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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 854, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558559

RESUMEN

Large optical anisotropy observed in a broad spectral range is of paramount importance for efficient light manipulation in countless devices. Although a giant anisotropy has been recently observed in the mid-infrared wavelength range, for visible and near-infrared spectral intervals, the problem remains acute with the highest reported birefringence values of 0.8 in BaTiS3 and h-BN crystals. This issue inspired an intensive search for giant optical anisotropy among natural and artificial materials. Here, we demonstrate that layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provide an answer to this quest owing to their fundamental differences between intralayer strong covalent bonding and weak interlayer van der Waals interaction. To do this, we made correlative far- and near-field characterizations validated by first-principle calculations that reveal a huge birefringence of 1.5 in the infrared and 3 in the visible light for MoS2. Our findings demonstrate that this remarkable anisotropy allows for tackling the diffraction limit enabling an avenue for on-chip next-generation photonics.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20286, 2019 12 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889053

RESUMEN

Plasmonic biosensing has emerged as the most sensitive label-free technique to detect various molecular species in solutions and has already proved crucial in drug discovery, food safety and studies of bio-reactions. This technique relies on surface plasmon resonances in ~50 nm metallic films and the possibility to functionalize the surface of the metal in order to achieve selectivity. At the same time, most metals corrode in bio-solutions, which reduces the quality factor and darkness of plasmonic resonances and thus the sensitivity. Furthermore, functionalization itself might have a detrimental effect on the quality of the surface, also reducing sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the use of graphene and other layered materials for passivation and functionalization broadens the range of metals which can be used for plasmonic biosensing and increases the sensitivity by 3-4 orders of magnitude, as it guarantees stability of a metal in liquid and preserves the plasmonic resonances under biofunctionalization. We use this approach to detect low molecular weight HT-2 toxins (crucial for food safety), achieving phase sensitivity~0.5 fg/mL, three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported. This proves that layered materials provide a new platform for surface plasmon resonance biosensing, paving the way for compact biosensors for point of care testing.

3.
Nature ; 559(7713): 236-240, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995867

RESUMEN

Controlled transport of water molecules through membranes and capillaries is important in areas as diverse as water purification and healthcare technologies1-7. Previous attempts to control water permeation through membranes (mainly polymeric ones) have concentrated on modulating the structure of the membrane and the physicochemical properties of its surface by varying the pH, temperature or ionic strength3,8. Electrical control over water transport is an attractive alternative; however, theory and simulations9-14 have often yielded conflicting results, from freezing of water molecules to melting of ice14-16 under an applied electric field. Here we report electrically controlled water permeation through micrometre-thick graphene oxide membranes17-21. Such membranes have previously been shown to exhibit ultrafast permeation of water17,22 and molecular sieving properties18,21, with the potential for industrial-scale production. To achieve electrical control over water permeation, we create conductive filaments in the graphene oxide membranes via controllable electrical breakdown. The electric field that concentrates around these current-carrying filaments ionizes water molecules inside graphene capillaries within the graphene oxide membranes, which impedes water transport. We thus demonstrate precise control of water permeation, from ultrafast permeation to complete blocking. Our work opens up an avenue for developing smart membrane technologies for artificial biological systems, tissue engineering and filtration.

4.
Chem Rev ; 118(12): 5912-5951, 2018 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863344

RESUMEN

When metal nanoparticles are arranged in an ordered array, they may scatter light to produce diffracted waves. If one of the diffracted waves then propagates in the plane of the array, it may couple the localized plasmon resonances associated with individual nanoparticles together, leading to an exciting phenomenon, the drastic narrowing of plasmon resonances, down to 1-2 nm in spectral width. This presents a dramatic improvement compared to a typical single particle resonance line width of >80 nm. The very high quality factors of these diffractively coupled plasmon resonances, often referred to as plasmonic surface lattice resonances, and related effects have made this topic a very active and exciting field for fundamental research, and increasingly, these resonances have been investigated for their potential in the development of practical devices for communications, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, data storage, biosensing, and other applications. In the present review article, we describe the basic physical principles and properties of plasmonic surface lattice resonances: the width and quality of the resonances, singularities of the light phase, electric field enhancement, etc. We pay special attention to the conditions of their excitation in different experimental architectures by considering the following: in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations of the incident light, symmetric and asymmetric optical (refractive index) environments, the presence of substrate conductivity, and the presence of an active or magnetic medium. Finally, we review recent progress in applications of plasmonic surface lattice resonances in various fields.

