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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 30, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557923

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates worldwide. Little is known about the occurrence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and high mortality rates have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcome of IHCA during the pandemic in comparison to an earlier period. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data prospectively recorded during 3-month-periods 2019 and 2020 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). All consecutive adult patients with IHCA were included. Clinical parameters, neurological outcomes and organ failure/support were assessed. RESULTS: During the study period hospital admissions declined from 18,262 (2019) to 13,994 (2020) (- 23%). The IHCA incidence increased from 4.6 (2019: 84 IHCA cases) to 6.6 (2020: 93 IHCA cases)/1000 hospital admissions. Median stay before IHCA was 4 (1-9) days. Demographic characteristics were comparable in both periods. IHCA location shifted towards the ICU (56% vs 37%, p < 0.01); shockable rhythm (VT/VF) (18% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and defibrillation were more frequent in the pandemic period (20% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Resuscitation times, rates of ROSC and post-CA characteristics were comparable in both periods. The severity of illness (SAPS II/SOFA), frequency of mechanical ventilation and frequency of vasopressor therapy after IHCA were higher during the 2020 period. Overall, 43 patients (12 with & 31 without COVID-19), presented with respiratory failure at the time of IHCA. The Horowitz index and resuscitation time were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 (each p < 0.01). Favourable outcomes were observed in 42 and 10% of patients with and without COVID-19-related respiratory failure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions declined during the pandemic, but a higher incidence of IHCA was observed. IHCA in patients with COVID-19 was a common finding. Compared to patients with non-COVID-19-related respiratory failure, the outcome was improved.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Paro Cardíaco/epidemiología , Anciano , Reanimación Cardiopulmonar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Utilización de Medicamentos/tendencias , Cardioversión Eléctrica/tendencias , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Paro Cardíaco/terapia , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puntuaciones en la Disfunción de Órganos , Pandemias , Admisión del Paciente/tendencias , Respiración Artificial/tendencias , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vasoconstrictores/uso terapéutico
2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605565

RESUMEN

AIM: The management of cardiogenic shock remains a clinical challenge even in well-developed healthcare systems, best illustrated by its high mortality despite numerous innovative proposals for management. The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in incidence, causes, use of mechanical circulatory support, and mortality in cardiogenic shock in Germany. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on all cardiogenic shock patients treated in German hospitals between 2005 and 2017 were obtained from the Federal Bureau of Statistics. The data set comprised 441 696 patients with cardiogenic shock, mean age 71 (±13.8) years, 171 383 (39%) female patients. Incidence rates increased from 33.1/100 000 population in 2005 (27 246 cases) to 51.7/100 000 population in 2017 (42 779 cases). Acute myocardial infarction was the most common cause of cardiogenic shock in 2005-07 (43 422 of 82 037 cases, 52.9%), but the proportion of cases caused by it decreased until 2014-17 (73 274 of 165 873 cases, 44.2%). Over time, intra-aortic balloon pump (2005: 5104; 2017: 973 cases) was used less frequently, whereas use of extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation (2007: 35; 2017: 2414 cases) and percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (2005: 27; 2017: 1323 cases) increased. Mortality remained high at around 60% without relevant temporal trends in patients without acute myocardial infarction and slightly decreased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, nation-wide study, annual incidence of cardiogenic shock was growing, its causes were changing, and mortality was high despite a shift towards use of novel mechanical circulatory support devices. This highlights the need to address the evidence gap in this field, in particular for cardiogenic shock caused by diseases other than acute myocardial infarction.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24653, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607801

