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2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242437, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211766

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been recognized as an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour among adults, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is lacking. This study explored associations between ACE and hospital admission due to non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Adults admitted to a tertiary care hospital for medical management of self-poisoning were included as cases, and age and sex matched controls were recruited from the outpatient department. ACE were measured using the World Health Organization's Childhood Adversity Scale. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and religion were used to quantify the association between ACE and self-poisoning. RESULTS: The study included 235 cases and 451 controls. Cases were 2.5 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.6) more likely to report an ACE than controls and had higher ACE scores. Childhood physical abuse (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2, 19.0) and emotional abuse or neglect (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3, 10.1, and 3.7, 95% CI 2.3, 6.0 respectively), increased the risk of self-poisoning in adulthood, as did witnessing household violence (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4, 3.4), growing up in a household with a mentally ill or suicidal household member (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.4), and experiencing parental death/separation/divorce (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0, 4.9) as a child. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing exposures to ACEs should be a priority for prevention of suicide and self-harm in Sri Lanka. Innovative methods to increase support for children facing adversity should be explored.

3.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(11): 997-1000, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069321

RESUMEN

Suicide has emerged as a major cause of death from non-communicable disease worldwide, leading to a burgeoning interest in its prevention. Naturally, in this context one of the focuses of research and clinical interest is the presence of suicidal thinking-a potentially identifiable and reversible precursor of suicide-with much interest lately being in the relation between suicidal thinking and suicidal behaviour. In this Personal View we argue that, notwithstanding important and nuanced research into the nature of these phenomena, the field currently suffers from approaches to the terminology and reporting of suicidal thinking that pay insufficient regard to key features of its definition, and that these have clinical and research implications.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that domestic violence (DV) is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. The level of risk and its contribution to the overall burden of suicidal behaviour among men and women has not been quantified in South Asia. We carried out a large case-control study to examine the association between DV and self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Cases (N = 291) were patients aged ⩾18 years, admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kandy Sri Lanka for self-poisoning. Sex and age frequency matched controls were recruited from the hospital's outpatient department (N = 490) and local population (N = 450). Exposure to DV was collected through the Humiliation, Afraid, Rape, Kick questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the association between DV and self-poisoning, and population attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: Exposure to at least one type of DV within the previous 12 months was strongly associated with self-poisoning for women [adjusted OR (AOR) 4.08, 95% CI 1.60-4.78] and men (AOR 2.52, 95% CI 1.51-4.21), compared to those reporting no abuse. Among women, the association was strongest for physical violence (AOR 14.07, 95% CI 5.87-33.72), whereas among men, emotional abuse showed the highest risk (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.57-4.82). PAF% for exposure to at least one type of DV was 38% (95% CI 32-43) in women and 22% (95% CI 14-29) in men. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-sectoral interventions to address DV including enhanced identification in health care settings, community-based strategies, and integration of DV support and psychological services may substantially reduce suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka.

5.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 82, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671230

RESUMEN

Background: The 2020 Coronavirus pandemic is a major international public health challenge.  Governments have taken public health protection measures to reduce the spread of the virus through non-pharmalogical measures. The impact of the pandemic and the public health response on individual and population mental health is unknown.  Methods: We used Google Trends data (1 Jan 2020 - 1 Apr 2020) to investigate the impact of the pandemic and government measures to curb it on people's concerns, as indexed by changes in search frequency for topics indicating mental distress, social and economic stressors and mental health treatment-seeking. We explored the changes of key topics in Google trends in Italy, Spain, USA, UK, and Worldwide in relation to sentinel events during the pandemic. Results: Globally there appears to be significant concerns over the financial and work-related consequences of the pandemic, with some evidence that levels of fear are rising. Conversely searching for topics related to depression and suicide fell after the pandemic was announced, with some evidence that searches for the latter have risen recently. Concerns over education and access to medication appear to be particular social stressors. Whilst searches for face-to-face treatments have declined, those for self-care have risen. Conclusions: Monitoring Google trends shows promise as a means of tracking changing public concerns. In weeks to come it may enable policy makers to assess the impact of their interventions including those aiming to limit negative consequences, such as government funded financial safety nets.

