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1.
Epilepsy Res ; 173: 106625, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819756

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: No data exist regarding the impact of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study aimed to stratify risk factors of SUDEP in relation to COVID-19 lockdown, among patients with epilepsy (PWE) in Cairo University epilepsy unit (CUEU). Therefore, we can detect risk factors and mitigate such factors in the second wave of the virus. METHODS: an observational, cross-sectional study carried on 340 Egyptian patients with active epilepsy. Individual risk identification and stratification was done by using The SUDEP and seizure Safety Checklist, after which sharing risk knowledge to PWE and their caregivers was undertaken. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 29.72 ± 12.12. The median of the static factors was 4 (IQR 3-5) whereas, the median of the modifiable factors was 2 (IQR 1-3). Epilepsy emergencies (serial seizures or status epilepticus) were reported in 24.1 % of patients, for which non-compliance was the commonest cause, followed by deferral of epilepsy surgery for patients with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that use of anxiolytic medications, non-compliance, keeping patients with DRE on dual anti-seizure medications (ASMs), or adding third medication increased the odds of increased seizure frequency by 2.7, 3.5, 16.6 and 6.1 times, respectively. CONCLUSION: Some COVID-19 related issues had influenced the risk of seizure worsening including postponing epilepsy surgery for patients with DRE, non-compliance, and psychiatric comorbidities. Special attention should be paid to these issues to mitigate the risk of SUDEP.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 53, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535985

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Egypt, the characterization of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographics, clinical features, aquaporin4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) status, and neuroimaging of Egyptian NMOSD patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 70 NMOSD patients' records from the MS clinic, Kasr Alainy hospital, between January 2013 and June 2018. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 34.9 ± 9.2 years, and the mean at disease onset was 28.9 ± 10.5 years. Fifty-nine patients had an initial monosymptomatic presentation. AQP4-IgG was measured using either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (22 patients) or cell-based assay (CBA) (34 patients). Six and 29 patients had positive results, respectively (p < 0.001). 84% had typical NMOSD brain lesions. Longitudinally extensive myelitis was detected in 49 patients, and 9 had either short segments or normal cords. Treatment failure was higher in seropositive patients. Rituximab significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR) compared to Azathioprine with a percentage reduction of (76.47 ± 13.28) and (10.21 ± 96.07), respectively (p = 0.04). Age at disease onset was the only independent predictor for disability (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatment failure was higher in seropositive patients. However, there was no difference in clinical or radiological parameters between seropositive and seronegative patients. Patients, who are polysymptomatic or with older age of onset, are predicted to have higher future disability regardless of the AQP4-IgG status.

3.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554696

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prior to illustration of the causative genetic mutation responsible for Sotos syndrome, diagnosis was based on clinical criteria. They include characteristic facial gestalt, developmental delay, and evidence of overgrowth, in addition to other minor features as cardiac &genitourinary congenital malformation, seizures, scoliosis, among other features. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) was not previously reported among Sotos patients. CASE SUMMARY: An eleven-years old boy, with developmental delay, characteristic facial & skeletal features presented to the emergency department with a two-hour episode of lapse of consciousness. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed fluctuating generalized spike-wave/poly-spike wave discharge <2.5 Hertz (Hz), lasting throughout the duration of recording. Intravenous (IV) levetiracetam was associated with clinical & EEG improvement & accordingly the patient was diagnosed as NCSE. The mother reported history of polyhydramnios, febrile seizure & developmental delay. Through clinical & radiological assessment revealed generalized hypotonia, low intelligence quotient (IQ), congenital ureteric stricture & pulmonary hypertension, prominent retro-cerebellar cistern, in addition to scoliosis & facial features suggestive of Sotos Syndrome. Six months after presentation, the patient remained seizure free on levetiracetam monotherapy. CONCLUSION: NCSE could occur in Sotos syndrome. In our case, the first reported case of NCSE in Sotos syndrome, the characteristic facial & skeletal findings initiated further work up with fulfillment of the criteria required for the clinical diagnosis of Sotos syndrome.