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The objective of this registry is to collect data on real-life treatment conditions for patients for whom multiple organ dialysis with Advanced Organ Support (ADVOS) albumin hemodialysis is indicated.This registry was performed under routine conditions and without any study-specific intervention, diagnostic procedures, or assessments. Data on clinical laboratory tests, health status, liver function, vital signs, and examinations were collected (DRKS-ID: DRKS00017068). Mortality rates 28 and 90 days after the first ADVOS treatment, adverse events and ADVOS treatment parameters, including treatment abortions, were documented.This analysis was performed 2 years after the first patient was included on January 18, 2017. As of February 20, 2019, 4 clinical sites in Germany participated and enrolled 118 patients with a median age of 60 (IQR: 45, 69) of whom 70 were male (59.3%). Patients had a median SOFA Score of 14 (IQR: 11, 16) and a predicted mortality of 80%. The median number of failing organs was 3 (IQR: 2, 4).Four hundred twenty nine ADVOS treatments sessions were performed with a median duration of 17 hours (IQR: 6, 23). A 5.8% of the ADVOS sessions (25 of 429) were aborted due to device related errors, while 14.5% (62 of 429) were stopped for other reasons. Seventy nine adverse events were documented, 13 of them device related (all clotting, and all recovered without sequels).A significant reduction in serum creatinine (1.5 vs 1.2 mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (24 vs 17 mg/dl) and bilirubin (6.9 vs 6.5 mg/dl) was observed following the first ADVOS treatment session. Blood pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and base excess returned to the physiological range, while partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) remained unchanged. At the time of the analysis, 28- and 90-day mortality were 60% and 65%, respectively, compared to an expected ICU-mortality rate of 80%. SOFA score was an independent predictor for outcome in a multivariable logistic regression analysis.The reported data show a high quality and completion of all participating centers. Data interpretation must be cautious due to the small number of patients, and the nature of the registry, without a control group. However, the data presented here show an improvement of expected mortality rates. Minor clotting events similar to other dialysis therapies occurred during the treatments.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 6(56)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622974

RESUMEN

Hyperinflammation contributes to lung injury and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the underlying mechanisms involved in lung pathology, we investigated the role of the lung-specific immune response. We profiled immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood collected from COVID-19 patients with severe disease and bacterial pneumonia patients not associated with viral infection. By tracking T cell clones across tissues, we identified clonally expanded tissue-resident memory-like Th17 cells (Trm17 cells) in the lungs even after viral clearance. These Trm17 cells were characterized by a a potentially pathogenic cytokine expression profile of IL17A and CSF2 (GM-CSF). Interactome analysis suggests that Trm17 cells can interact with lung macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which have been associated with disease severity and lung damage. High IL-17A and GM-CSF protein levels in the serum of COVID-19 patients were associated with a more severe clinical course. Collectively, our study suggests that pulmonary Trm17 cells are one potential orchestrator of the hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19.

5.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(Forthcoming)2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531113

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since identification of the first cases in December 2019, COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) has spread across the world, giving rise to a global pandemic. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in PubMed, using search terms defined by the authors. Questions important for the management of patients with COVID-19 were identified and discussed, and recommendations or statements on these topics were formulated in a structured consensus process. RESULTS: Determination of the indication for the admission of COVID-19 patients to the hospital should involve consideration of age, comorbidities, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. Every patient admitted without a recent PCR test should be tested immediately. It is recommended that any COVID-19 patient with hypoxemia (SpO2 <90%) despite being given oxygen, dyspnea, or a high respiratory rate be admitted to intensive care. In the case of hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, an attempt at treatment with high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation is suggested, while patients with severe hypoxemia/high respiratory rate should undergo intubation and invasive ventilation. In the presence of additional risk factors (such as obesity, known thrombophilia, intensive care treatment, or elevated D-dimers), intensified prophylaxis against thromboembolism may be indicated. Treatment with dexamethasone decreases the mortality among patients with severe or critical COVID-19. The important personal protection measures are attention to hygiene and the correct wearing of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: The principal treatment measures are maintenance of adequate oxygenation, pharmacological prevention of thrombosis, and, in severe cases, administration of dexamethasone.

