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1.
Behav Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339814

RESUMEN

Optimism is associated with better health outcomes with hypothesized effects due in part to optimism's association with restorative health processes. Limited work has examined whether optimism is associated with better quality sleep, a major restorative process. We test the hypothesis that greater optimism is associated with more favorable sleep quality and duration. Main analyses included adults aged 32-51 who participated in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 3,548) during the fifth (Year 15: 2000-2001) and sixth (Year 20: 2005-2006) follow-up visits. Optimism was assessed using the revised Life-Orientation Test. Self-report measures of sleep quality and duration were obtained twice 5 years apart. A subset of CARDIA participants (2003-2005) additionally provided actigraphic data and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine associations of optimism and sleep indicators. In cross-sectional analyses of 3548 participants, each standard deviation (SD) higher optimism score resulted in 78% higher odds of self-reporting very good sleep quality. Prospectively, a 1-SD higher optimism score was related to higher odds of reporting persistently good sleep quality across 5-years relative to those with persistently poor sleep [OR = 1.31; 95%CI:1.10,1.56]. In participant with supplementary data, each SD higher optimism score was marginally associated with 22% greater odds of favorable sleep quality [OR = 1.22; 95%CI:1.00,1.49] as measured by the PSQI, with possible mediation by depressive symptoms. Optimism was unrelated to objective actigraphic sleep data. Findings support a positive cross-sectional and prospective association between optimism and self-reported sleep behavior.

2.
Sleep ; 42(11)2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310317

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although sleep disturbance is common in acutely ill patients during and after a hospitalization, how hospitalization affects sleep in general medicine patients has not been well characterized. We describe how sleep and activity patterns vary during and after hospitalization in a small population of older, predominately African American general medicine patients. METHODS: Patients wore a wrist accelerometer during hospitalization and post-discharge to provide objective measurements of sleep duration, efficiency, and physical activity. Random effects linear regression models clustered by subject were used to test associations between sleep and activity parameters across study days from hospitalization through post-discharge. RESULTS: We recorded 404 nights and 384 days from 54 patients. Neither nighttime sleep duration nor sleep efficiency increased from hospitalization through post-discharge (320.2 vs. 320.2 min, p = 0.99; 74.0% vs. 71.7%, p = 0.24). Daytime sleep duration also showed no significant change (26.3 vs. 25.8 min/day, p = 0.5). Daytime physical activity was significantly less in-hospital compared to post-discharge (128.6 vs. 173.2 counts/min, p < 0.01) and increased 23.3 counts/min (95% CI = 16.5 to 30.6, p < 0.01) per hospital day. A study day and post-discharge period interaction was observed demonstrating slowed recovery of activity post-discharge (ß 3 = -20.8, 95% CI = -28.8 to -12.8, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime sleep duration and efficiency and daytime sleep duration were similar in-hospital and post-discharge. Daytime physical activity, however, was greater post-discharge and increased more rapidly during hospitalization than post-discharge. Interventions, both in hospital and at home, to restore patient sleep and sustain activity improvements may improve patient recovery from illness.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 473-484, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of genetic variation to food timing, and breakfast has been determined to exhibit the most heritable meal timing. As breakfast timing and skipping are not routinely measured in large cohort studies, alternative approaches include analyses of correlated traits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate breakfast skipping genetic variants through a proxy-phenotype genome-wide association study (GWAS) for breakfast cereal skipping, a commonly assessed correlated trait. METHODS: We leveraged the statistical power of the UK Biobank (n = 193,860) to identify genetic variants related to breakfast cereal skipping as a proxy-phenotype for breakfast skipping and applied several in silico approaches to investigate mechanistic functions and links to traits/diseases. Next, we attempted validation of our approach in smaller breakfast skipping GWAS from the TwinUK (n = 2,006) and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium (n = 11,963). RESULTS: In the UK Biobank, we identified 6 independent GWAS variants, including those implicated for caffeine (ARID3B/CYP1A1), carbohydrate metabolism (FGF21), schizophrenia (ZNF804A), and encoding enzymes important for N6-methyladenosine RNA transmethylation (METTL4, YWHAB, and YTHDF3), which regulates the pace of the circadian clock. Expression of identified genes was enriched in the cerebellum. Genome-wide correlation analyses indicated positive correlations with anthropometric traits. Through Mendelian randomization (MR), we observed causal links between genetically determined breakfast skipping and higher body mass index, more depressive symptoms, and smoking. In bidirectional MR, we demonstrated a causal link between being an evening person and skipping breakfast, but not vice versa. We observed association of our signals in an independent breakfast skipping GWAS in another British cohort (P = 0.032), TwinUK, but not in a meta-analysis of non-British cohorts from the CHARGE consortium (P = 0.095). CONCLUSIONS: Our proxy-phenotype GWAS identified 6 genetic variants for breakfast skipping, linking clock regulation with food timing and suggesting a possible beneficial role of regular breakfast intake as part of a healthy lifestyle.