4.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fasting is the basis for the ketogenic diet, and intermittent fasting is emerging as a treatment for epilepsy. There are no available data about the role of Islamic fasting on seizure control. This study aims to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on the frequency of different seizure types. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study on Muslim patients with active epilepsy intending to fast during Ramadan in the year 2019, with an average of 16 fasting hours per day. Seizure frequency for each seizure type was followed over three months, one month before (Shaaban), during Ramadan and one month after (Shawwal), after ensuring drug compliance. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty one Muslim patients with active epilepsy with median age of 33 years were included (some patients had more than one type of seizure). In Ramadan, 86 out of 224 patients with focal seizures, 17 out of 38 patients with myoclonic seizures and 6 out of 10 patients with absence seizures showed ≥ 50% reduction. In Shawaal, such improvement continued to include 83, 13 and 4 patients with focal, myoclonic and absence seizures. Focal and myoclonic seizures were significantly improved in the months of Ramadan and Shawaal compared to Shaaban. However, absence seizures were significantly improved only in Ramadan compared with Shaaban. The frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures did not significantly differ between the three months. DISCUSSION: Ramadan fasting may have an improving effect, as well as a post-fasting effect, on active focal, myoclonic and absence seizures.

5.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

6.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722

RESUMEN

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Seizure ; 80: 67-70, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540640

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ramadan fasting represents a challenge for both Muslim patients with epilepsy (MPWE) as well as their treating neurologists who aim to minimize the risk of fasting-related seizures. Several factors may contribute to the risk of fasting-related seizures such as the half-life of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure control before Ramadan, and sleep fragmentation. The aim of this work was to investigate these factors. METHODS: An observational prospective study included all MPWE who completed Ramadan fasting in 2019, about 16 h per day for 30 days. They were assessed regarding seizure control, AEDs, and sleep alterations using The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: The study included 430 MPWE. The majority of patients (75.58%) completed Ramadan fasting without breakthrough seizures. Patients achieved successful Ramadan fasting were significantly younger, had shorter disease duration, longer periods of seizure freedom before Ramadan, more efficient and longer sleep hours. There was no significant difference between patients receiving monotherapy regimens with short versus intermediate long t½. Maximum seizure freedom before Ramadan and sleep hours were identified as independent predictors of successful Ramadan fasting, using multivariate analysis. Every extra week of being seizure free before Ramadan and every extra hour of sleep was associated with an increase in the probability of successful Ramadan fasting by 10% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Neurologists should guide their MPWE who wish to fast Ramadan about the risks and precautions. Proper seizure control and ensuring adequate sleep duration can increase the probability of a successful Ramadan fasting.

8.
J Pain Res ; 13: 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210609

RESUMEN

Background: Studies have shown that interferon-beta (IFN-ß) treatment is associated with headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Headaches can affect quality of life and overall function of patients with MS. We examined the frequency, relationships, patterns, and characteristics of headaches in response to IFN-ß in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, longitudinal analysis with 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 796 patients with RRMS treated with IFN-ß (mean age 30.84±8.98 years) at 5 tertiary referral center outpatient clinics in Egypt between January 2015 and December 2017. Headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 (beta version), and data were collected through an interviewer-administered Arabic-language-validated questionnaire with an addendum specifically designed to investigate the temporal relationship between commencement of interferon treatment, and headache onset and characteristics. Results: Two hundred seventy-six patients had pre-existing headaches, and 356 experienced de novo headaches. Of 122 patients who experienced headaches before IFN-ß treatment, 55 reported headaches that worsened following onset of IFN-ß treatment. In patients with post-IFN-ß headaches, 329 had headaches that persisted for >3 months, 51 had chronic headaches, and 278 had episodic headaches, and 216 of these patients required preventive therapies. Univariate analysis showed a >6- and an approximately 5-fold increased risk of headache among those treated with intramuscular (IM) INF-ß-1a (OR 6.51; 95% CI: 3.73-10.01; P-value <0.0001) and 44 µg of SC INF-ß-1a (OR 5.44; 95% CI: 3.15-9.37; P-value <0.0001), respectively, compared with that in patients who received 22 µg of SC INF-ß-1a. Conclusion: Interferon-ß therapy aggravated pre-existing headaches and caused primary headaches in patients with MS. Headache risk was greater following treatment with IM INF-ß-1a and 44 µg SC INF-ß-1a.