6.
BJPsych Open ; 6(3): e34, 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238204

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In September 2014, as part of a national initiative to increase access to liaison psychiatry services, the liaison psychiatry services at Bristol Royal Infirmary received new investment of £250 000 per annum, expanding its availability from 40 to 98 h per week. The long-term impact on patient outcomes and costs, of patients presenting to the emergency department with self-harm, is unknown. AIMS: To assess the long-term impact of the investment on patient care outcomes and costs, of patients presenting to the emergency department with self-harm. METHOD: Monthly data for all self-harm emergency department attendances between 1 September 2011 and 30 September 2017 was modelled using Bayesian structural time series to estimate expected outcomes in the absence of expanded operating hours (the counterfactual). The difference between the observed and expected trends for each outcome were interpreted as the effects of the investment. RESULTS: Over the 3 years after service expansion, the mean number of self-harm attendances increased 13%. Median waiting time from arrival to psychosocial assessment was 2 h shorter (18.6% decrease, 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI) -30.2% to -2.8%), there were 45 more referrals to other agencies (86.1% increase, 95% BCI 60.6% to 110.9%) and a small increase in the number of psychosocial assessments (11.7% increase, 95% BCI -3.4% to 28.5%) per month. Monthly mean net hospital costs were £34 more per episode (5.3% increase, 95% BCI -11.6% to 25.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite annual increases in emergency department attendances, investment was associated with reduced waiting times for psychosocial assessment and more referrals to other agencies, with only a small increase in cost per episode.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 251, 2020 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075613

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pesticide self-poisoning is a common means of suicide in India. Banning highly hazardous pesticides from agricultural use has been successful in reducing total suicide numbers in several South Asian countries without affecting agricultural output. Here, we describe national and state-level regulation of highly hazardous pesticides and explore how they might relate to suicide rates across India. METHODS: Information on pesticide regulation was collated from agriculture departments of the central government and all 29 state governments (excluding union territories). National and state-level data on suicides from 1995 to 2015 were obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). We used joinpoint analysis and negative binomial regression to investigate the trends in suicide rates nationally and in Kerala, in view of the robust measures Kerala has taken to restrict a number of HHPs, to identify any effect on suicides. RESULTS: As of October 2019, 318 pesticides were registered for use in India, of which 18 were extremely (Class Ia) or highly (Class Ib) hazardous according to World Health Organization toxicity criteria. Despite many highly hazardous pesticides still being available, several bans have been implemented during the period studied. In our quantitative analyses we focused on the permanent bans in Kerala in 2005 (of endosulfan) and 2011 (of 14 other pesticides); and nationally in 2011 (of endosulfan). NCRB data indicate that pesticides were used in 441,918 reported suicides in India from 1995 to 2015, 90.3% of which occurred in 11 of the 29 states. There was statistical evidence of lower than expected rates of pesticide suicides (rate ratio [RR] 0.52, 95% CI 0.49-0.54) and total suicides nationally by 2014 (0.90, 0.87-0.93) after the 2011 endosulfan ban. In Kerala, there was a lower than expected rate of pesticide suicides (0.45, 0.42-0.49), but no change to the already decreasing trend in total suicides (1.02, 1.00-1.05) after the 2011 ban of 14 pesticides. The 2005 ban on endosulfan showed a similar effect - lower than expected pesticide suicides (0.79, 0.64-0.99), but no change to the decreasing trend of total suicides (0.97, 0.93-1.02) in 2010. There was no evidence of a decline in agricultural outputs following the bans. CONCLUSION: Highly hazardous pesticides continue to be used in India and pesticide suicide remains a serious public health problem. However, some pesticide bans do appear to have impacted previous trends in the rates of both pesticide suicides and all suicides. Comprehensive national bans of highly hazardous pesticides could lead to a reduction in suicides across India, in addition to reduced occupational poisoning, with minimal effects on agricultural yield.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/legislación & jurisprudencia , Regulación Gubernamental , Plaguicidas/envenenamiento , Suicidio/tendencias , Humanos , India , Gobierno Estatal
8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(10): 1198-1204, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In South Asia, up to one in five individuals who ingest pesticides for self-poisoning and survive purchased them from a shop immediately prior to the event. Thus far, no research has taken place to determine whether interventions implemented through the pesticide sellers might be acceptable or effective, despite the hundreds of thousands of such risk purchases each year. We aimed to investigate factors associated with purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: We used a case-control study. Cases (n = 50) were individuals who ingested pesticides after purchasing them for the act, and controls (n = 200) were customers who bought pesticides but did not use them for self-harm. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess socio-demographic and purchase-specific risk factors. RESULTS: Alcohol intoxication (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 36.5, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7-783.4) and being a non-farmer AOR 13.3, 95% CI 1.8-99.6 were the main distinguishing factors when purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning. The positive predictive values were 93.3% (95% CI 68.0-99.8%) and 88.2% (95% CI 72.5-96.7%), respectively. One and/or other of these factors characterised 72.0% of cases but only 2.5% controls. CONCLUSION: While results need to be interpreted cautiously, sales restrictions to prevent alcohol-intoxicated persons and non-farmers purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning may be effective.