7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(2): 108-120, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465807

RESUMEN

Oxygen treatment is being widely used in intensive care and emergency medicine and is required to maintain aerobic metabolism. It may be administered by nasal cannula, face mask, high-flow therapy, and by ventilation. Under clinical circumstances, blood oxygen concentration is not relevantly increased above a partial pressure of 80 mmHg. Although oxygen therapy is often life-saving, it has recently been shown that its indiscriminate administration may increase morbidity and mortality, presumably due to a formation of reactive-oxygen species.For ventilated critically ill patients the optimal targets need to be further defined but harm has been shown for mild hyperoxia. For patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease hyperoxia may lead to an increase of hypercarbia. Hyperoxia may increase myocardial necrosis in myocardial infarction. For patients with stroke, data do not show any benefit or harm from oxygen administration.On the other hand, hyperoxia shall be used for treatment in patients with cardiac arrest until return of spontaneous circulation and in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.For other conditions, no benefit has been shown for hyperoxia, but undoubtedly, hypoxemia must be avoided, as well. Therefore, a normoxic oxygenation strategy should be employed. The optimal oxygenation targets for distinct conditions need to be further defined.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1866(4): 158875, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421592

RESUMEN

The α-tocopherol-derived long-chain metabolite (α-LCM) α-13'-carboxychromanol (α-13'-COOH) is formed via enzymatic degradation of α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in the liver. In the last decade, α-13'-COOH has emerged as a new regulatory metabolite revealing more potent or even different effects compared with its vitamin precursor α-TOH. The detection of α-13'-COOH in human serum has further strengthened the concept of its physiological relevance as a potential regulatory molecule. Here, we present a new facet on the interaction of α-13'-COOH with macrophage foam cell formation. We found that α-13'-COOH (5 µM) increases angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA expression in human THP-1 macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while α-TOH (100 µM) showed no effects. Interestingly, the mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was not influenced by α-13'-COOH, but α-TOH treatment led to a reduction of LPL mRNA expression. Both compounds also revealed different effects on protein level: while α-13'-COOH reduced the secreted amount of LPL protein via induction of ANGPTL4 cleavage, i.e. activation, the secreted amount of LPL in the α-TOH-treated samples was diminished due to the inhibition of mRNA expression. In line with this, both compounds reduced the catalytic activity of LPL. However, α-13'-COOH but not α-TOH attenuated VLDL-induced lipid accumulation by 35%. In conclusion, only α-13'-COOH revealed possible antiatherogenic effects due to the reduction of VLDL-induced foam cell formation in THP-1 macrophages. Our results provide further evidence for the role of α-13'-COOH as a functional metabolite of its vitamin E precursor.

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 1002, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287911

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Albumin is a key regulator of fluid distribution within the extracellular space and has several properties beyond its oncotic activity. The accumulating evidence suggests that supplementation of albumin may provide survival advantages only when the insult is severe as in patients with septic shock. METHODS/DESIGN: The randomized controlled multicentre study of albumin replacement therapy in septic shock (ARISS) investigates whether the replacement with albumin and the maintenance of its serum levels of at least 30 g/l for 28 days improve survival in patients with septic shock compared to resuscitation and volume maintenance without albumin. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with septic shock are randomly assigned within a maximum of 24 h after the onset of septic shock after obtaining informed consents to treatment or control groups. Patients assigned to the treatment group receive a 60-g loading dose of human albumin 20% over 2-3 h. Serum albumin levels are maintained at least at 30 g/l in the ICU for a maximum of 28 days following randomization using 40-80 g human albumin 20% infusion. The control group is treated according to the usual practice with crystalloids as the first choice for the resuscitation and maintenance phase of septic shock. The primary endpoint is 90 days mortality and secondary endpoints include 28-day, 60-day, ICU, and in-hospital mortality, organ dysfunction/failure, total amount of fluid administration and total fluid balance in the ICU, and lengths of ICU and hospital stay. In total, 1412 patients need to be analysed, 706 per group. For the sample size estimation, a 15% reduction in 90-day mortality is assumed, i.e. an absolute reduction of 7.5% points to 42.5% (relative risk 1.18). Assuming a dropout rate of 15%, a total of 1662 patients need to be allocated. DISCUSSION: The results of the clinical trial may influence the treatment of patients with septic shock. The expected improvement in patient survival may result in a reduction in the resources currently used in the treatment of these patients and in the socioeconomic burden of this disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03869385 . Registration on 18 July 2019. Protocol version: Final 3.0.

