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1.
Dev Psychol ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446066

RESUMEN

Around the world, musical engagement frequently involves movement. Most adults easily clap or sway to a wide range of tempos, even without formal musical training. The link between movement and music emerges early-young infants move more rhythmically to music than speech, but do not reliably align their movements to the beat. Laboratory work encouraging specific motor patterns (e.g., drumming, tapping) demonstrates that toddlers and young children's movements are affected by music in a rudimentary way, such that they move faster to faster rhythms (tempo flexibility). In the present study, we developed and implemented a novel home recording method to investigate how musical familiarity and tempo affect children's naturalistic free-dance movements. Caregivers made home recordings of their children's responses to an experimenter-created playlist (N = 83, age range = 1.25 to 3.91 years, Mage = 2.39 years, SD = .74 years; 41 girls, 42 boys; 75% of household incomes > $90 000 CAD). Children listened to 1-min excerpts of their favorite music and unfamiliar, genre-matched music, each played at 90, 120, and 150 bpm (pitch constant; order randomized). Children moved faster to faster music and demonstrated tempo flexibility for both favorite and unfamiliar music. Favorite music encouraged more smiling across tempo conditions than unfamiliar music, as well as more dancing in the slowest tempo condition. Results demonstrate that young children's self-selected movements are affected by musical tempo and familiarity. We also demonstrate the usefulness of a naturalistic home recording method for assessing early auditory-motor integration. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Dev Sci ; : e13249, 2022 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175668

RESUMEN

The drive to move to music is evident across a variety of contexts, from the simple urge to tap our toe to a song on the radio, to massive crowds dancing in time at a rock concert. Though seemingly effortless, beat synchronization is difficult to master and children are often poor beat synchronizers. Nevertheless, auditory-motor integration is fundamental for many daily processes, such as speech. A topic that has been relatively understudied concerns how stimulus properties affect young children's movement in responses to auditory stimuli. In the present study, we examined how musical groove (adult-rated desire to move) affected 3.0- to 6.9-year-old children's free dancing in the comfort of their home (n = 78). In the high groove conditions, children danced more and with more energy compared to the low groove conditions. Moreover, in the high groove condition, children's movement tempos corresponded better with the tempos of the music. Results point to early childhood sensitivity to the musical features that motivate adults to move to music. High groove music may therefore prove especially effective at facilitating early auditory-motor integration. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://youtu.be/vli0-6N12Ts.

3.
Dev Sci ; 25(1): e13149, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241934

RESUMEN

Parent's infant-directed vocalizations are highly dynamic and emotive compared to their adult-directed counterparts, and correspondingly, more effectively capture infants' attention. Infant-directed singing is a specific type of vocalization that is common throughout the world. Parents tend to sing a small handful of songs in a stereotyped way, and a number of recent studies have highlighted the significance of familiar songs in young children's social behaviors and evaluations. To date, no studies have examined whether infants' responses to familiar versus unfamiliar songs are modulated by singer identity (i.e., whether the singer is their own parent). In the present study, we investigated 9- to 12-month-old infants' (N = 29) behavioral and electrodermal responses to relatively familiar and unfamiliar songs sung by either their own mother or another infant's mother. Familiar songs recruited more attention and rhythmic movement, and lower electrodermal levels relative to unfamiliar songs. Moreover, these responses were robust regardless of whether the singer was their mother or a stranger, even when the stranger's rendition differed greatly from their mothers' in mean fundamental frequency and tempo. Results indicate that infants' interest in familiar songs is not limited to idiosyncratic characteristics of their parents' song renditions, and points to the potential for song as an effective early signifier of group membership.


Asunto(s)
Canto , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Padres , Canto/fisiología , Conducta Social
4.
Psychol Sci ; 32(9): 1416-1425, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409898

RESUMEN

Anticipating the future is essential for efficient perception and action planning. Yet the role of anticipation in event segmentation is understudied because empirical research has focused on retrospective cues such as surprise. We address this concern in the context of perception of musical-phrase boundaries. A computational model of cognitive sequence processing was used to control the information-dynamic properties of tone sequences. In an implicit, self-paced listening task (N = 38), undergraduates dwelled longer on tones generating high entropy (i.e., high uncertainty) than on those generating low entropy (i.e., low uncertainty). Similarly, sequences that ended on tones generating high entropy were rated as sounding more complete (N = 31 undergraduates). These entropy effects were independent of both the surprise (i.e., information content) and phrase position of target tones in the original musical stimuli. Our results indicate that events generating high entropy prospectively contribute to segmentation processes in auditory sequence perception, independently of the properties of the subsequent event.