9.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002905, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are reported to be present in 80% to 90% of suicide deaths in high-income countries (HIC), but this association is less clear in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). There has been no previous systematic review of this issue in LMIC. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in individuals with suicidal behaviour in LMIC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE searches were conducted to identify quantitative research papers (any language) between 1990 and 2018 from LMIC that reported on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in suicidal behaviour. We used meta-analytic techniques to generate pooled estimates for any psychiatric disorder and specific diagnosis based on International classification of disease (ICD-10) criteria. A total of 112 studies (154 papers) from 26 LMIC (India: 25%, China: 15%, and other LMIC: 60%) were identified, including 18 non-English articles. They included 30,030 individuals with nonfatal suicidal behaviour and 4,996 individuals who had died by suicide. Of the 15 studies (5 LMIC) that scored highly on our quality assessment, prevalence estimates for psychiatric disorders ranged between 30% and 80% in suicide deaths and between 3% and 86% in those who engaged in nonfatal suicidal behaviour. There was substantial heterogeneity between study estimates. Fifty-eight percent (95% CI 46%-71%) of those who died by suicide and 45% (95% CI 30%-61%) of those who engaged in nonfatal suicidal behaviour had a psychiatric disorder. The most prevalent disorder in both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviour was mood disorder (25% and 21%, respectively). Schizophrenia and related disorders were identified in 8% (4%-12%) of those who died by suicide and 7% (3%-11%) of those who engaged in nonfatal suicidal behaviour. In nonfatal suicidal behaviour, anxiety disorders, and substance misuse were identified in 19% (1%-36%) and 11% (7%-16%) of individuals, respectively. This systematic review was limited by the low number of high-quality studies and restricting our searches to databases that mainly indexed English language journals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a possible lower prevalence of psychiatric disorders in suicidal behaviour in LMIC. We found very few high-quality studies and high levels of heterogeneity in pooled estimates of psychiatric disorder, which could reflect differing study methods or real differences. There is a clear need for more robust evidence in order for LMIC to strike the right balance between community-based and mental health focussed interventions.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Suicidio Completo/psicología , China/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Morbilidad , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e027766, 2019 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427319

