-ß1-induced stress fiber formation and EMT in RPE cells, along with age-associated morphometric changes, including increased variation in cell size and reduced cell density. In RPE cells, exogenous TGF-ß1 increased endogenous expression of TGF-ß1 and upregulated Smad3-ERK1/2-mTORC1 signaling, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and EMT. We demonstrated that inhibition of the mTORC1-NOX4 pathway by pretreatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), an activator of AMP-dependent protein kinase, or GKT137831, a NOX1/4 inhibitor, decreased ROS generation, prevented stress fiber formation, attenuated EMT, and improved the regularity of the RPE structure in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that intravitreal TGF-ß1 injection could be used as a screening model to investigate the aging-related structural and functional changes to the RPE. Furthermore, the regulation of TGF-ß-mTORC1-NOX signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for reducing pathogenic alterations in aged RPE and AMD.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449180

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a CNN-based liver registration algorithm to generate difference maps for visual display of spatiotemporal changes in liver PDFF, without needing manual annotations. METHODS: This retrospective exploratory study included 25 patients with suspected or confirmed NAFLD, who underwent PDFF-MRI at two time points at our institution. PDFF difference maps were generated by applying a CNN-based liver registration algorithm, then subtracting follow-up from baseline PDFF maps. The difference maps were post-processed by smoothing (5 cm2 round kernel) and applying a categorical color scale. Two fellowship-trained abdominal radiologists and one radiology resident independently reviewed difference maps to visually determine segmental PDFF change. Their visual assessment was compared with manual ROI-based measurements of each Couinaud segment and whole liver PDFF using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Inter-reader agreement for visual assessment was calculated (ICC). RESULTS: The mean patient age was 49 years (12 males). Baseline and follow-up PDFF ranged from 2.0 to 35.3% and 3.5 to 32.0%, respectively. PDFF changes ranged from - 20.4 to 14.1%. ICCs against the manual reference exceeded 0.95 for each reader, except for segment 2 (2 readers ICC = 0.86-0.91) and segment 4a (reader 3 ICC = 0.94). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were within 5% across all three readers. Inter-reader agreement for visually assessed PDFF change (whole liver and segmental) was excellent (ICCs > 0.96), except for segment 2 (ICC = 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Visual assessment of liver segmental PDFF changes using a CNN-generated difference map strongly agreed with manual estimates performed by an expert reader and yielded high inter-reader agreement. KEY POINTS: • Visual assessment of longitudinal changes in quantitative liver MRI can be performed using a CNN-generated difference map and yields strong agreement with manual estimates performed by expert readers.

4.
Prog Orthod ; 21(1): 44, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the heritability of total rotation, matrix rotation, and intramatrix rotation of the mandible in Korean monozygotic (MZ) twins, dizygotic (DZ) twins, and their siblings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples consisted of 75 pairs of Korean twins (39.7 + 9.26 years; MZ group, 36 pairs; DZ group, 13 pairs; sibling group, 26 pairs). Lateral cephalograms were taken, and 13 variables related to internal and external mandible rotation were measured. Three types of occlusal planes (bisected occlusal plane, functional occlusal plane, and the MM bisector occlusal plane) were used to evaluate genetic influence on the occlusal plane. Heritability (h2) was calculated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Falconer's method. RESULTS: With regard to mandibular rotation, the MZ twin group showed significantly higher ICC values compared to the DZ twin and sibling groups. The ICC mean values for 13 cephalometric measurements were 0.85 (MZ), 0.62 (DZ), and 0.52 (siblings) respectively. The heritability of the total rotation (0.48) and matrix rotation (0.5) between the MZ and DZ groups was higher than that of the intramatrix rotation (- 0.14). All of the three types of occlusal plane showed high heritability, and among the three types, the functional occlusal plane showed the highest heritability (h2 = 0.76). CONCLUSION: Based on these findings that showed a strong genetic effect on total rotation and matrix rotation, maintaining these rotations should be carefully considered in the orthodontic treatment plan, while the lower border of the mandible may be responsive to various treatments. Occlusal plane change, especially with regard to the functional occlusal plane, may not be stable due to strong genetic influences.