4.
Sleep Health ; 5(4): 409-417, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003950

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: False beliefs about sleep can persist despite contradicting scientific evidence, potentially impairing population health. Identifying commonly held false beliefs lacking an evidence base ("myths") can inform efforts to promote population sleep health. METHOD: We compiled a list of potential myths using Internet searches of popular press and scientific literature. We used a Delphi process with sleep experts (n = 10) from the fields of sleep medicine and research. Selection and refinement of myths by sleep experts proceeded in 3 phases, including focus groups (Phase 1); email-based feedback to edit, add, or remove myths (Phase 2); and closed-ended questionnaires (Phase 3) where experts rated myths on 2 dimensions, falseness and public health significance, using 5-point Likert scale from 1 ("not at all") to 5 ("extremely false"). RESULTS: The current study identified 20 sleep myths. Mean expert ratings of falseness ranged from 5.00 (SD = 0.00) for the statement "during sleep the brain is not active" to 2.50 (SD = 1.07) for the statement "sleeping in during the weekends is a good way to ensure you get adequate sleep." Mean responses to public health significance ranged from 4.63 (SD = 0.74) for debunking the statement that "many adults need only 5 or less hours of sleep for general health" to 1.71 (SD = 0.49) for the statement that "remembering your dreams is a sign of a good night's sleep." CONCLUSION: The current study identified commonly held sleep myths that have a limited or questionable evidence base. Ratings provided by experts suggest areas that may benefit from public health education to correct myths and promote healthy sleep.

5.
Sleep Med ; 57: 30-35, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897453

RESUMEN

AIM: To test the association between cardiometabolic risk factors and subjective sleep quality assessed by the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), independent of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep duration. METHODS: A total of 573 participants from the Baependi Heart Study, a rural cohort from Brazil, completed sleep questionnaires and underwent polygraphy for OSA evaluation. Multivariable linear regression analysis tested the association between cardiovascular risk factors (outcome variables) and sleep quality measured by PSQI, adjusting for OSA and other potential confounders (age, sex, race, salary/wage, education, marital status, alcohol intake, obesity, smoking, hypertension, and sleep duration). RESULTS: The sample mean age was 43 ± 16 years, 66% were female, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 26 ± 5 kg/m2. Only 20% were classified as obese (BMI ≥30). Overall, 50% of participants reported poor sleep quality as defined by a PSQI score ≥5. A high PSQI score was significantly associated with higher very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol levels (beta = 0.392, p = 0.012) and higher triglyceride levels (beta = 0.017, p = 0.006), even after adjustments, including the apnea-hypopnea index. Further adjustments accounting for marital status, alcohol intake, and medication use did not change these findings. No significant association was observed between PSQI scores and glucose or blood pressure. According to PSQI components, sleep disturbances (beta = 1.976, p = 0.027), sleep medication use (beta = 1.121, p = 0.019), and daytime dysfunction (beta = 1.290, p = 0.024) were significantly associated with higher VLDL serum levels. Only the daytime dysfunction domain of the PSQI components was significantly associated with higher triglyceride levels (beta = 0.066, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Poorer lipid profile was independently associated with poor sleep quality, assessed by the PSQI questionnaire, regardless of a normal sleep duration and accounting for OSA and socio-economic status.

7.
J Hosp Med ; 14(1): 38-41, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667409

RESUMEN

We created Sleep for Inpatients: Empowering Staff to Act (SIESTA), which combines electronic "nudges" to forgo nocturnal vitals and medications with interprofessional education on improving patient sleep. In one "SIESTAenhanced unit," nurses received coaching and integrated SIESTA into daily huddles; a standard unit did not. Six months pre- and post-SIESTA, sleep-friendly orders rose in both units (foregoing vital signs: SIESTA unit, 4% to 34%; standard, 3% to 22%, P < .001 both; sleeppromoting VTE prophylaxis: SIESTA, 15% to 42%; standard, 12% to 28%, P < .001 both). In the SIESTAenhanced unit, nighttime room entries dropped by 44% (-6.3 disruptions/room, P < .001), and patients were more likely to report no disruptions for nighttime vital signs (70% vs 41%, P = .05) or medications (84% vs 57%, P = .031) than those in the standard unit. The standard unit was not changed. Although sleep-friendly orders were adopted in both units, a unit-based nursing empowerment approach was associated with fewer nighttime room entries and improved patient experience.

