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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(14): 147703, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891439

RESUMEN

Transport measurements through a few-electron circular quantum dot in bilayer graphene display bunching of the conductance resonances in groups of four, eight, and twelve. This is in accordance with the spin and valley degeneracies in bilayer graphene and an additional threefold "minivalley degeneracy" caused by trigonal warping. For small electron numbers, implying a small dot size and a small displacement field, a two-dimensional s shell and then a p shell are successively filled with four and eight electrons, respectively. For electron numbers larger than 12, as the dot size and the displacement field increase, the single-particle ground state evolves into a threefold degenerate minivalley ground state. A transition between these regimes is observed in our measurements and can be described by band-structure calculations. Measurements in the magnetic field confirm Hund's second rule for spin filling of the quantum dot levels, emphasizing the importance of exchange interaction effects.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(25): 256802, 2021 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029428

RESUMEN

We report on finite bias spectroscopy measurements of the two-electron spectrum in a gate defined bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dot for varying magnetic fields. The spin and valley degree of freedom in BLG give rise to multiplets of six orbital symmetric and ten orbital antisymmetric states. We find that orbital symmetric states are lower in energy and separated by ≈ 0.4-0.8 meV from orbital antisymmetric states. The symmetric multiplet exhibits an additional energy splitting of its six states of ≈ 0.15-0.5 meV due to lattice scale interactions. The experimental observations are supported by theoretical calculations, which allow to determine that intervalley scattering and "current-current" interaction constants are of the same magnitude in BLG.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(16): eaay7838, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494602

RESUMEN

Magnetic fields force ballistic electrons injected from a narrow contact to move along skipping orbits and form caustics. This leads to pronounced resistance peaks at nearby voltage probes as electrons are effectively focused inside them, a phenomenon known as magnetic focusing. This can be used not only for the demonstration of ballistic transport but also to study the electronic structure of metals. Here, we use magnetic focusing to probe narrowbands in graphene bilayers twisted at ~2°. Their minibands are found to support long-range ballistic transport limited at low temperatures by intrinsic electron-electron scattering. A voltage bias between the layers causes strong minivalley splitting and allows selective focusing for different minivalleys, which is of interest for using this degree of freedom in frequently discussed valleytronics.

4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 15(12): 2443-50, 2000 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11127208

RESUMEN

Recent studies suggest a circannual pattern of bone turnover. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, 41 healthy subjects (25-80 years old) living in a southwestern German city were studied prospectively over a period of 18 months. Participants were examined every 4 weeks, and blood and urine samples were obtained on each visit. The following parameters were measured: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as regulators, and serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), urinary total pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and the aminoterminal telopeptide of collagen type I (NTX), as biochemical markers of bone turnover. The presence of significant circannual rhythms for the various markers was tested using the Pharmfit method. In the total group, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and PTH as well as BAP, PYD, DPD, and NTX showed a significant seasonal variation. 25(OH)D3 revealed the highest amplitude (38.0%) with an acrophase in August. Levels of the biochemical markers and of PTH were highest in winter with amplitudes of up to 17.7% (DPD). Results were most pronounced in premenopausal women, in subjects <50 years of age, and in subjects who did show a significant individual rhythm in 25(OH)D3 levels. No differences were found regarding other anthropometric or life style factors. Correlation analyses revealed strongest associations between the amplitudes of a vitamin D metabolite and a biochemical marker in premenopausal women. We conclude that specific markers of bone turnover show significant circannual rhythms. These changes are related directly to variations in the hormonal regulation of skeletal homeostasis. In postmenopausal women and in men, other effects may superimpose the circannual variation of biomarkers of bone turnover.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Biomarcadores/orina , Huesos/metabolismo , Hormona Paratiroidea/sangre , Estaciones del Año , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Aminoácidos/orina , Densidad Ósea , Remodelación Ósea , Calcifediol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
5.
Vis Neurosci ; 10(3): 479-98, 1993.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8494800