5.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295757

RESUMEN

Fiber optoelectronics technology has recently attracted attention as enabling various form factors of wearable electronics, and the issue of how to control and optimize the configuration and physical properties of the electrode micropatterns in the microfiber devices has become important. Here, spirally wrapped carbon nanotube (CNT) microelectrodes with a controlled dimension are demonstrated for high-performance fiber optoelectronic devices. Inkjet-printed CNT microelectrodes with the desired dimension on an agarose hydrogel template are rolling-transferred onto a microfiber surface with an efficient electrical interface. A fiber organic field-effect transistor with spirally wrapped CNT microelectrodes verifies the feasibility of this strategy, where the transferred microelectrodes intimately contact the organic semiconductor active layer and the output current characteristics are simply controlled, resulting in characteristics that exceed the previous structural limitations. Furthermore, a fiber organic photodiode with spirally wrapped CNT microelectrodes, when used as a transparent electrode, exhibits a high Ilight/Idark ratio and good durability of bending. This fiber photodiode can be successfully incorporated into a textile photoplethysmography bandage for the real-time monitoring of human vital signals. This work offers a promising and efficient strategy to overcome the geometric factors limiting the performance of fiber-optic optoelectronic devices.

6.
Virus Res ; 292: 198227, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186642

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to investigate safety and efficacy using a low-temperature immunization protocol with NNV in sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus. Further, NNV specific antibody post immunization and intramuscularly challenge was also evaluated. Immunization at low temperature resulted in a low titer virus infection in brain tissues without any clinical symptoms of infection such as sluggish behavior and/or spinning, rotating swimming being observed, and no mortality was observed. Post challenge, NNV titer NNV giving an RPS of 100 %, increased in brain tissues of naïve (non-immunized) sevenband grouper NNV giving an RPS of 100 %, with a cumulative mortality of 100 % at 25 days post-infection. No mortality or disease symptoms NNV giving an RPS of 100 %, as NNV giving and of 100 %, observed in the groups immunized at low temperature with live NNV giving an RPS of 100 %. NNV giving an RPS of 100 %. NNV specific antibody was not detected in live NNV vaccinated sevenband grouper. This is the first study that confirms that field-scale NNV immersion vaccine can protect sevenband grouper against lethal infection with NNV at natural seawater temperature under the gradually increased from 14.3-24.8 °C.

7.
Korean Circ J ; 50(11): 1023-1025, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118335
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869866

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of core-needle biopsy (CNB) to fine-needle aspiration (FNA) as a first-line diagnostic tool in initially detected thyroid nodules, according to ultrasound (US) patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 778 consecutive nodules from 705 patients who underwent CNB from one institution and 627 nodules from 583 patients who underwent FNA from two institutions. Adjustments for significant differences in patients' characteristics were facilitated via propensity score matching. We compared the diagnostic performance of CNB and FNA for thyroid malignancy according to three diagnostic criteria for all nodules and the US patterns. RESULTS: A 1:1 matching of 469 patients yielded no significant differences between CNB and FNA for any covariates. CNB showed a significantly higher sensitivity for malignancy than FNA with any criterion (criterion 1: category VI, criterion 2: category V and VI, criterion 3: category IV, V and VI) in overall and high suspicion nodules (90.1-99.5% vs 69.7%-88.3%, all P-values < 0.001) and low/intermediate suspicion nodules, except criterion 1 (61.9%-100% vs 36.4%-45.5%, all P ≤ .016). In ROC curve analysis, the areas under the ROC curve of CNB were significantly higher than those for FNA with any criterion in overall and high suspicion nodules (P < .001) and in low/intermediate suspicion nodules, except criterion 1 (P ≤ .008). CNB had a slightly higher minor complication rate than FNA (0.7% vs 0%, P ≥ .069). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that CNB has a complementary role as an alternative first-line diagnostic tool to FNA for the initial diagnosis of thyroid nodules when performed by an experienced operator.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14454, 2020 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879338

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes in the palatal alveolar bone thickness and find the factors related to the resorption of the palatal alveolar bone caused by tooth movement after the maxillary incisors were retracted and intruded during orthodontic treatment. The study group comprised of 33 skeletal Class II malocclusion patients who underwent extraction for orthodontic treatment. Palatal alveolar bone thickness changes and resorption factors were identified and analyzed. The changes of maxillary central incisors and palatal alveolar bone thickness were measured, and the corresponding sample t test was performed using SPSS (IBM SPSS version 22). The amount of palatal alveolar bone resorption was measured and various parameters were analyzed to determine which factors affected it. Correlation analysis adopting the amount of palatal alveolar bone resorption as a dependent variable demonstrated that the SNB, mandibular plane angle, and the inclination of the maxillary central incisor were significantly correlated with before treatment. On the other hand, mandibular plane angle, angle of convexity, the inclination of the upper incisor, and the occlusal plane (UOP, POP) were significantly correlated with post-treatment. In addition, the variables related to palatal contour (PP to PAS, SN to PAS, palatal surface angle) and occlusal planes (UOP/POP) were significantly correlated with the difference in palatal bone resorption. During initial diagnosis, high angle class II with normal upper incisor inclination can be signs of high-risk factors. In addition, maintaining the occlusal plane during treatment helps to prevent palatal bone loss.