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Childhood adversity (CA) has been suggested as a key risk factor for suicidal behaviour, but evidence from low/middle-income countries is lacking. In Sri Lanka, CA, in the form of child maltreatment or as a consequence of maternal separation, has been highlighted in primarily qualitative or case series work, as a potentially important determinant of suicidal behaviour. To date, there have been no quantitative studies to investigate CA as a key exposure associated with suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. The aim of the research is to understand the association between CA and suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka and to identify potentially modifiable factors to reduce any observed increased risk of suicidal behaviour associated with CA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a hospital-based case-control study. Cases (n=200) will be drawn from individuals admitted to the medical toxicology ward of the Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, for medical management of intentional self-poisoning. Sex and age frequency-matched controls (n=200) will be recruited from either patients or accompanying visitors presenting at the outpatient department and clinic of the same hospital for conditions unrelated to the outcome of interest. Conditional logistic regression will be used to investigate the association between CA and deliberate self-poisoning and whether the association is altered by other key factors including socioeconomic status, psychiatric morbidity, current experiences of domestic violence and social support. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Researchers have been trained in administering the questionnaire and a participant safety and distress protocol has been designed to guide researchers in ensuring participant safety and how to deal with a distressed participant. Results will be disseminated in local policy fora and peer-reviewed articles, local media, and national and international conferences.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Intento de Suicidio/psicología
11.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(8): 659-666, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence from high income countries (HICs) suggests that individuals who present to hospital after self-harm are an important target for suicide prevention, but evidence from low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is lacking. We aimed to investigate the risk of repeat self-harm and suicide, and factors associated with these outcomes, in a large cohort of patients presenting to hospital with self-harm in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: In this cohort study, hospital presentations for self-harm at 13 hospitals in a rural area of North Central Province (population 224 000), Sri Lanka, were followed up with a self-harm surveillance system, established as part of a community randomised trial, and based on data from all hospitals, coroners, and police stations in the study area. We estimated the risk of repeat non-fatal and fatal self-harm and risk factors for repetition with Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard models. Sociodemographic (age, sex, and socioeconomic position) and clinical (past self-harm and method of self-harm) characteristics investigated were drawn from a household survey in the study area and data recorded at the time of index hospital presentation. We included all individuals who had complete data for all variables in the study in our primary analysis. OUTCOMES: Between July 29, 2011, and May 12, 2016, we detected 3073 episodes of self-harm (fatal and non-fatal) in our surveillance system, of which 2532 (82·3%) were linked back to an individual in the baseline survey. After exclusion of 145 ineligible episodes, we analysed 2259 index episodes of self-harm. By use of survival models, the estimated risk of repeat self-harm (12 months: 3· 1%, 95% CI 2·4-3·9; 24 months: 5·2%, 4·3-6·4) and suicide (12 months: 0·6%, 0·4-1·1; 24 months: 0·8%, 0·5-1·3) in our study was considerably lower than that in HICs. A higher risk of repeat self-harm was observed in men than in women (fatal and non-fatal; hazard ratio 2·0, 95% CI 1·3-3·2; p=0·0021), in individuals aged 56 years and older compared with those aged 10-25 years (fatal; 16·1, 4·3-59·9; p=0·0027), and those who used methods other than poisoning in their index presentation (fatal and non-fatal; 3·9, 2·0-7·6; p=0·00027). We found no evidence of increased risk of repeat self-harm or suicide in those with a history of self-harm before the index episode. INTERPRETATION: Although people who self-harm are an important high-risk group, focusing suicide prevention efforts on those who self-harm might be somewhat less important in LMICs compared with HICs given the low risk of repeat self-harm and subsequent suicide death. Strategies that focus on other risk factors for suicide might be more effective in reducing suicide deaths in LMICs in south Asia. A better understanding of the low incidence of repeat self-harm is also needed, as this could contribute to prevention strategies in nations with a higher incidence of repetition and subsequent suicide death. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Hospitales Rurales , Humanos , Incidencia , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217473, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been a recent focus on language use in relation to suicide, with concerns raised about the potential to cause distress, perpetuate stigma and discourage help-seeking. While some terms are promoted as more sensitive than others, empirical research exploring the views of people affected by suicide to inform academic and media guidelines is lacking. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional online survey was promoted opportunistically via online channels. Participation was requested from adults affected by suicide. Participants were asked to rate descriptors pertaining to suicidal behaviour according to perceived acceptability. A descriptive analysis of quantitative data was conducted alongside thematic content analysis of free-text data. OUTCOMES: There were 2,719 responses, of which 1,679 (61·8%) were complete. Of phrases describing non-fatal suicidal behaviour, "attempted suicide" had the highest median acceptability score. Of phrases describing fatal suicidal behaviour, "took their own life" and "died by suicide" had the highest median acceptability scores. The scores for "commit suicide" were most variable and spanned the range of acceptability scores. Free text data illustrated the nuances in decision-making. INTERPRETATION: Variation in opinion exists amongst people affected by suicide regarding most phrases, often depending on contextual factors. "Attempted suicide", "took their own life", "died by suicide" and "ended their life" were however considered most acceptable. We argue that academic and media guidelines should promote use of these phrases.