8.
Chronobiol Int ; 35(8): 1045-1053, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642757

RESUMEN

Later chronotype (i.e. evening preference) and later timing of sleep have been associated with greater morbidity, including higher rates of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no one has examined whether chronotype is associated with mortality risk to date. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that being an evening type is associated with increased mortality in a large cohort study, the UK Biobank. Our analysis included 433 268 adults aged 38-73 at the time of enrolment and an average 6.5-year follow-up. The primary exposure was chronotype, as assessed through a single self-reported question-defining participants as definite morning types, moderate morning types, moderate evening types or definite evening types. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and mortality due to CVD. Prevalent disease was also compared among the chronotype groups. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, sleep duration, socioeconomic status and comorbidities. Greater eveningness, particularly being a definite evening type, was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of all comorbidities. Comparing definite evening type to definite morning type, the associations were strongest for psychological disorders (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.86-2.02, p = < 0.001), followed by diabetes (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.24-1.36, p = < 0.001), neurological disorders (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.20-1.30, p = < 0.001), gastrointestinal/abdominal disorders (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.19-1.27, p = < 0.001) and respiratory disorders (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.18-1.26, p = < 0.001). The total number of deaths was 10 534, out of which 2127 were due to CVD. Greater eveningness, based on chronotype as an ordinal variable, was associated with a small increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.004-1.05, p = 0.017) and CVD mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09, p = 0.06). Compared to definite morning types, definite evening types had significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18, p = 0.012). This first report of increased mortality in evening types is consistent with previous reports of increased levels of cardiometabolic risk factors in this group. Mortality risk in evening types may be due to behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors, many of which may be attributable to chronic misalignment between internal physiological timing and externally imposed timing of work and social activities. These findings suggest the need for researching possible interventions aimed at either modifying circadian rhythms in individuals or at allowing evening types greater working hour flexibility.


Asunto(s)
Ciclos de Actividad , Ritmo Circadiano , Esperanza de Vida , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/psicología , Admisión y Programación de Personal , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Social , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado
10.
J Sleep Res ; 27(2): 281-289, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643350

RESUMEN

Physiological evidence suggests that sleep modulates kidney function. Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association between kidney function and objectively-estimated habitual sleep duration, quality and timing in a cohort of patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. This study involved two US clinical centers of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, including 432 participants in a CRIC ancillary sleep study. Habitual sleep duration, quality and timing were measured using wrist actigraphy for 5-7 days. Validated sleep questionnaires assessed subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and risk of sleep apnea. Kidney function was assessed with the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, and the urinary protein to creatinine ratio. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with shorter sleep duration (-1.1 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per hour less sleep, P = 0.03), greater sleep fragmentation (-2.6 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per 10% higher fragmentation, P < 0.001) and later timing of sleep (-0.9 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per hour later, P = 0.05). Higher protein to creatinine ratio was also associated with greater sleep fragmentation (approximately 28% higher per 10% higher fragmentation, P < 0.001). Subjective sleep quality, sleepiness and persistent snoring were not associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate or protein to creatinine ratio. Thus, worse objective sleep quality was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher protein to creatinine ratio. Shorter sleep duration and later sleep timing were also associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. Physicians treating patients with chronic kidney disease should consider inquiring about sleep and possibly sending for clinical sleep assessment. Longitudinal and interventional trials are needed to understand causal direction.


Asunto(s)
Tasa de Filtración Glomerular/fisiología , Hábitos , Riñón/fisiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/fisiopatología , Sueño/fisiología , Actigrafía/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polisomnografía/tendencias , Estudios Prospectivos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Privación de Sueño/diagnóstico , Privación de Sueño/epidemiología , Privación de Sueño/fisiopatología , Ronquido/diagnóstico , Ronquido/epidemiología , Ronquido/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5697, 2017 07 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720787