10.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106686, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760201

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There is a lack of data concerning the performance of the outcome prediction scores in patients with status epilepticus (SE) in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive performances of the status epilepticus severity score (STESS) and the epidemiology-based mortality score in status epilepticus (EMSE) and adaptation of such scoring system to be compatible with the nature of society. METHOD: This is a prospective study, conducted in Egypt from the period of January 2017 to June 2018. The main outcome measure was survival versus death, on hospital discharge. The cutoff point with the best sensitivity and specificity to predict mortality was determined through a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Among the 144 patients with SE with a mean age of 39.3 ±â€¯19.5 years recruited into the study, 38 patients (26.3%) died in the hospital with the survival of 99 patients while 7 patients (4.9%) were referred to other centers with an unknown outcome. Although EMSE had a bit larger area under the curve (AUC) (0.846) than STESS-3 (AUC 0.824), STESS-3 had the best performance as in-hospital death prediction score as it has a higher negative predictive value (94.6%) than that of EMSE (90.9%) in order not to miss high-risk patients. CONCLUSION: In the Egyptian population, STESS and EMSE are useful tools in predicting mortality outcome of SE. The STESS performed significantly better than EMSEE combinations as a mortality prediction score.


Asunto(s)
Alta del Paciente/normas , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/tendencias , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estado Epiléptico/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
11.
Neurol Res ; 41(9): 771-779, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084342

RESUMEN

Objective: Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a sleep-related focal epilepsy which is often misdiagnosed. Despite active pharmacological therapy in the management of this disorder, satisfactory seizure control still cannot be achieved. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify this disorder among people who were seeking medical advice at Cairo University Epilepsy Unit (CUEU), characterizing its clinical, electroencephalographic and imaging features besides identifying possible indicators of inadequate seizure control on drug-therapy. Patients and methods: This study was carried out on 26 patients with SHE who were subjected to detailed history taking and examination in addition to home video recording, video electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring and brain imaging. Ictal semiology and EEGs were reviewed and analyzed by experienced neurologists. Results: SHE is an uncommon sleep-related focal epilepsy. In our series, median age of the patients was 18.5 years. It is characterized by being sporadic, with often frontal lobe seizure onset (14/26, 53.8%) and with occasional occurrence in wakefulness. Adolescence age at disease onset (11 years, 6-15), duration less than 1 min, clustering, lack of auras and often uninformative brain imaging (22/25, 88%) are all documented features. Moreover, it has a relatively poor outcome on pharmacological therapy (16/26, 61.5%). Longer disease duration (>4.5 years) was a significant feature of the patients exhibiting inadequate seizure control. Conclusions: Our data show relatively poor prognosis of SHE on medical therapy. Its outcome is significantly related to disease duration at the time of diagnosis. Abbreviation: SHE = Sleep related hypermotor epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Convulsiones/fisiopatología , Vigilia/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Egipto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Grabación en Video/métodos , Adulto Joven
13.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 35(6): 468-473, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387782

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Bell palsy is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis. Ultrasound has proved its ability in detecting structural lesions along the course of the affected nerves.The current work aimed at studying the accuracy of ultrasound to predict the prognosis of Bell palsy in correlation to the clinical scale and nerve conduction studies. METHODS: The study included 20 cases of acute Bell palsy treated with prednisolone and physiotherapy. The participants were examined using the House-Brackmann (HB) scale, electrophysiologically and neurosonologically in the affected side and healthy side that served as a control. RESULTS: There was significant correlation between HB outcomes with onset of HB results. There was significant increase in the distal facial nerve diameter on the affected side compared with the normal side (P < 0.001). Although ultrasound at onset did not predict the outcome, nerve conduction studies did predict the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline HB clinical assessment of Bell palsy gives information on the clinical outcome of the disease. In addition to that, initial nerve conduction studies proved to be superior to ultrasound in predicting the outcome.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis de Bell/diagnóstico por imagen , Parálisis de Bell/fisiopatología , Nervio Facial/fisiopatología , Conducción Nerviosa/fisiología , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estimulación Eléctrica , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Curva ROC , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
14.
Neuroradiol J ; 31(5): 490-495, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024291