Asunto(s)
Música , Percepción Auditiva , Señales (Psicología) , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incertidumbre
5.
Behav Res Methods ; 53(5): 2007-2024, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704673

RESUMEN

We sought to establish norms and correlates for the Musical Ear Test (MET), an objective test of musical ability. A large sample of undergraduates at a Canadian university (N > 500) took the 20-min test, which provided a Total score as well as separate scores for its Melody and Rhythm subtests. On each trial, listeners judged whether standard and comparison auditory sequences were the same or different. Norms were derived as percentiles, Z-scores, and T-scores. The distribution of scores was approximately normal without floor or ceiling effects. There were no gender differences on either subtest or the total score. As expected, scores on both subtests were correlated with performance on a test of immediate recall for nonmusical auditory stimuli (Digit Span Forward). Moreover, as duration of music training increased, so did performance on both subtests, but starting lessons at a younger age was not predictive of better musical abilities. Listeners who spoke a tone language exhibited enhanced performance on the Melody subtest but not on the Rhythm subtest. The MET appears to have adequate psychometric characteristics that make it suitable for researchers who seek to measure musical abilities objectively.


Asunto(s)
Música , Percepción Auditiva , Canadá , Humanos , Lenguaje , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Universidades
6.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 177-184, 2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449119

RESUMEN

Synchronized movements are often key elements in activities where social bonding and emotional connection are a shared goal, such as religious gatherings, sporting events, parties and weddings. Previous studies have shown that synchronous movements enhance prosocial attitudes and affiliative behaviors. Similarly, observers attribute more social closeness to people moving synchronously together than people moving asynchronously. The mechanisms by which synchrony modulates these attributions are not well understood. In the present study, we ask whether viewing synchronous activities influences physiological arousal as measured by skin conductance and whether group size impacts this effect. Undergraduates viewed a series of short videos depicting people moving either (1) in or out of synchrony with each other and (2) in a large or small group. Participants' skin conductance was measured. Change in skin conductance levels and response counts were attenuated while watching synchronous movement, but only in the large-group condition. Post-hoc analyses suggest that viewer enjoyment/interest in the large-group synchronous videos mediated this association for phasic skin conductance responses, but no evidence of mediation was found for tonic skin conductance levels. Results extend previous research on affiliative effects of first-person interpersonal synchrony and demonstrate that watching others moving synchronously has an attenuating effect on observers' physiological state.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Conducta Social , Percepción Social , Adolescente , Femenino , Respuesta Galvánica de la Piel/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Adulto Joven
7.
Dev Sci ; 24(1): e12982, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358988

RESUMEN

Accurate perception and production of emotional states is important for successful social interactions across the lifespan. Previous research has shown that when identifying emotion in faces, preschool children are more likely to confuse emotions that share valence, but differ in arousal (e.g. sadness and anger) than emotions that share arousal, but differ on valence (e.g. anger and joy). Here, we examined the influence of valence and arousal on children's production of emotion in music. Three-, 5- and 7-year-old children recruited from the greater Hamilton area (N = 74) 'performed' music to produce emotions using a self-pacing paradigm, in which participants controlled the onset and offset of each chord in a musical sequence by repeatedly pressing and lifting the same key on a MIDI piano. Key press velocity controlled the loudness of each chord. Results showed that (a) differentiation of emotions by 5-year-old children was mainly driven by arousal of the target emotion, with differentiation based on both valence and arousal at 7 years and (b) tempo and loudness were used to differentiate emotions earlier in development than articulation. The results indicate that the developmental trajectory of emotion understanding in music may differ from the developmental trajectory in other domains.


Asunto(s)
Música , Ira , Nivel de Alerta , Niño , Preescolar , Emociones , Humanos
8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 185-192, 2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685965

RESUMEN

Social bonding is fundamental to human society, and romantic interest involves an important type of bonding. Speed dating research paradigms offer both high external validity and experimental control for studying romantic interest in real-world settings. While previous studies focused on the effect of social and personality factors on romantic interest, the role of non-verbal interaction has been little studied in initial romantic interest, despite being commonly viewed as a crucial factor. The present study investigated whether romantic interest can be predicted by non-verbal dyadic interactive body sway, and enhanced by movement-promoting ('groovy') background music. Participants' body sway trajectories were recorded during speed dating. Directional (predictive) body sway coupling, but not body sway similarity, predicted interest in a long-term relationship above and beyond rated physical attractiveness. In addition, presence of groovy background music promoted interest in meeting a dating partner again. Overall, we demonstrate that romantic interest is reflected by non-verbal body sway in dyads in a real-world dating setting. This novel approach could potentially be applied to investigate non-verbal aspects of social bonding in other dynamic interpersonal interactions such as between infants and parents and in non-verbal populations including those with communication disorders.