RESUMEN

The well-established negative health outcomes of sleep deprivation, and the suggestion that availability of electricity may enable later bed times without compensating sleep extension in the morning, have stimulated interest in studying communities whose sleep pattern may resemble a pre-industrial state. Here, we describe sleep and activity in two neighbouring communities, one urban (Milange) and one rural (Tengua), in a region of Mozambique where urbanisation is an ongoing process. The two communities differ in the amount and timing of daily activity and of light exposure, with later bedtimes (≈1 h) associated with more evening and less daytime light exposure seen in the town of Milange. In contrast to previous reports comparing communities with and without electricity, sleep duration did not differ between Milange (7.28 h) and Tengua (7.23 h). Notably, calculated sleep quality was significantly poorer in rural Tengua than in Milange, and poor sleep quality was associated with a number of attributes more characteristic of rural areas, including more intense physical labour and less comfortable sleeping arrangements. Thus, whilst our data support the hypothesis that access to electricity delays sleep timing, the higher sleep quality in the urban population also suggests that some aspects of industrialisation are beneficial to sleep.


Asunto(s)
Iluminación , Sueño/fisiología , Urbanización , Vigilia/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mozambique , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Sleep Health ; 3(4): 234-240, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709508

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: A validated survey instrument to assess general sleep health would be a useful research tool, particularly when objective measures of sleep are not feasible. Thus, the National Sleep Foundation spearheaded the development of the Sleep Health Index (SHI). DESIGN: The development of the SHI began with a task force of experts who identified key sleep domains and questions. An initial draft of the survey was created and questions were refined using cognitive testing and pretesting. The resulting 28-question survey was administered via random-sample telephone interviews to nationally representative samples of adults in 2014 (n=1253) and 2015 (n=1250). These data were combined to create the index. A factor analysis linked 14 questions to 3 discrete domains: sleep quality, sleep duration, and disordered sleep. These were assembled as sub-indices, then combined to form the overall SHI, with scores ranging from 0 to 100 (higher score reflects better sleep health). RESULTS: Americans earned an overall SHI score of 76/100, with sub-index scores of 81/100 in disordered sleep, 79/100 in sleep duration, and 68/100 in sleep quality. In regression analyses, the strongest independent predictors of sleep health were self-reported stress (ß=-0.26) and overall health (ß=0.26), which were also the strongest predictors of sleep quality (ß=-0.32 and ß=0.27 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The current 12-item SHI is a valid, reliable research tool that robustly measures 3 separate but related elements of sleep health-duration, quality, and disorders-and assesses the sleep health status of adults in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Sueño/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Estrés Psicológico , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 9: 31-38, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260958

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Limited data from former National Football League (NFL) players suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be highly prevalent after retirement. It remains unclear whether the high prevalence of OSA in retired players is comparable to nonathletes. This retrospective analysis compared sleep apnea (SA) risk in retired NFL players to a community cohort (CARDIA Sleep study), and examined associations between SA risk and cardiovascular risk factors, including subclinical atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retired NFL players (n=122) were matched to CARDIA Sleep participants by age ±2 years (range 37-55 years), body mass index ±2 kg/m2, race, and male sex. Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC) and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to determine SA risk. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. RESULTS: Retired NFL players had a greater prevalence of high SA risk than the matched CARDIA Sleep participants (27% vs 11.5%, P=0.002). Compared to the CARDIA Sleep participants, retired players were less likely to smoke, and had higher blood pressure, lower fasting glucose levels, and higher cholesterol levels. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (30% vs 30%, P=1). In both players and the community cohort, SA risk was not significantly associated with CAC after controlling for age, race, and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Retired NFL players have a greater prevalence of high SA risk but similar prevalence of CAC compared with a well-matched community cohort.

14.
Sleep Health ; 3(2): 107-112, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346156

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of sleep characteristics with prevalent hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in a multiethnic cohort. DESIGN: This study used a population-based cross-sectional study design. SETTING: Participants were recruited between 2009 and 2011 from Chicago, Illinois, and the surrounding suburbs. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 492 adults aged 35 to 64years who self-reported as white, black, Hispanic, or Asian and who had a low likelihood of sleep apnea based on the apnea screening questionnaires and 1 night of apnea screening using an in-home device (apnea hypopnea index <15 or oxygen desaturation index <10). MEASUREMENTS: Participants wore a wrist actigraphy monitor (Actiwatch™) for 7days. During a clinical examination, participants completed questionnaires about sleep, other health behaviors, and medical history and had their blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and fasting blood glucose measured; metabolic risk factors were determined based on standard clinical guidelines. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes was 17.1%, 5.5%, and 35.4%, respectively. Sleep duration was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factor. There was a significantly increased odds for hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08) and obesity (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05) associated with higher sleep fragmentation (per 1%). There was also a significantly increased odds for hypertension associated with poorer self-reported sleep quality (OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05-1.24] per 1-unit higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score). CONCLUSION: Objective and self-reported sleep quality may be more important than duration in relation to prevalent hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Sueño/fisiología , Actigrafía/métodos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Illinois , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Sleep ; 40(4)2017 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329091

