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2.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(5): 737-743, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988492

RESUMEN

The world's protected area network is constantly changing, and the dynamics of this network are tracked using the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). This database evolved from a list of protected areas first mandated by the United Nations in 1959, and it now informs the key indicators that track progress toward area-based conservation targets. In this capacity, the WDPA illuminates the role of protected areas in advancing a range of international objectives and agreements, including the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite ongoing challenges in maintaining such a complex global dataset, the WDPA is continuously improving and taking advantage of new technology, making it widely applicable to diverse users, including those in sectors far from its original intended audience. In the future, the WDPA will expand to include areas that contribute to conservation and sustainable use outside of formal protected areas, and will increasingly link to other key global datasets. These innovations in the way the WDPA is managed and used will deliver vital knowledge to support a sustainable future for biodiversity and people globally.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bases de Datos como Asunto
3.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188681, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176888

RESUMEN

Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world's protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county's protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world's protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Argentina , Geografía , Internacionalidad , España , Estadística como Asunto
4.
Conserv Biol ; 2017 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168224

RESUMEN

Nations of the world have committed to a number of goals and targets to address global environmental challenges. Protected areas have for centuries been a key strategy in conservation and play a major role in addressing current challenges. The most important tool used to track progress on protected-area commitments is the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Periodic assessments of the world's protected-area estate show steady growth over the last 2 decades. However, the current method, which uses the latest version of the WDPA, does not show the true dynamic nature of protected areas over time and does not provide information on sites removed from the WDPA. In reality, this method can only show growth or remain stable. We used GIS tools in an approach to assess protected-area change over time based on 12 temporally distinct versions of the WDPA that quantify area added and removed from the WDPA annually from 2004 to 2016. Both the narrative of continual growth of protected area and the counter-narrative of protected area removal were overly simplistic. The former because growth was almost entirely in the marine realm and the latter because some areas removed were reprotected in later years. On average 2.5 million km2 was added to the WDPA annually and 1.1 million km2 was removed. Reasons for the inclusion and removal of protected areas in the WDPA database were in part due to data-quality issues but also to on-the-ground changes. To meet the 17% protected-area component of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 by 2020, which stood at 14.7% in 2016, either the rate of protected-area removal must decrease or the rate of protected-area designation and addition to the WDPA must increase.

5.
Biodivers Data J ; (5): e11764, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765720

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Saltmarshes are extremely valuable but often overlooked ecosystems, contributing to livelihoods locally and globally through the associated ecosystem services they provide, including fish production, carbon storage and coastal protection. Despite their importance, knowledge of the current spatial distribution (occurrence and extent) of saltmarshes is incomplete. In light of increasing anthropogenic and environmental pressures on coastal ecosystems, global data on the occurrence and extent of saltmarshes are needed to draw attention to these critical ecosystems and to the benefits they generate for people. Such data can support resource management, strengthen decision-making and facilitate tracking of progress towards global conservation targets set by multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the United Nations' (UN's) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Ramsar Convention. NEW INFORMATION: Here, we present the most complete dataset on saltmarsh occurrence and extent at the global scale. This dataset collates 350,985 individual occurrences of saltmarshes and presents the first global estimate of their known extent. The dataset captures locational and contextual data for saltmarsh in 99 countries worldwide. A total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile. This estimate is at the relatively low end of previous estimates (2.2-40 Mha), however, we took the conservative approach in the mapping exercise and there are notable areas in Canada, Northern Russia, South America and Africa where saltmarshes are known to occur that require additional spatial data. Nevertheless, the most extensive saltmarsh worldwide are found outside the tropics, notably including the low-lying, ice-free coasts, bays and estuaries of the North Atlantic which are well represented in our global polygon dataset. Therefore, despite the gaps, we believe that, while incomplete, our global polygon data cover many of the important areas in Europe, the USA and Australia.

6.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160640, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529491

RESUMEN

Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116-204 million), plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278-308 person-years) valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12-16 million), were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013) is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2-6.7 million). We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform decision-making for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Thus, the development and implementation of plans for sustainable long-term financing for them is critical.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Internacionalidad , Bases de Datos Factuales
7.
Sci Data ; 3: 160007, 2016 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26881749

RESUMEN

Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird &Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Anfibios , Animales , Aves , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Mamíferos
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 370(1681)2015 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26460133

RESUMEN

Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Ecosistema
9.
Conserv Biol ; 23(1): 184-95, 2009 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18798858

RESUMEN

Fragmentation of natural habitats can increase numbers of rare species. Conservation of rare species requires experts and resources, which may be lacking for many species. In the absence of regular surveys and expert knowledge, historical sighting records can provide data on the distribution of a species. Numerous models have been developed recently to make inferences regarding the threat status of a taxon on the basis of variation in trends of sightings over time. We applied 5 such models to national and regional (county) data on 3 red-listed orchid species (Cephalanthera longifolia, Hammarbya paludosa, and Pseudorchis albida) and 1 species that has recently come to the attention of conservation authorities (Neotinea maculata) in the Republic of Ireland. In addition, we used an optimal linear estimate to calculate the time of extinction for each species overall and within each county. To account for bias in recording effort over time, we used rarefaction analysis. On the basis of sighting records, we inferred that these species are not threatened with extinction and, although there have been declines, there is no clear geographical pattern of decline in any species. Most counties where these orchid species occurred had a low number of sightings; hence, we were cautious in our interpretation of output from statistical models. We suggest the main drivers of decline in these species in Ireland are modification of habitats for increased agricultural production and lack of appropriate management. Our results show that the application of probabilistic models can be used even when sighting data are scarce, provided multiple models are used simultaneously and rarefaction is used to account for bias in recording effort among species over time. These models could be used frequently when making an initial conservation assessment of species in a region, particularly if there is a relatively constant recording rate and some knowledge of the underlying recording process. Regional-scale analyses, such as ours, complement World Conservation Union criteria for assessment of the extinct category and are useful for highlighting areas of under recording and focusing conservation efforts of rare and endangered species.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Modelos Estadísticos , Orchidaceae/fisiología , Extinción Biológica , Irlanda , Dinámica Poblacional
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