11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 161, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is scarce evidence on the feasibility, safety and resource utilisation of active mobilisation in critically ill patients on extracorporeal life support (ECLS). METHODS: This prospective observational single-centre study included all consecutive critically ill patients on ECLS admitted to an academic centre in Germany over a time period of one year. The level of mobilisation was categorised according to the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS). Primary outcome was complications during mobilisation. RESULTS: During the study period, active mobilisation with an activity level on the IMS of ≥ 3 was performed at least on one occasion in 43 out of 115 patients (37.4%). A total of 332 mobilisations with IMS ≥ 3 were performed during 1242 ECLS days (26.7%). ECLS configurations applied were va-ECMO (n = 63), vv-ECMO (n = 26), vv-ECCO2R (n = 12), av-ECCO2R (n = 10), and RVAD (n = 4). Femoral cannulation had been in place in 108 patients (93.9%). The median duration of all mobilisation activities with IMS ≥ 3 was 130 min (IQR 44-215). All mobilisations were undertaken by a multi-professional ECLS team with a median number of 3 team members involved (IQR 3-4). Bleeding from cannulation site requiring transfusion and/or surgery occurred in 6.9% of actively mobilised patients and in 15.3% of non-mobilised patients. During one mobilisation episode, accidental femoral cannula displacement occurred with immediate and effective recannulation. Sedation was the major reason for non-mobilisation. CONCLUSIONS: Active mobilisation (IMS ≥ 3) of ECLS patients undertaken by an experienced multi-professional team was feasible, and complications were infrequent and managed successfully. Larger prospective multicentre studies are needed to further evaluate early goal directed sedation and mobilisation bundles in patients on ECLS.

12.
J Crit Care ; 62: 12-18, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227591

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Whether therapeutic hypothermia (TH) adds to the risk of bleeding in patients on extracorporeal life support (ECLS) peri-cardiac arrest remains unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single center retrospective study on patients receiving veno-arterial ECLS peri-cardiac arrest ± TH at 32-34 °C (January 2009-December 2015). PRIMARY OUTCOME: major bleeding (including intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH) < 72 h of cardiac arrest. Logistic regression and marginal structural models were used to analyze associations with major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 66 patients receiving ECLS, 36 were treated with TH. Major bleeding occurred in 14 patients (39%) treated with ECLS+TH and in 17 patients (57%) with ECLS alone. ICH was reported in 3 (8%) and one patient (3%), respectively. There was no difference in mortality, but lung injury occurred more often in ECLS+TH. A platelet count <60 × 109/L but not TH was associated with major bleeding (including ICH). The estimated causal risk ratio of TH on the occurrence of major bleeding (including ICH) at 72 h post cardiac arrest was 0.95 (95%CI 0.62-1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding complications were common in our study. However, TH (32-34 °C) was not associated with an increased risk of major bleeding in patients on ECLS peri-cardiac arrest.

13.
Aust Crit Care ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are large uncertainties with regard to the outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mechanical ventilation (MV). High mortality (50-97%) was proposed by some groups, leading to considerable uncertainties with regard to outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and MV. METHODS: A multicentre retrospective observational cohort study at 15 hospitals in Hamburg, Germany, was performed. Critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 who completed their ICU stay between February and June 2020 were included. Patient demographics, severity of illness, and ICU course were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 223 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included. The majority, 73% (n = 163), were men; the median age was 69 (interquartile range = 58-77.5) years, with 68% (n = 151) patients having at least one chronic medical condition. Their Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was a median of 5 (3-9) points on admission. Overall, 167 (75%) patients needed MV. Noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula were used in 31 (14%) and 26 (12%) patients, respectively. Subsequent MV, due to noninvasive ventilation/high-flow nasal cannula therapy failure, was necessary in 46 (81%) patients. Renal replacement therapy was initiated in 33% (n = 72) of patients, and owing to severe respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was necessary in 9% (n = 20) of patients. Experimental antiviral therapy was used in 9% (n = 21) of patients. Complications during the ICU stay were as follows: septic shock (40%, n = 90), heart failure (8%, n = 17), and pulmonary embolism (6%, n = 14). The length of ICU stay was a median of 13 days (5-24), and the duration of MV was 15 days (8-25). The ICU mortality was 35% (n = 78) and 44% (n = 74) among mechanically ventilated patients. CONCLUSION: In this multicentre observational study of 223 critically ill patients with COVID-19, the survival to ICU discharge was 65%, and it was 56% among patients requiring MV. Patients showed high rate of septic complications during their ICU stay.