10.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(11): 1617-1632, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949307

RESUMEN

In this study, two endophytic bacterial strains designated JS21-1T and S6-262T isolated from leaves of Elaeis guineensis and stem tissues of Jatropha curcas respectively, were subjected for polyphasic taxonomic approach. On R2A medium, colonies of strains JS21-1T and S6-262T are orange and yellow, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole-genome sequences placed the strains in distinct clades but within the genus Sphingomonas. The DNA G + C content of JS21-1T and S6-262T were 67.31 and 66.95%, respectively. Furthermore, the average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of strains JS21-1T and S6-262T with phylogenetically related Sphingomonas species were lower than 95% and 70% respectively. The chemotaxonomic studies indicated that the major cellular fatty acids of the strain JS21-1T were summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), C16:0, and C14:0 2OH; strain S6-262T possessed summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c and/or C18:1 ω7c). The major quinone was Q10, and the unique polyamine observed was homospermidine. The polar lipid profile comprised of mixture of sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and certain uncharacterised phospholipids and lipids. Based on this polyphasic evidence, strains JS21-1T and S6-262T represent two novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the names Sphingomonas palmae sp. nov. and Sphingomonas gellani sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. The type strain of Sphingomonas palmae sp. nov. is JS21-1T (= DSM 27348T = KACC 17591T) and the type strain of Sphingomonas gellani sp. nov. is S6-262T (= DSM 27346T =  KACC 17594T).

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(3): 747-752, 2020 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736702

RESUMEN

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) plays a crucial role in the development of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis, particularly in an ocular disorder such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). However, the key molecular mechanism underlying its pathogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, using cultured ARPE-19 cells, we determined that TGF-ß initiates a signaling pathway through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that stimulates trans-differentiation and fibrosis of retinal pigment epithelium. Blocking this pathway by a TGF-ßRI, ERK or mTORC1 inhibitor protected cells from EMT and fibrotic protein expression. TGF-ß1 treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NOX4 upregulation, which acts downstream of ERK and mTORC1, as the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine and a pan-NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor DPI dissipated excess ROS generation. TGF-ß1-induced oxidative stress resulted in EMT and fibrotic changes, as NAC and DPI prevented α-SMA, Col4α3 expression and cell migration. All these inhibitors blocked the downstream pathway activation in addition to clearly preventing the activation of its upstream molecules, indicating the presence of a feedback loop system that may boost the upstream events. Furthermore, the FDA-approved drug trametinib (10 nM) blunted TGF-ß1-induced mTORC1 activation and downstream pathogenic alterations through ERK1/2 inhibition, which opens a therapeutic avenue for the treatment of PVR in the future.

12.
Gut Liver ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773388

RESUMEN

Background/Aims: Some cases of gastric low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) on forceps biopsy (FB) are diagnosed as gastric cancer (GC) after endoscopic resection (ER). This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ER for gastric LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB and to identify the factors that predict pathologic upstaging to GC. Methods: Patients who underwent ER for LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB from March 2005 to February 2018 in 14 hospitals in South Korea were enrolled, and the patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Results: This study included 2,150 cases of LGD and 1,534 cases of HGD diagnosed by pretreatment FB. In total, 589 of 2,150 LGDs (27.4%) were diagnosed as GC after ER. Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration significantly predicted GC. A total of 1,115 out of 1,534 HGDs (72.7%) were diagnosed with GC after ER. Previous history of GC, H. pylori infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration were significantly associated with GC. As the number of risk factors predicting GC increased in both LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB, the rate of upstaging to GC after ER increased. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of LGDs and HGDs on pretreatment FB were diagnosed as GC after ER. Accurate ER procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection should be recommended in cases of LGD and HGD with factors predicting pathologic upstaging to GC.

13.
Virus Res ; 288: 198140, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846195

RESUMEN

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the etiological agent of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), one of the most severe viral diseases affecting cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Far East Asia. VHS occurs during the winter or spring season when the water temperature is low (9-15 °C). In our previous study found that VHSV infection had controlled by using water temperature (above 17 °C). By using water temperature, we demonstrated optimal live VHSV immersion vaccine treatment concentration, also live VHSV immersion vaccine treatment method. We confirmed that the effective VHSV immersion treatment was 105.5 TCID50/mL at 17 °C. It was no need pretreatment before live VHSV immersion vaccination. The VHSV titer of vaccinated fish organs was under the estimated limit (<1.8 log TCID50/mL) within 3 days in 105.5 TCID50/mL live VHSV immersion at 17 °C. High survival rates were observed in live VHSV immersion with 105.5 and 107.5 TCID50/mL at 17 °C and then infected VHSV at 10 °C. VHSV specific antibody was not detected from in the surviving flounder under VHSV infection after immersion treatment with live VHSV. In addition, the potentiality of natural immunization against VHS in olive flounder was suggested by live VHSV immersion vaccine at temperature controlled fish culture condition.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12089, 2020 07 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694555

