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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639647

RESUMEN

Zero and low alcohol products, particularly beer, are gaining consideration as a method to reduce consumption of ethanol. We do not know if this approach is likely to increase or decrease health inequalities. The aim of the study was to determine if the purchase and consumption of zero and low alcohol beers differs by demographic and socio-economic characteristics of consumers. Based on British household purchase data from 79,411 households and on British survey data of more than 104,635 adult (18+) respondents, we estimated the likelihood of buying and drinking zero (ABV = 0.0%) and low alcohol (ABV > 0.0% and ≤ 3.5%) beer by a range of socio-demographic characteristics. We found that buying and consuming zero alcohol beer is much more likely to occur in younger age groups, in more affluent households, and in those with higher social grades, with gaps in buying zero alcohol beer between households in higher and lower social grades widening between 2015 and 2020. Buying and drinking low alcohol beer had less consistent relationships with socio-demographic characteristics, but was strongly driven by households that normally buy and drink the most alcohol. Common to many health-related behaviours, it seems that it is the more affluent that lead the way in choosing zero or low alcohol products. Whilst the increased availability of zero and low alcohol products might be a useful tool to reduce overall ethanol consumption in the more socially advantageous part of society, it may be less beneficial for the rest of the population. Other evidence-based alcohol policy measures that lessen health inequalities, need to go hand-in-hand with those promoting the uptake of zero and low alcohol beer.


Asunto(s)
Cerveza , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etanol , Composición Familiar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578942

RESUMEN

Alcohol is toxic to human health. In addition to providing nutritional information, labels on alcohol products can be used to communicate warnings on alcohol-related harms to consumers. This scoping review examined novel or enhanced health warning labels to assess the current state of the research and the key studied characteristics of labels, along with their impact on the studied outcomes. Four databases (Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL) were searched between January 2010 and April 2021, and 27 papers were included in the review. The results found that most studies were undertaken in English-speaking populations, with the majority conducted online or in the laboratory setting as opposed to the real world. Seventy percent of the papers included at least one cancer-related message, in most instances referring either to cancer in general or to bowel cancer. Evidence from the only real-world long-term labelling intervention demonstrated that alcohol health warning labels designed to be visible and contain novel and specific information have the potential to be part of an effective labelling strategy. Alcohol health warning labels should be seen as tools to raise awareness on alcohol-related risks, being part of wider alcohol policy approaches.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579030

RESUMEN

Switching from higher strength to low- and no-alcohol products could result in consumers buying and drinking fewer grams of ethanol. We undertook a scoping review with systematic searches of English language publications between 1 January 2010 and 17 January 2021 using PubMed and Web of Science, covering production, consumption, and policy drivers related to low- and no-alcohol products. Seventy publications were included in our review. We found no publications comparing a life cycle assessment of health and environmental impacts between alcohol-free and regular-strength products. Three publications of low- and no-alcohol beers found only limited penetration of sales compared with higher strength beers. Two publications from only one jurisdiction (Great Britain) suggested that sales of no- and low-alcohol beers replaced rather than added to sales of higher strength beers. Eight publications indicated that taste, prior experiences, brand, health and wellbeing issues, price differentials, and overall decreases in the social stigma associated with drinking alcohol-free beverages were drivers of the purchase and consumption of low- and no-alcohol beers and wines. Three papers indicated confusion amongst consumers with respect to the labelling of low- and no-alcohol products. One paper indicated that the introduction of a minimum unit price in both Scotland and Wales favoured shifts in purchases from higher- to lower-strength beers. The evidence base for the potential beneficial health impact of low- and no-alcohol products is very limited and needs considerable expansion. At present, the evidence base could be considered inadequate to inform policy.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
5.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849396

RESUMEN

Background: Screening for unhealthy alcohol use in routine consultations can aid primary health care (PHC) providers in detecting patients with hazardous or harmful consumption and providing them with appropriate care. As part of larger trial testing strategies to improve implementation of alcohol screening in PHC, this study investigated the motivational (role security, therapeutic commitment, self-efficacy) and organizational context (leadership, work culture, resources, monitoring, community engagement) factors that were associated with the proportion of adult patients screened with AUDIT-C by PHC providers in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Additionally, the study investigated whether the effect of the factors interacted with implementation strategies and the country. Methods: Pen-and-paper questionnaires were completed by 386 providers at the start of their study participation (79% female, Mage = 39.5, 37.6% doctors, 15.0% nurses, 9.6% psychologists, 37.8% other professional roles). They were allocated to one of four intervention arms: control group; short training only; short training in presence of municipal support; and standard (long) training in presence of municipal support. Providers documented their screening practice during the five-month implementation period. Data were collected between April 2019 and March 2020. Results: Negative binomial regression analysis found an inverse relationship of role security with the proportion of screened patients. Self-efficacy was associated with an increase in the proportion of screened patients only amongst Mexican providers. Support from leadership (formal leader in organization) was the only significant organizational context factor, but only in non-control arms. Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy is a relevant factor in settings where screening practice is already ongoing. Leadership support can enhance effects of implementation strategies.