RESUMEN

Study Objectives: Recent studies implicate inadequate sleep duration and quality in metabolic disease. Fewer studies have examined the timing of sleep, which may be important because of its potential impact on circadian rhythms of metabolic function. We examined the association between sleep timing and metabolic risk among Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods: Cross-sectional data from community-based study of 13429 participants aged 18-74 years. People taking diabetic medications were excluded. Sleep timing was determined from self-reported bedtimes and wake times. Chronotype was defined as the midpoint of sleep on weekends adjusted for sleep duration on weekdays. Other measurements included body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose levels, estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose levels 2 hours post oral glucose ingestion, and hemoglobin A1c. Survey linear regression models tested associations between sleep timing and metabolic measures. Analyses were stratified by diabetes status and age-group when significant interactions were observed. Results: Among participants with diabetes, fasting glucose levels were positively associated with bedtime (approximately +3%/hour later, p < .01) and midpoint of sleep (approximately +2%/hour later, p < .05). In participants with and without diabetes combined, HOMA-IR was positively associated with midpoint of sleep (+1.5%/hr later, p < .05), and chronotype (+1.2%/hour later, p < .05). Associations differed by age-group. Among those < 36 years, later sleep timing was associated with lower BMI, lower fasting glucose, and lower HbA1c, but the opposite association was observed among older participants. Conclusions: Later sleep timing was associated with higher estimated insulin resistance across all groups. Some associations between sleep timing and metabolic measures may be age-dependent.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sueño/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia/análisis , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/complicaciones , Autoinforme , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
16.
Chronobiol Int ; 34(2): 269-272, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28055282

RESUMEN

Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the genetic versus environmental contributions to racial/ethnic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. We addressed this question by investigating the association between diurnal preference, using the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and genetic ancestry within the Baependi Heart Study cohort, a highly admixed Brazilian population based in a rural town. Analysis was performed using measures of ancestry, using the Admixture program, and MEQ from 1,453 individuals. We found an association between the degree of Amerindian (but not European of African) ancestry and morningness, equating to 0.16 units for each additional percent of Amerindian ancestry, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and residential zone. To our knowledge, this is the first published report identifying an association between genetic ancestry and MEQ, and above all, the first one based on ancestral contributions within individuals living in the same community. This previously unknown ancestral dimension of diurnal preference suggests a stratification between racial/ethnic groups in an as yet unknown number of genetic polymorphisms.


Asunto(s)
Ritmo Circadiano , Indios Norteamericanos/genética , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Brasil , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Homeostasis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo Genético , Población Rural , Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana
17.
Chronobiol Int ; 34(3): 393-402, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128995

RESUMEN

The circadian system is known to play a role in glucose metabolism. Chronotype reflects the interindividual variability in the phase of entrainment. Those with later chronotype typically prefer later times in the day for different activities such as sleep or meals. Later chronotype has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome, increased diabetes risk and poorer glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. In addition, "social jetlag", a form of circadian misalignment due to a mismatch between social rhythms and the circadian clock, has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance. Other sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep, poor sleep quality and sleep apnea) have also been shown to affect glucose metabolism. In this study, we explored whether there was a relationship between chronotype, social jetlag and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in prediabetes patients, independent of other sleep disturbances. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Family Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, from October 2014 to March 2016 in 1014 non-shift working adults with prediabetes. Mid-sleep time on free day adjusted for sleep debt (MSFsc) was used as an indicator of chronotype. Social jetlag was calculated based on the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on weekdays and weekends. The most recent HbA1c values and lipid levels were retrieved from clinical laboratory databases. Univariate analyses revealed that later MSFsc (p = 0.028) but not social jetlag (p = 0.48) was significantly associated with higher HbA1c levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to determine whether an independent association between MSFsc and HbA1c level existed. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI), social jetlag, sleep duration, sleep quality and sleep apnea risk, later MSFsc was significantly associated with higher HbA1c level (B = 0.019, 95% CI: 0.00001, 0.038, p = 0.049). The effect size of one hour later MSFsc on HbA1c (standardized coefficient = 0.065) was approximately 74% of that of the effect of one unit (kg/m2) increase in BMI (standardized coefficient = 0.087). In summary, later chronotype is associated with higher HbA1c levels in patients with prediabetes, independent of social jetlag and other sleep disturbances. Further research regarding the potential role of chronotype in diabetes prevention should be explored.