RESUMEN

Purpose Monitoring of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is required to prevent secondary optic nerve damage. Sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a noninvasive method to evaluate intracranial hypertension. Different ONSD cut-off values have been reported probably due to ethnic variations. Our aim was to determine optic nerve sonographic examination cut-off points to predict raised ICP in IIH patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 99 IIH post-pubertal female patients (both probable and definite) and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Sonographic ONSD and optic nerve diameter (OND) were obtained 3 mm behind the posterior edge of the globe in a horizontal plane via a 7-13 MHz linear probe. Lumbar puncture was then carried out on the patients. Results The opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure documented in the patient group was 279.64 ± 65.97 mm H2O. A statistically significant difference was found between IIH patients and controls regarding ONSD. The best ONSD cut-off value indicating raised ICP was 6.05 mm with an area under the curve of 0.850 (95% confidence interval 0.805 to 0.894, 73.2% sensitivity and 91.4% specificity). Regarding OND/ONSD ratio, there was an insignificant difference between both groups. Conclusion Sonographic ONSD but not OND/ONSD ratio could offer a bedside adjunct or alternative indicator of elevated ICP in IIH patients. Ethnic differences, however, should be noted when using this parameter.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Intracraneal/diagnóstico por imagen , Presión Intracraneal , Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nervio Óptico/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Curva ROC , Punción Espinal , Adulto Joven
15.
Neurol Res ; 40(9): 728-735, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799769

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and proper monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) could reduce morbidity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to explore and monitor reflection of raised ICP in IIH on optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), papillary height and ophthalmic vessels hemodynamics, using transorbital sonography (TOS). METHODS: The study included 24 IIH patients and 30 controls. Patients were compared to controls (phase I) then reassessed twice; 1 week and 4 weeks later (phase II). Both groups underwent clinical evaluation and TOS to measure ONSD, papillary elevation, and color Doppler indices of the ophthalmic vessels. Patients underwent lumbar puncture (LP) to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. RESULTS: ONSD was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). The cut-off value was 6.2 mm. Papillary elevation (p = 0.006) and ONSD (p = 0.006) were significantly reduced 4 weeks following LP. Baseline color Doppler indices of the ophthalmic vessels were comparable between both groups and the changes observed during the follow-up visits in the patients were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Reflected ICP changes on ONSD and papilla, measured by TOS, could be a valuable noninvasive additional tool to diagnose and monitor IIH patients. IIH insignificantly influences ophthalmic vessels hemodynamics. Abbreviation BMI: Body mass index. CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid. EDV: End diastolic velocity. ICP: Intracranial pressure. IH:intracranial hypertension. IIH: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. LP: Lumbar puncture. MI: Mechanical index. MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging. MRV: Magnetic resonance venography. OA: Ophthalmic artery OND: Optic nerve diameter. ONSD: Optic nerve sheath diameter. OV: Ophthalmic vein. PIs: Pulsatility indices. PSV: Peak systolic velocity. ROC: Receiver operator characteristic. TOS: Trans-orbital sonography.