RESUMEN

To provide a quantitative description of postnatal retinal expansion in rabbits, a new procedure was developed to map the retinae, which cover the inner surface of hemispheres or parts of rotation ellipsoids, in situ, onto a single plane. This method, as well as the known distribution of Müller cells per unit retinal surface area, were used to estimate the redistribution of specific subpopulations of Müller cells within different topographic regions of the retinae. Müller cells are known to exist as a stable population of cells 1 week after birth and can therefore be used as "markers" for determining tissue expansion. Our results show that differential retinal expansion occurs during development. Peripheral retinal regions expand at least twice as much as the central ones. Furthermore, there is a greater vertical than horizontal expansion. This differential retinal expansion leads to a corresponding redistribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accumulating amacrine cells. Differential retinal expansion, however, does not account for all of the changes in the centro-peripheral density gradient of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL)--mostly retinal ganglion cells--during postnatal development. The changes in the ganglion cell layer were evaluated in Nissl-stained wholemount retinal preparations. Additionally, the difference between expansion-related redistribution of cells in the GCL and Müller cells was confirmed in wholemount preparations where Müller cells (identified as vimentin positive) and cells in the GCL (identified by fluorescent supravital dyes) were simultaneously labeled. It is assumed that many of the ganglion cells within the retinal center are not translocated during retinal expansion, possibly because their axons are fixed. In contrast, 5-HT accumulating amacrine cells--which are interneurons without a retinofugal axon--display a passive redistribution together with the surrounding retinal tissue.


Asunto(s)
Interneuronas/citología , Neuronas/citología , Retina/citología , Retina/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Recuento de Células , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Interneuronas/metabolismo , Matemática , Neuroglía/metabolismo , Neuronas/metabolismo , Conejos , Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Vimentina/metabolismo
6.
J Comp Neurol ; 311(1): 33-44, 1991 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1939735

RESUMEN

Müller (glial) cells of the rabbit retina were stained with antibodies against the intermediate filament protein vimentin in retinal wholemounts from various developmental stages. Both the density of stained profiles and the mean diameter of these profiles were measured, with the microscope focus in the inner plexiform layer of the retinae. Within this retinal layer, every Müller cell possesses one stout vitread process; thus counts of the stained profiles allow an estimation of their number. After postnatal day (P) 9, the total number of stained cells was slightly above 4 million per retina; for the adult rabbit retina, this agrees well with earlier data obtained by our group based on another method, as well as with published data from other groups. We suggest that after P 9, only Müller cells are stained, and this population is numerically stable. In contrast, neonatal retinae contained significantly more stained profiles. This indicates that either the total number of Müller cells is reduced by "physiological cell death" or that additional cells are stained neonatally. We discuss why we favour the second possibility. After P 9, two peculiarities occur in the Müller cell population: (1) their density decreases gradually, to a greater extent in the retinal periphery than in the center (i.e., in the "visual streak"), and (2) Müller cell diameters increase, again more in the periphery than in the center. We argue that differential retinal expansion leads to dispersion of the pre-existing cell population and allows for widening of the Müller cell processes. We conclude that Müller cells can be used postnatally in the rabbit retina as "landmarks" of expansion.


Asunto(s)
Neuroglía/fisiología , Conejos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Retina/crecimiento & desarrollo , Envejecimiento , Animales , Edad Gestacional , Técnicas para Inmunoenzimas , Matemática , Modelos Neurológicos , Neuroglía/citología , Retina/citología , Retina/embriología , Vimentina/análisis
7.
Pol Arch Weter ; 18(2): 337-42, 1975.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16296037

RESUMEN

The occurrence of spontaneous tumours in 8 female quails (C. coturnix japonica) aged 1.5-3 years was stated. In 7 females the adenocarcinomas of the oviduct with numerous metastases in the abdominal cavity were recognized. In one female the haemangiosarcoma arising from the pleura with few metastases in the abdominal cavity was found. The possibility of relation between the high productivity and the age of females as well as the frequency of the oviduct adenocarcinomas was pointed out.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/diagnóstico , Coturnix , Neoplasias/veterinaria , Neoplasias Abdominales/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Hemangiosarcoma/veterinaria , Masculino , Neoplasias/patología , Neoplasias Ováricas/veterinaria
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