RESUMEN

Histone modifications, including histone lysine methylation, regulate gene expression in the vasculature, and targeting tumor blood vessels through histone modification decreases tumor growth. SETD8, a methyltransferase that catalyzes the mono-methylation of histone H4 lysine 20 is known to promote tumorigenesis in various cancers and its high levels of expression are related to poor prognosis. However, the detailed mechanisms by which SETD8 stimulates tumor progression and angiogenesis are still not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that, in vitro, BVT-948 efficiently and selectively suppresses SETD8 activity and histone methylation levels. In this study, we showed that BVT-948-mediated SETD8 inhibition in HUVECs results in an inhibition of angiogenesis. Inhibition of SETD8 not only inhibited angiogenesis but also disrupted actin stress fiber formation and induced cell cycle arrest at S phase. These effects were accompanied by increased HES-1 expression levels, decreased osteopontin levels, and a decreased differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into endothelial cells. Interestingly, BVT-948 treatment reduced pathological angiogenesis in mouse OIR model. These data illustrate the mechanisms by which SETD8 regulates angiogenesis and may enable the use of a SETD8 inhibitor to treat various pathological conditions that are known to be associated with excessive angiogenesis, including and tumor growth.

15.
Asian J Pharm Sci ; 15(3): 336-346, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636951

RESUMEN

The therapeutic potential of saquinavir, a specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 protease enzymes, has been largely limited because of a low solubility and consequnt low bioavailability. Thus, we aimed to design a supersaturated self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) that can maintain a high concentration of saquinavir in gastro-intestinal fluid thorugh inhibiting the drug precipitation to enhance the lymphatic transport of saquinavir and to increase the bioavailability of saquinavir considerably. Solubilizing capacity of different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants for saquinavir was evaluated to select optimal ingredients for preparation of SMEDDS. Through the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagram, SMEDDS formulations were established. A polymer as a precipitation inhibitor was selected based on its viscosity and drug precipitation inhibiting capacity. The S-SMEDDS and SMEDDS designed were administered at an equal dose to rats. At predetermined time points, levels of saquinavir in lymph collected from the rats were assessed. SMEDDS prepared presented a proper self-microemulsification efficiency and dispersion stability. The S-SMEDDS fabricated using the SMEDDS and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose 2910 as a precipitation inhibitor exhibited a signficantly enhanced solubilizing capacity for saquinavir. The drug concentration in a simulated intestinal fluid evaluated with the S-SMEDDS was also maintained at higher levels for prolonged time than that examined with the SMEDDS. The S-SMEDDS showed a considerably enhanced lymphatic absoprtion of saquinavir in rats compared to the SMEDDS. Therefore, the S-SMEDDS would be usefully exploited to enhance the lymphatic absorption of hydrophobic drugs that need to be targeted to the lymphatic system.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580275

RESUMEN

Analyzing the associations between genotypic changes and phenotypic traits on a genome-wide scale can contribute to understanding the functional roles of distinct genetic variations during breed development. We performed a whole-genome analysis of Angus and Jersey cattle breeds using conditional mutual information, which is an information-theoretic method estimating the conditional independency among multiple factor variables. The proposed conditional mutual information-based approach allows breed-discriminative genetic variations to be explicitly identified from tens of millions of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) positions on a genome-wide scale while minimizing the usage of prior knowledge. Using this data-driven approach, we identified biologically relevant functional genes, including breed-specific variants for cattle traits such as beef and dairy production. The identified lipid-related genes were shown to be significantly associated with lipid and triglyceride metabolism, fat cell differentiation, and muscle development. In addition, we confirmed that milk-related genes are involved in mammary gland development, lactation, and mastitis-associated processes. Our results provide the distinct properties of Angus and Jersey cattle at a genome-wide level. Moreover, this study offers important insights into discovering unrevealed genetic variants for breed-specific traits and the identification of genetic signatures of diverse cattle breeds with respect to target breed-specific properties.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575557

RESUMEN

Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) and double-expressor lymphoma (DEL) are aggressive forms of lymphoma that require better treatments to improve patient outcomes. CKD-581 is a new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that exhibited a better safety profile in clinical trials compared to other HDAC inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that CKD-581 inhibited the class I-II HDAC family via histone H3 and tubulin acetylation. CKD-581 treatment also up-regulated the phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX, DNA double-strand break marker), and reduced levels of MYC and anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, BCL-6, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 in DH/DE-diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Ultimately, CKD-581 also induced apoptosis via poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) cleavage. In a DLBCL SCID mouse xenograft model, CKD-581 exhibited anti-cancer effects comparable with those of rituximab (CD20 mAb). Our findings suggest that CKD-581 could be a good candidate for the treatment of DLBCL.