Asunto(s)
Ojo/irrigación sanguínea , Ojo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipertensión Intracraneal/diagnóstico por imagen , Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal/patología , Presión Intracraneal , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nervio Óptico/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Estudios Prospectivos , Punción Espinal , Adulto Joven
16.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 14: 631-640, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503547

RESUMEN

Introduction: Although the frequency of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has increased in recent decades, it is still highly uncommon, which creates a need for the involvement of more registries from various clinical centers. Objective: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features of Egyptian patients with POMS. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review study was undertaken on 237 Egyptian patients with demyelinating events which started before the age of 18 years who attended one of five tertiary referral centers in Cairo, Egypt. Results: Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in 186 patients, 47 (25.27%) patients had disease onset before the age of 12 years; "early-onset pediatric multiple sclerosis (EOPMS)". The mean age of disease onset was (14.13±2.49 years), with a female:male ratio of 1.62:1, none of the enrolled patients had a primary progressive course (PPMS), whereas 10 patients (5.38%) had a secondary progressive form. Approximately two-thirds of the patients had monofocal disease onset, and less than 10% presented with encephalopathy; most of them had EOPMS. Motor weakness was the presenting symptom in half of the patients, whereas cerebellar presentation was detected in 34.95%, mainly in EOPMS. Seizures (not related to encephalopathy) were more frequent in those with EOPMS. Initial brain magnetic resonance images were positive in all patients, with detected atypical lesions in 29.03%, enhanced lesions in 35.48%, black holes in 13.98%, and infratentorial in 34.41%. Cervical cord involvement was found in 68.28%. More than two-thirds of the patients received either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant (IS) treatment throughout their disease course, and about half of them received their treatment within the first year from symptoms onset, with a more favorable outcome, and patients with highly active disease received natalizumab, fingolimod, or other IS. Conclusion: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries. Immunomodulatory therapies in POMS are well tolerated and efficacious and they can improve the long-term outcome in children.

17.
Epilepsy Behav ; 79: 106-111, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274604

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The occurrence of cardiac electrical abnormalities such as repolarization disorders in patients with epilepsy was previously documented and may, in part, clarify the mechanism of sudden unexpected death in those patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of cardiac repolarization disorders among patients with epilepsy and whether specific demographic- or disease-related features were associated with their occurrence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 subjects with epilepsy who were compared with age- and sex-matched 2500 subjects without epilepsy. Clinical assessment, which included careful history taking and examination, was carried out for all participants in addition to resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. Electrocardiograms were reviewed by experienced cardiologists. Electrocardiogram intervals were measured, and morphological abnormalities were identified using standard guidelines. RESULTS: Repolarization abnormalities were found in 142 (14.2%) patients with epilepsy. A statistically significant elevation in percentage of corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (both severe and borderline) among patients with epilepsy compared with controls was documented (8.4% vs 2%, P<0.001). Epilepsy increased the likelihood of hosting prolonged QTc more than 4 times (95% confidence interval: 3.175-6.515; odds ratio: 4.548; P<0.001). Affected patients were significantly older (95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.044; odds ratio: 1.027; P=0.001), and the abnormality was significantly more prevalent among those with poor seizure control (95% confidence interval: 1.103-2.966; odds ratio: 1.809; P=0.019). On the other hand, early repolarization (ER) pattern and Brugada type ECG pattern (BP) were significantly more prevalent in subjects without epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Corrected QT interval prolongation (both severe and borderline) was more prevalent among patients with epilepsy, especially if uncontrolled or elderly. Electrocardiogram should be established as a part of the diagnostic workup of epilepsy in order to identify such electrocardiographic abnormality.


Asunto(s)
Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Convulsiones/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiología , Egipto/epidemiología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Femenino , Cardiopatías , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Convulsiones/fisiopatología
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 383: 188-198, 2017 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246612