Asunto(s)
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Síndrome Jet Lag/metabolismo , Estado Prediabético/metabolismo , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Relojes Circadianos/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Diabetes Care ; 40(2): 188-193, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903614

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inpatient sleep duration and efficiency are associated with a greater risk of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, medical inpatients ≥50 years of age were interviewed, and their charts were reviewed to obtain demographic data and diagnosis. Using World Health Organization criteria, patients were categorized as having normal blood glucose, impaired fasting blood glucose, or hyperglycemia based on morning glucose from the electronic health record. Wrist actigraphy measured sleep. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression models, controlling for subject random effects, tested the association between inpatient sleep duration and proportional odds of hyperglycemia versus impaired fasting blood glucose or impaired fasting blood glucose versus normal blood glucose in hospitalized adults. RESULTS: A total of 212 patients (60% female and 74% African American) were enrolled. Roughly one-third (73, 34%) had diabetes. Objective inpatient sleep measures did not differ between patients with or without diabetes. In ordinal logistic regression models, each additional hour of in-hospital sleep was associated with an 11% (odds ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.80, 0.99]; P = 0.043) lower proportional odds of a higher glucose category the next morning (hyperglycemia vs. elevated and elevated vs. normal). Every 10% increase in sleep efficiency was associated with an 18% lower proportional odds of a higher glucose category (odds ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.74, 0.89]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among medical inpatients, both shorter sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency were independently associated with greater proportional odds of hyperglycemia and impaired fasting glucose.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización , Hiperglucemia/sangre , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/sangre , Actigrafía , Anciano , Glucemia/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Pacientes Internos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Prediabético/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/complicaciones
19.
Sleep Med Rev ; 33: 70-78, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27908540

RESUMEN

In recent years, strong evidence has emerged suggesting that insufficient duration, quality, and/or timing of sleep are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various mechanisms for this association have been proposed. Such associations may be related to endophenotypic features of the sleep homeostat and the circadian oscillator, or may be state-like effects of the environment. Here, we review recent literature on sleep, circadian rhythms and CVD with a specific emphasis on differences between racial/ethnic groups. We discuss the reported differences, mainly between individuals of European and African descent, in parameters related to sleep (architecture, duration, quality) and circadian rhythms (period length and phase shifting). We further review racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, and develop the hypothesis that racial/ethnic health disparities may, to a greater or smaller degree, relate to differences in parameters related to sleep and circadian rhythms. When humans left Africa some 100,000 years ago, some genetic differences between different races/ethnicities were acquired. These genetic differences have been proposed as a possible predictor of CVD disparities, but concomitant differences in culture and lifestyle between different groups may equally explain CVD disparities. We discuss the evidence for genetic and environmental causes of these differences in sleep and circadian rhythms, and their usefulness as health intervention targets.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Sueño/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Sueño/fisiología
20.
Sleep Med ; 23: 26-45, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692274

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The association between inadequate sleep and type 2 diabetes has garnered much attention, but little is known about sleep and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our objectives were to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing sleep in persons with and without T1D, and to explore relationships between sleep and glycemic control in T1D. METHODS: Studies were identified from Medline and Scopus. Studies reporting measures of sleep in T1D patients and controls, and/or associations between sleep and glycemic control, were selected. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Children with T1D had shorter sleep duration (mean difference [MD] = -26.4 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -35.4, -17.7) than controls. Adults with T1D reported poorer sleep quality (MD in standardized sleep quality score = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.70), with higher scores reflecting worse sleep quality) than controls, but there was no difference in self-reported sleep duration. Adults with TID who reported sleeping >6 hours had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels than those sleeping ≤6 hours (MD = -0.24%; 95% CI = -0.47, -0.02), and participants reporting good sleep quality had lower HbA1c than those with poor sleep quality (MD = -0.19%; 95% CI = -0.30, -0.08). The estimated prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults with TID was 51.9% (95% CI = 31.2, 72.6). Patients with moderate-to-severe OSA had a trend toward higher HbA1c (MD = 0.39%, 95% CI = -0.08, 0.87). CONCLUSION: T1D was associated with poorer sleep and high prevalence of OSA. Poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration, and OSA were associated with suboptimal glycemic control in T1D patients.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatología , Sueño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Sueño/fisiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/complicaciones , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/fisiopatología
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