6.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e4, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Providing alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) in primary health care (PHC) can be an effective measure to reduce alcohol consumption. To aid successful implementation in an upper middle-income country context, this study investigates the perceived appropriateness of the programme and the perceived barriers to its implementation in PHC settings in three Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru, as part of larger implementation study (SCALA). METHODS: An online survey based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) implementation framework was disseminated in the three countries to key stakeholders with experience in the topic and/or setting (both health professionals and other roles, for example regional health administrators and national experts). In total, 55 respondents participated (66% response rate). For responses to both appropriateness and barriers questions, frequencies were computed, and country comparisons were made using Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Alcohol SBA was seen as an appropriate programme to reduce heavy alcohol use in PHC and a range of providers were considered suitable for its delivery, such as general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and social workers. Contextual factors such as patients' normalised perception of their heavy drinking, lack of on-going support for providers, difficulty of accessing referral services and lenient alcohol control laws were the highest rated barriers. Country differences were found for two barriers: Peruvian respondents rated SBA guidelines as less clear than Mexican (Mann-Whitney U = -18.10, P = 0.001), and more strongly indicated lack of available screening instruments than Colombian (Mann-Whitney U = -12.82, P = 0.035) and Mexican respondents (Mann-Whitney U = -13.56, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the need to address contextual factors for successful implementation of SBA in practice. General congruence between the countries suggests that similar approaches can be used to encourage widespread implementation of SBA in all three studied countries, with minor tailoring based on the few country-specific barriers.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colombia , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú , Adulto Joven
7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2663-2671, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469752

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to test the effects of providing municipal support and training to primary health care providers compared to both training alone and to care as usual on the proportion of adult patients having their alcohol consumption measured. METHODS: We undertook a quasi-experimental study reporting on a 5-month implementation period in 58 primary health care centres from municipal areas within Bogotá (Colombia), Mexico City (Mexico), and Lima (Peru). Within the municipal areas, units were randomized to four arms: (1) care as usual (control); (2) training alone; (3) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a less intensive clinical and training package; and (4) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a more intense clinical and training package. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of consulting adult patients out of the population registered within the centre whose alcohol consumption was measured (coverage). RESULTS: The combination of municipal support and training did not result in higher coverage than training alone (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8). Training alone resulted in higher coverage than no training (IRR = 9.8, 95% CI = 4.1 to 24.7). Coverage did not differ by intensity of the clinical and training package (coefficient = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Training of providers is key to increasing coverage of alcohol measurement amongst primary health care patients. Although municipal support provided no added value, it is too early to conclude this finding, since full implementation was shortened due to COVID-19 restrictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524599.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología
9.
Copenhagen; WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020. 112 p.
Monografía en Inglés | PIE | ID: biblio-1118486

RESUMEN

The WHO European Region has the highest levels of alcohol consumption per capita in the world, yet alcohol labelling, a WHO-recommended practice that provides consumer information on the ingredients, nutritional values and harms of alcohol, is not mandatory. This report synthesizes evidence on alcohol labelling practices in the Region and aims to describe factors affecting implementation. To date, the introduction of alcohol labelling policy as part of a larger package of alcohol policy measures created with strong political support and consumer pressure has proved successful in providing consumers with information, although practices have been hindered by slow procedures in some parts of the Region, opposition from international institutions and the alcohol industry, and the lack of set labelling specifications and monitoring activities. Policy considerations for the development of successful labelling legislation should ideally address both health information and nutritional information, ensure regulated message presentation and implement independent monitoring and evaluation of measures.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Información de Salud al Consumidor , Valor Nutritivo
10.
Public Health Genomics ; 21(1-2): 45-52, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With interest in personalised health care growing, so is interest in personal genetic testing. This is now offered direct-to-consumer, thereby referred to as direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT). Criticisms have been expressed on whether a truly informed decision to undergo testing is made with regard to these services. In order to provide relevant information to achieve this, knowing the characteristics of the expected user population is helpful. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify characteristics of individuals who (1) find the concept of DTC-GT acceptable and (2) consider undergoing DTC-GT in the distant or near future. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with acceptability, consideration and intention in the Dutch general population. Studied variables included awareness, principles and how-to knowledge, attitude, innovativeness, and multiple demographic characteristics. Generalised linear models were applied to identify associated variables. RESULTS: Full data was obtained for 836 respondents. Of those, 18.3% found DTC-GT somewhat or totally acceptable, whereas 12.6% considered and 5.5% intended to undergo DTC-GT in the distant or near future. Acceptability was greater with lower principles knowledge, and consideration and intention with lower how-to knowledge. A more positive attitude and greater innovativeness were associated with an increase in all 3 outcomes. CONCLUSION: Informed decision making may be hampered as individuals with lower how-to knowledge were found to be more interested in pursuing testing. The identified characteristics can be used in development and distribution of public and personalized information, in order to help consumers make a truly informed decision.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Dirigidas al Consumidor/psicología , Pruebas Genéticas/métodos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Medicina de Precisión/métodos , Medicina de Precisión/psicología , Opinión Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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