Asunto(s)
Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estigma Social , Ideación Suicida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Emerg Med J ; 36(7): 407-409, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that there is an association between domestic violence (DV) and self-harm (SH). Yet, the prevalence and clinical significance of DV among individuals presenting acutely to hospital with SH in the UK is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence and correlates of DV among patients presenting to hospital with SH. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using registry data in order to describe the prevalence of DV within a UK population of people presenting to the emergency department (ED) with SH (n=1142). RESULTS: 11.1% (95% CI 9.4% to 13.1%) of the sample reported DV. Those reporting DV were more likely to be female and separated from a partner. DV was associated with self-poisoning and with previous occurrence of SH. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DV victimisation is more prevalent among those presenting to ED with self-harm than among the general population of ED attenders, and that the presence of DV may signify increased risk among those presenting to ED with SH.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Autodestructiva/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 25, 2019 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 258 million international migrants worldwide. In Asia low-skilled workers often emigrate on a temporary basis (2-3 years) without their families. There is significant concern over the mental health and wellbeing of left-behind families in this region. No previous study has examined whether the risk of suicidal behaviour is elevated in left-behind family members. METHODS: Cohort study using baseline data from a large randomised controlled trial in Sri Lanka (n = 178,730 participants; 8% households had a current temporary foreign migrant) and prospective hospital presentations of suicide attempts. Using multilevel Poisson regression models, we compared the risk of attempted suicide in households with left-behind and non-left-behind family members. We also investigated whether the sex of the migrant or the age/sex of the household member left behind altered any associations. RESULTS: The risk of an attempted suicide was elevated in female migrant households (IRR 1.60 95% CI 1.38, 1.85), but not male migrant households (IRR 1.01 95% CI 0.76,1.36)) with strong evidence that risk differed for female vs. male migrant households (p-value = 0.005). We found no evidence that the age or sex of the left-behind household member altered the association observed. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that members of households with a temporary female foreign migrant are at an increased risk of attempted suicide, but these findings must be interpreted with caution. The increased risk of suicidal behaviour in these households may be due to factors that were present before the migration and persist post-migration (e.g. household violence, poverty).