18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 30(8): 1195-1206, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423184

RESUMEN

Beringraja pulchra, Cham-hong-eo in Korean, is a mottled skate which is belonging to the cartilaginous fish. Although this species is economically valuable in South Korea as an alkalinefermented food, there are few microbial studies on such fermentation. Here, we analyzed microbial changes and pH before, during, and after fermentation and examined the effect of inoculation by a skin microbiota mixture on the skate fermentation (control vs. treatment). To analyze microbial community, the V4 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from the skates were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. During the skate fermentation, pH and total number of marine bacteria increased in both groups, while microbial diversity decreased after fermentation. Pseudomonas, which was predominant in the initial skate, declined by fermentation (Day 0: 11.39 ± 5.52%; Day 20: 0.61 ± 0.9%), while the abundance of Pseudoalteromonas increased dramatically (Day 0: 1.42 ± 0.41%; Day 20: 64.92 ± 24.15%). From our co-occurrence analysis, the Pseudoalteromonas was positively correlated with Aerococcaceae (r = 0.638) and Moraxella (r = 0.474), which also increased with fermentation, and negatively correlated with Pseudomonas (r = -0.847) during fermentation. There are no critically significant differences between control and treatment. These results revealed that the alkaline fermentation of skates dramatically changed the microbiota, but the initial inoculation by a skin microbiota mixture didn't show critical changes in the final microbial community. Our results extended understanding of microbial interactions and provided the new insights of microbial changes during alkaline fermentation.

19.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(7): 1009-1021, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306134

RESUMEN

Two bacterial strains, designated 2DFWM-2T and FW10M-9T, were isolated from gut of larva of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis grown at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju-gun, South Korea. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that strain 2DFWM-2T formed a separate branch with Lactococcus allomyrinae 1JSPR-7T in the genus Lactococcus, adjacent to a group of Lactococcus lactis subspecies. ANI and dDDH values between 2DFWM-2T and Lactococcus allomyrinae 1JSPR-7T were 93.30% and 53.20%, respectively. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain FW10M-9T was classified into the genus Xylanimonas revealing 96.9-98.5% sequence similarities with the Xylanimonas species. The ANI values of strain FW10M-9T with the closely species Xylanimonas pachnodae NBRC 107786T, Xylanimonas allomyrinae 2JSPR-7T, Isoptericola variabilis JCM 11754T and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica DSM 15894T was 81.5%, 81.2%, 81.0% and 84.1%, respectively, and the dDDH values estimated by GGDC was 24.3%, 24.3%, 29.3% and 28.1%, respectively. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic data, it is proposed that strain 2DFWM-2T represents a novel species of the genus Lactococcus, for which the name Lactococcus protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is 2DFWM-2T (= KACC 19320T = NBRC 113069T). And, strain FW10M-9T represents a novel species of the genus Xylanimonas, for which the name Xylanimonas protaetiae sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is FW10M-9T (= KACC 19331T = NBRC 113053T).

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245120

RESUMEN

Structural alterations of pericytes in microvessels are important features of diabetic retinopathy. Although capillary pericytes had been known not to have α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a recent study revealed that a specific fixation method enabled the visualization of αSMA along retinal capillaries. In this study, we applied snap-fixation in wild type and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice to evaluate the differences in vascular smooth muscle cells of the retina and the choroid. Mice eyeballs were fixed in ice-cold methanol to prevent the depolymerization of filamentous actin. Snap-fixated retina showed αSMA expression in higher-order branches along the capillaries as well as the arterioles and venules, which were not detected by paraformaldehyde fixation. In contrast, most choriocapillaris, except those close to the arterioles, were not covered with αSMA-positive perivascular mural cells. Large choroidal vessels were covered with more αSMA-positive cells in the snap-fixated eyes. Diabetes induced less coverage of αSMA-positive perivascular mural cells overall, but they reached higher-order branches of the retinal capillaries, which was prominent in the aged mice. More αSMA-positive pericytes were observed in the choroid of diabetic mice, but the αSMA-positive expression reduced with aging. This study suggests the potential role of smooth muscle cells in the pathogenesis of age-related diabetic retinopathy and choroidopathy.

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