Asunto(s)
Cortejo/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Música , Postura/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Dev Sci ; 24(4): e13081, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382177

RESUMEN

The development of human abilities stems from a complex interplay between genetic predispositions and environmental factors. Numerous studies have compared musicians with non-musicians on measures of musical and non-musical ability, frequently attributing musicians' superior performance to their training. By ignoring preexisting differences, however, this view assumes that taking music lessons is akin to random assignment. In the present longitudinal study, the musical ability of 5- to 10-year-olds was measured at Time 1 with a test of music perception and cognition. Five years later, at Time 2, the children took the same test and a second test designed for older listeners. The test-retest correlation for aggregate scores was remarkably high, r ≈ 0.7, and remained strong when confounding variables (age, cognitive abilities, personality) were held constant. At both time points, music training was associated with musical ability, but the association at Time 2 became nonsignificant when musical ability at Time 1 was held constant. Time 1 musical ability also predicted duration of subsequent music training. These data are consistent with results from genetic studies, which implicate genes in all aspects of musical behavior and achievement, and with meta-analyses, which indicate that transfer effects from music training are weak. In short, early musical abilities significantly predicted later abilities, demonstrating that individual differences are stable over time. We found no evidence, however, to suggest that music training predicted musical ability after accounting for prior ability. The results underscore the importance of considering preexisting abilities in any type of learning.


Asunto(s)
Música , Aptitud , Niño , Preescolar , Cognición , Humanos , Individualidad , Estudios Longitudinales
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 205, 2019 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659220

RESUMEN

Joint action is essential in daily life, as humans often must coordinate with others to accomplish shared goals. Previous studies have mainly focused on sensorimotor aspects of joint action, with measurements reflecting event-to-event precision of interpersonal sensorimotor coordination (e.g., tapping). However, while emotional factors are often closely tied to joint actions, they are rarely studied, as event-to-event measurements are insufficient to capture higher-order aspects of joint action such as emotional expression. To quantify joint emotional expression, we used motion capture to simultaneously measure the body sway of each musician in a trio (piano, violin, cello) during performances. Excerpts were performed with or without emotional expression. Granger causality was used to analyze body sway movement time series amongst musicians, which reflects information flow. Results showed that the total Granger-coupling of body sway in the ensemble was higher when performing pieces with emotional expression than without. Granger-coupling further correlated with the emotional intensity as rated by both the ensemble members themselves and by musician judges, based on the audio recordings alone. Together, our findings suggest that Granger-coupling of co-actors' body sways reflects joint emotional expression in a music ensemble, and thus provide a novel approach to studying joint emotional expression.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Cinésica , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Movimiento/fisiología , Música/psicología
11.
Dev Psychol ; 54(5): 842-856, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355358

RESUMEN

Proper segmentation of auditory streams is essential for understanding music. Many cues, including meter, melodic contour, and harmony, influence adults' perception of musical phrase boundaries. To date, no studies have examined young children's musical grouping in a production task. We used a musical self-pacing method to investigate (1) whether dwell times index young children's musical phrase grouping and, if so, (2) whether children dwell longer on phrase boundaries defined by harmonic cues specifically. In Experiment 1, we asked 3-year-old children to self-pace through chord progressions from Bach chorales (sequences in which metrical, harmonic, and melodic contour grouping cues aligned) by pressing a computer key to present each chord in the sequence. Participants dwelled longer on chords in the 8th position, which corresponded to phrase endings. In Experiment 2, we tested 3-, 4-, and 7-year-old children's sensitivity to harmonic cues to phrase grouping when metrical regularity cues and melodic contour cues were misaligned with the harmonic phrase boundaries. In this case, 7 and 4 year olds but not 3 year olds dwelled longer on harmonic phrase boundaries, suggesting that the influence of harmonic cues on phrase boundary perception develops substantially between 3 and 4 years of age in Western children. Overall, we show that the musical dwell time method is child-friendly and can be used to investigate various aspects of young children's musical understanding, including phrase grouping and harmonic knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Señales (Psicología) , Música , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 42(10): 1676-86, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27379872

RESUMEN

Previous work has shown that musicians tend to slow down as they approach phrase boundaries (phrase-final lengthening). In the present experiments, we used a paradigm from the action perception literature, the dwell time paradigm (Hard, Recchia, & Tversky, 2011), to investigate whether participants engage in phrase boundary lengthening when self-pacing through musical sequences. When participants used a key press to produce each successive chord of Bach chorales, they dwelled longer on boundary chords than nonboundary chords in both the original chorales and atonal manipulations of the chorales. When a novel musical sequence was composed that controlled for metrical and melodic contour cues to boundaries, the dwell time difference between boundaries and nonboundaries was greater in the tonal condition than in the atonal condition. Furthermore, similar results were found for a group of nonmusicians, suggesting that phrase-final lengthening in musical production is not dependent on musical training and can be evoked by harmonic cues.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Música , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
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