Asunto(s)
Familia/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Migrantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Emigración e Inmigración , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Sri Lanka , Adulto Joven
16.
Lancet ; 392(10164): 2567-2582, 2018 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, a growing number of children and adolescents are left behind when parents migrate. We investigated the effect of parental migration on the health of left behind-children and adolescents in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsychINFO, Global Index Medicus, Scopus, and Popline from inception to April 27, 2017, without language restrictions, for observational studies investigating the effects of parental migration on nutrition, mental health, unintentional injuries, infectious disease, substance use, unprotected sex, early pregnancy, and abuse in left-behind children (aged 0-19 years) in LMICs. We excluded studies in which less than 50% of participants were aged 0-19 years, the mean or median age of participants was more than 19 years, fewer than 50% of parents had migrated for more than 6 months, or the mean or median duration of migration was less than 6 months. We screened studies using systematic review software and extracted summary estimates from published reports independently. The main outcomes were risk and prevalence of health outcomes, including nutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight, overweight and obesity, low birthweight, and anaemia), mental health (depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, conduct disorders, self-harm, and suicide), unintentional injuries, substance use, abuse, and infectious disease. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) using random-effects models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017064871. FINDINGS: Our search identified 10 284 records, of which 111 studies were included for analysis, including a total of 264 967 children (n=106 167 left-behind children and adolescents; n=158 800 children and adolescents of non-migrant parents). 91 studies were done in China and focused on effects of internal labour migration. Compared with children of non-migrants, left-behind children had increased risk of depression and higher depression scores (RR 1·52 [95% CI 1·27-1·82]; SMD 0·16 [0·10-0·21]), anxiety (RR 1·85 [1·36-2·53]; SMD 0·18 [0·11-0·26]), suicidal ideation (RR 1·70 [1·28-2·26]), conduct disorder (SMD 0·16 [0·04-0·28]), substance use (RR 1·24 [1·00-1·52]), wasting (RR 1·13 [1·02-1·24]) and stunting (RR 1·12 [1·00-1·26]). No differences were identified between left-behind children and children of non-migrants for other nutrition outcomes, unintentional injury, abuse, or diarrhoea. No studies reported outcomes for other infectious diseases, self-harm, unprotected sex, or early pregnancy. Study quality varied across the included studies, with 43% of studies at high or unclear risk of bias across five or more domains. INTERPRETATION: Parental migration is detrimental to the health of left-behind children and adolescents, with no evidence of any benefit. Policy makers and health-care professionals need to take action to improve the health of these young people. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente , Salud del Niño , Niño Abandonado/psicología , Emigración e Inmigración , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/etiología , Niño , Trastorno de la Conducta/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Humanos , Renta , Trastornos Nutricionales/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Ideación Suicida
17.
BJPsych Open ; 4(6): 441-446, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450222

RESUMEN

Background: The mental health of university students, especially medical students, is of growing concern in the UK. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of mental disorder in health sciences students and investigate help-seeking behaviour. Method: An online survey from one English university (n = 1139; 53% response rate) collected data on depression (using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment), alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), self-harm and well-being, as well as help seeking. Results: A quarter of the students reported symptoms of moderate/severe depression and 27% reported symptoms of moderate/severe anxiety. Only 21% of students with symptoms of severe depression had sought professional help; the main reason for not seeking help was fear of documentation on academic records. Conclusions: The study highlights the extent of mental health problems faced by health science students. Barriers to help seeking due to concerns about fitness-to-practise procedures urgently need to be addressed to ensure that this population of students can access help in a timely fashion. Declaration of interest: None.

18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 84(10): 2303-2310, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911343

RESUMEN

AIMS: Recreational use of novel psychoactive substance (NPS) has become increasingly common. We aimed to assess the association of national legislation and local trading standards activity with hospital presentations. METHODS: We established observational cohorts of patients with recreational drug toxicity presenting to Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and dying with detectable recreational drugs in Edinburgh. We assessed associations with two temporary class drug-orders (April 2015: methylphenidates, Nov 2015: methiopropamine), the Psychoactive Substances Act (June 2016), and trading standards forfeiture orders (October 2015). RESULTS: The methylphenidate temporary class drug-order was associated with rapid 46.7% (P = 0.002) and 21.0% (P = 0.003) reductions in presentations and admissions, respectively, for NPS drug toxicity, comparing 12 months before with 6 months after. The change was greatest for ethylphenidate toxicity (96.7% reduction in admissions, P < 0.001) that was partly offset by a tripling in synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist cases (P < 0.001) over the next 6 months. This increase reversed following trading standards activity removing all NPS drugs from local shops in October 2015, associated with 64.3% (P < 0.001) and 83.7% (P < 0.001) reductions in presentations and admissions, respectively, for all NPS drugs over the next 12 months. The effect was sustained and associated with a reduced postmortem detection of stimulant NPS drugs. The two interventions prevented an estimated 557 (95% confidence interval 327-934) NPS admissions during 2016, saving an estimated £303 030 (£177 901-508 133) in hospital costs. CONCLUSIONS: We show here that drug legislation and trading standards activity may be associated with effective and sustained prevention. Widespread adoption of trading standards enforcement, together with focused legislation, may turn the tide against these highly-damaging drugs.