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although misdiagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) or multiple sclerosis (MS) is not infrequent, reliable biomarkers remains an unmet need. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a worthy avenue to identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis. We aimed to explore the potential role of some selected circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for the differential diagnosis in immune-mediated neuroinflammatory diseases. METHODS: A total of 80 subjects were enrolled in the present study, including 37 patients with MS (relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS; n=18] and secondary progressive MS [SPMS; n=19]), 10 patients with NMOSD and 10 patients with NPSLE as well as 23 healthy subjects. Serum expression levels of three selected miRNAs (miR-145, miR-223 and miR-326) were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Whole blood expression levels of cellular immune response-relevant target genes, including signaling mother against decapentaplegic peptide 3 (SMAD3) and specificity protein 1 (SP1), were also measured using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: In comparison to healthy subjects, only miR-145 and miR-223 were significantly up-regulated in MS patients, whereas, all the analyzed miRNAs revealed insignificant upregulation in NMOSD patients. All the examined miRNAs were significantly down-regulated in NPSLE patients compared to healthy subjects. miR-145, miR-223 and miR-326 expression profile is a promising diagnostic biomarker for MS and NPSLE, but not for NMOSD. This expression profile is capable of differentiating not only among MS, NMOSD and NPSLE, but also between RRMS and SPMS. CONCLUSION: Specific circulating miRNAs expression signature may have the potential to differentially diagnose immune-mediated neuroinflammatory diseases.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs/sangre , Esclerosis Múltiple Crónica Progresiva/sangre , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/sangre , Neuromielitis Óptica/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Estudios de Cohortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Espacio Extracelular/metabolismo , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Esclerosis Múltiple Crónica Progresiva/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple Crónica Progresiva/terapia , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/terapia , Análisis Multivariante , Neuromielitis Óptica/inmunología , Neuromielitis Óptica/terapia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 13: 1895-1903, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous presentation and diverse disease course. Recent studies indicate a rising prevalence of MS in the Middle East. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and disease features of Egyptian patients attending four tertiary referral MS centers in Cairo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study on 1,581 patients between 2001 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed and data were identified and extracted in a standardized electronic registry. RESULTS: The mean age of disease onset was 26.6±7.8 years, with the majority being female (2.11:1). Relapsing-remitting MS was the most common type (75.1%). The main presenting symptom was motor weakness (43.9%), which was also the most frequent symptom during the disease course. Family history of MS was found in 2.28%. Higher initial Expanded Disability Status Scale score, black holes, and infratentorial lesions on initial magnetic resonance imaging were independent factors for disease progression by univariate analysis (OR 3.87 [95% CI 1.84-6.51], 4.14 [95% CI 3.08-5.58], 4.07 [95% CI 3.21-4.99], respectively); however, in multivariate analysis, only infratentorial lesions were an independent risk for disease progression (OR 6, 95% CI 2.99-12.02; P=0.0005). CONCLUSION: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries with slight differences.

20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 22(4): 670-5, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25677878

RESUMEN

Neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) binds selectively to aquaporin 4 (AQP4). We aimed to evaluate the frequency of AQP4 antibody in Egyptian patients. We retrospectively evaluated 39 consecutive Egyptian patients with suspected idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease (IIDCD) who visited the multiple sclerosis clinic at Kaser Al-Aini Hospital. The patients were diagnosed with NMO, other NMO spectrum disorders, or multiple sclerosis using the respective current diagnostic criteria. For the anti-AQP4 antibody assays, serum samples from all patients and 16 healthy matched controls were evaluated. The coded sera were tested for AQP4 antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The relations between the clinical diagnosis and the AQP4 antibody serologic status were studied. Among the 39 patients, 21 (53.85%) were AQP4 antibody-positive. NMO spectrum disorders patients had a significantly higher level of AQP4 antibody compared with MS patients and controls (p<0.001). Only eight patients (36.36%) met the Wingerchuk 2006 criteria for NMO diagnosis excluding AQP4 antibody-seropositive status. AQP4 antibody was highly prevalent (almost 54%) in Egyptian IIDCD patients. Our research revealed that we must maintain a high index of suspicion for NMO spectrum disorders.


Asunto(s)
Acuaporina 4/inmunología , Autoanticuerpos/sangre , Enfermedades Autoinmunes Desmielinizantes SNC/diagnóstico , Adulto , Enfermedades Autoinmunes Desmielinizantes SNC/epidemiología , Enfermedades Autoinmunes Desmielinizantes SNC/inmunología , Egipto/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/complicaciones , Neuromielitis Óptica/complicaciones , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
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