15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(24): 1764-1769, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254251

RESUMEN

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in intensive care unit patients can increase the risk for therapeutic failure or adverse effects of anti-infective therapy. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can inform required dose adaptions. The present article reviews the current practice and outlines modern approaches for decision making such as model-informed precision dosing software using the area-under-the-concentration-time-curve as target in favor of simplistic decision making based on trough concentrations. Moreover, the current recommendations for performing TDM of beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, linezolid, glycopeptides and voriconazole are concisely summarized.

16.
JAMA ; 324(16): 1629-1639, 2020 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095849

RESUMEN

Importance: Although current guidelines suggest the use of regional citrate anticoagulation (which involves the addition of a citrate solution to the blood before the filter of the extracorporeal dialysis circuit) as first-line treatment for continuous kidney replacement therapy in critically ill patients, the evidence for this recommendation is based on few clinical trials and meta-analyses. Objective: To determine the effect of regional citrate anticoagulation, compared with systemic heparin anticoagulation, on filter life span and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: A parallel-group, randomized multicenter clinical trial in 26 centers across Germany was conducted between March 2016 and December 2018 (final date of follow-up, January 21, 2020). The trial was terminated early after 596 critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury or clinical indications for initiation of kidney replacement therapy had been enrolled. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either regional citrate anticoagulation (n = 300), which consisted of a target ionized calcium level of 1.0 to 1.40 mg/dL, or systemic heparin anticoagulation (n = 296), which consisted of a target activated partial thromboplastin time of 45 to 60 seconds, for continuous kidney replacement therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coprimary outcomes were filter life span and 90-day mortality. Secondary end points included bleeding complications and new infections. Results: Among 638 patients randomized, 596 (93.4%) (mean age, 67.5 years; 183 [30.7%] women) completed the trial. In the regional citrate group vs systemic heparin group, median filter life span was 47 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 19-70 hours) vs 26 hours (IQR, 12-51 hours) (difference, 15 hours [95% CI, 11 to 20 hours]; P < .001). Ninety-day all-cause mortality occurred in 150 of 300 patients vs 156 of 296 patients (Kaplan-Meier estimator percentages, 51.2% vs 53.6%; unadjusted difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -10.5% to 5.8%]; unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.72 to 1.13]; unadjusted P = .38; adjusted difference, -6.1% [95% CI, -12.6% to 0.4%]; primary adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63 to 1.004]; primary adjusted P = .054). Of 38 prespecified secondary end points, 34 showed no significant difference. Compared with the systemic heparin group, the regional citrate group had significantly fewer bleeding complications (15/300 [5.1%] vs 49/296 [16.9%]; difference, -11.8% [95% CI, -16.8% to -6.8%]; P < .001) and significantly more new infections (204/300 [68.0%] vs 164/296 [55.4%]; difference, 12.6% [95% CI, 4.9% to 20.3%]; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving continuous kidney replacement therapy, anticoagulation with regional citrate, compared with systemic heparin anticoagulation, resulted in significantly longer filter life span. The trial was terminated early and was therefore underpowered to reach conclusions about the effect of anticoagulation strategy on mortality. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02669589.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Anticoagulantes/administración & dosificación , Ácido Cítrico/administración & dosificación , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal Continuo/instrumentación , Heparina/administración & dosificación , Lesión Renal Aguda/sangre , Lesión Renal Aguda/mortalidad , Anciano , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Calcio/sangre , Ácido Cítrico/efectos adversos , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal Continuo/mortalidad , Enfermedad Crítica , Terminación Anticipada de los Ensayos Clínicos , Femenino , Filtración/instrumentación , Alemania , Hemorragia/inducido químicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiología , Heparina/efectos adversos , Humanos , Infecciones/epidemiología , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Tiempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007476