Asunto(s)
Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/envenenamiento , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamiento , Psicotrópicos/envenenamiento , Sustancias de Abuso por Vía Oral/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Costos de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/economía , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Masculino , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Metanfetamina/envenenamiento , Metilfenidato/análogos & derivados , Metilfenidato/envenenamiento , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Escocia/epidemiología , Sustancias de Abuso por Vía Oral/economía , Sustancias de Abuso por Vía Oral/etiología , Tiofenos/envenenamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 113, 2018 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699523

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Risk scales are used widely in the management of patients presenting to hospital following self-harm. However, there is evidence that their diagnostic accuracy in predicting repeat self-harm is limited. Their predictive accuracy in population settings, and in identifying those at highest risk of suicide is not known. METHOD: We compared the predictive accuracy of the Manchester Self-Harm Rule (MSHR), ReACT Self-Harm Rule (ReACT), SAD PERSONS Scale (SPS) and Modified SAD PERSONS Scale (MSPS) in an unselected sample of patients attending hospital following self-harm. Data on 4000 episodes of self-harm presenting to Emergency Departments (ED) between 2010 and 2012 were obtained from four established monitoring systems in England. Episodes were assigned a risk category for each scale and followed up for 6 months. RESULTS: The episode-based repeat rate was 28% (1133/4000) and the incidence of suicide was 0.5% (18/3962). The MSHR and ReACT performed with high sensitivity (98% and 94% respectively) and low specificity (15% and 23%). The SPS and the MSPS performed with relatively low sensitivity (24-29% and 9-12% respectively) and high specificity (76-77% and 90%). The area under the curve was 71% for both MSHR and ReACT, 51% for SPS and 49% for MSPS. Differences in predictive accuracy by subgroup were small. The scales were less accurate at predicting suicide than repeat self-harm. CONCLUSIONS: The scales failed to accurately predict repeat self-harm and suicide. The findings support existing clinical guidance not to use risk classification scales alone to determine treatment or predict future risk.


Asunto(s)
Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/normas , Medición de Riesgo/normas , Conducta Autodestructiva/diagnóstico , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(1): 175-184, 2018 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024951

RESUMEN

Background: Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. Methods: We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000. We assessed contemporaneous trends in other risk factors, pesticide usage and agricultural production in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014. Results: Mortality in hospital from pesticide poisoning fell after the 2000 ban: 15.1% vs 9.5%, relative reduction 37.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4 to 38.8%]. The pesticide poisoning suicide rate fell from 6.3/100 000 in 1996 to 2.2/100 000 in 2014, a 65.1% (52.0 to 76.7%) decline. There was a modest simultaneous increase in hanging suicides [20.0% (8.4 to 36.9%) increase] but the overall incidence of unnatural deaths fell from 14.0/100 000 to 10.5/100 000 [25.0% (18.1 to 33.0%) decline]. There were 35 071 (95% CI 25 959 to 45 666) fewer pesticide suicides in 2001 to 2014 compared with the number predicted based on trends between 1996 to 2000. This reduction in rate of pesticide suicides occurred despite increased pesticide use and no change in admissions for pesticide poisoning, with no apparent influence on agricultural output. Conclusions: Strengthening pesticide regulation and banning WHO Class I toxicity HHPs in Bangladesh were associated with major reductions in deaths and hospital mortality, without any apparent effect on agricultural output. Our data indicate that removing HHPs from agriculture can rapidly reduce suicides without imposing substantial agricultural costs.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Plaguicidas/envenenamiento , Suicidio/prevención & control , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Bangladesh , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Suicidio/tendencias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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