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Investigation whether in depth characterization of virus variant patterns can be used for epidemiological analysis of the first SARS-CoV-2 infection clusters in Hamburg, Germany. METHODS: Metagenomic RNA- and amplicon-sequencing and subsequent variant calling in 25 respiratory samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients involved in the earliest infection clusters in Hamburg. RESULTS: Amplikon sequencing and cluster analyses of these SARS-CoV-2 sequences allowed the identification of the first infection cluster and five non-related infection clusters occurring at the beginning of the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the Hamburg metropolitan region. Viral genomics together with epidemiological analyses revealed that the index patient acquired the infection in Northern Italy and transmitted it to two out of 134 contacts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms clearly distinguished the virus variants of the index and other clusters and allowed to track in which sequences worldwide these mutations were first described. Minor variant analyses identified the transmission of intra-host variants in the index cluster and household clusters. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variant tracing allows the identification of infection clusters and the follow up of infection chains occurring in the population. Furthermore, the follow up of minor viral variants in infection cluster can provide further resolution on transmission events indistinguishable on consensus sequence level.

19.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 142, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the management of bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by Candida spp., the mortality still remains high in critically ill patients. The worldwide epidemiology of yeast-related BSI is subject to changing species distribution and resistance patterns, challenging antifungal treatment strategies. The aim of this single-center study was to identify predictors of mortality after 28 and 180 days in a cohort of mixed surgical and medical critically ill patients with candidemia. METHODS: Patients, who had been treated for laboratory-confirmed BSI caused by Candida spp. in one of 12 intensive care units (ICU) at a University hospital between 2008 and 2017, were retrospectively identified. We retrieved data including clinical characteristics, Candida species distribution, and antifungal management from electronic health records to identify risk factors for mortality at 28 and 180 days using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 391 patients had blood cultures positive for Candida spp. (incidence 4.8/1000 ICU admissions). The mortality rate after 28 days was 47% (n = 185) and increased to 60% (n = 234) after 180 days. Age (HR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.03]), a history of liver cirrhosis (HR 1.54 [95% CI 1.07-2.20]), septic shock (HR 2.41 [95% CI 1.73-3.37]), the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.07-1.17]), Candida score (HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.11-1.40]), and the length of ICU stay at culture positivity (HR 1.01 [95% CI 1.00-1.01]) were significant risk factors for death at 180 days. Patients, who had abdominal surgery (HR 0.66 [95% CI 0.48-0.91]) and patients, who received adequate (HR 0.36 [95% CI 0.24-0.52]) or non-adequate (HR 0.31 [95% CI 0.16-0.62]) antifungal treatment, had a reduced mortality risk compared to medical admission and no antifungal treatment, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality of critically ill patients with Candida BSI is high and is mainly determined by disease severity, multiorgan dysfunction, and antifungal management rather than species distribution and susceptibility. Our results underline the importance of timely treatment of candidemia. However, controversies remain on the optimal definition of adequate antifungal management.

20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 345, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066743

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tunneled peritoneal drainage catheters are described as an effective and relatively safe method in the management of malignant and non-malignant refractory ascites. Therapeutic advantages, linked to their use, are self-management of ascites and palliative care at home. Complications occur rarely. We describe an ascending colon perforation after implantation of a peritoneal drainage in a patient with refractory ascites due to liver cirrhosis. CASE PRESENTATION: The 68-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit due to severe community acquired pneumonia. The ascites drainage was inserted in order to reduce the intra-abdominal pressure and enable appropriate ventilation. A few hours later, bowel content could be detected in the tube and an abdominal computed tomography confirmed the intestinal perforation. Notably, there was no pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis had not yet set in. The catheter was removed during an emergency laparotomy and sutured closure of both perforation sites was performed. CONCLUSION: Patients with septated ascites and intraperitoneal adhesions are at potential higher risk of bowel perforation during implantation of an indwelling peritoneal catheter. A mini-laparotomy is, therefore, necessary in order to ensure safe implantation and positioning of the catheter in those cases.

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