5.
Nat Mater ; 16(12): 1198-1202, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170556

RESUMEN

Graphene oxide (GO) membranes continue to attract intense interest due to their unique molecular sieving properties combined with fast permeation. However, their use is limited to aqueous solutions because GO membranes appear impermeable to organic solvents, a phenomenon not yet fully understood. Here, we report efficient and fast filtration of organic solutions through GO laminates containing smooth two-dimensional (2D) capillaries made from large (10-20 µm) flakes. Without modification of sieving characteristics, these membranes can be made exceptionally thin, down to ∼10 nm, which translates into fast water and organic solvent permeation. We attribute organic solvent permeation and sieving properties to randomly distributed pinholes interconnected by short graphene channels with a width of 1 nm. With increasing membrane thickness, organic solvent permeation rates decay exponentially but water continues to permeate quickly, in agreement with previous reports. The potential of ultrathin GO laminates for organic solvent nanofiltration is demonstrated by showing >99.9% rejection of small molecular weight organic dyes dissolved in methanol. Our work significantly expands possibilities for the use of GO membranes in purification and filtration technologies.

6.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13590, 2016 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27874003

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional atomic heterostructures combined with metallic nanostructures allow one to realize strong light-matter interactions. Metallic nanostructures possess plasmonic resonances that can be modulated by graphene gating. In particular, spectrally narrow plasmon resonances potentially allow for very high graphene-enabled modulation depth. However, the modulation depths achieved with this approach have so far been low and the modulation wavelength range limited. Here we demonstrate a device in which a graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure is suspended over a gold nanostripe array. A gate voltage across these devices alters the location of the two-dimensional crystals, creating strong optical modulation of its reflection spectra at multiple wavelengths: in ultraviolet Fabry-Perot resonances, in visible and near-infrared diffraction-coupled plasmonic resonances and in the mid-infrared range of hexagonal boron nitride's upper Reststrahlen band. Devices can be extremely subwavelength in thickness and exhibit compact and truly broadband modulation of optical signals using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials.

7.
Opt Express ; 23(24): A1651-63, 2015 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698811

RESUMEN

Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photocatalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photocatalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts - ionic or covalent binary metals with layered graphite-like structures - effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons and holes required to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases. As an example, we demonstrate conversion efficiency of ~27% at bias voltage Vbias = 0.5V for magnesium diboride working as a catalyst for photoinduced water splitting. We discuss its advantages over some existing materials and propose the underlying mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting by binary layered metals.

8.
Opt Express ; 23(2): 1265-75, 2015 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835885

RESUMEN

The dense packing of two dimensional flakes by van der Waals forces has enabled the creation of new metamaterials with desirable optical properties. Here we assemble graphene oxide sheets into a three dimensional metamaterial using a microfluidic technique and confirm their ordering via measurements of ellipsometric parameters, polarized optical microscopy, polarized transmission spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We show that the produced metamaterials demonstrate strong in-plane optical anisotropy (Δn≈0.3 at n≈1.5-1.8) combined with low absorption (k<0.1) and compare them with as-synthesized samples of graphene oxide paper. Our results pave the way for engineered birefringent metamaterials on the basis of two dimensional atomic crystals including graphene and its derivatives.

9.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4843, 2014 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25208890

RESUMEN

Flexible barrier films preventing permeation of gases and moistures are important for many industries ranging from food to medical and from chemical to electronic. From this perspective, graphene has recently attracted particular interest because its defect-free monolayers are impermeable to all atoms and molecules. However, it has been proved to be challenging to develop large-area defectless graphene films suitable for industrial use. Here we report barrier properties of multilayer graphitic films made by gentle chemical reduction of graphene oxide laminates with hydroiodic and ascorbic acids. They are found to be highly impermeable to all gases, liquids and aggressive chemicals including, for example, hydrofluoric acid. The exceptional barrier properties are attributed to a high degree of graphitization of the laminates and little structural damage during reduction. This work indicates a close prospect of graphene-based flexible and inert barriers and protective coatings, which can be of interest for numerous applications.

10.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5517, 2014 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980150

RESUMEN

Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics.

11.
Science ; 343(6172): 752-4, 2014 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24531966

RESUMEN

Graphene-based materials can have well-defined nanometer pores and can exhibit low frictional water flow inside them, making their properties of interest for filtration and separation. We investigate permeation through micrometer-thick laminates prepared by means of vacuum filtration of graphene oxide suspensions. The laminates are vacuum-tight in the dry state but, if immersed in water, act as molecular sieves, blocking all solutes with hydrated radii larger than 4.5 angstroms. Smaller ions permeate through the membranes at rates thousands of times faster than what is expected for simple diffusion. We believe that this behavior is caused by a network of nanocapillaries that open up in the hydrated state and accept only species that fit in. The anomalously fast permeation is attributed to a capillary-like high pressure acting on ions inside graphene capillaries.

12.
Nat Mater ; 12(4): 304-9, 2013 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23314104

RESUMEN

The non-trivial behaviour of phase is crucial for many important physical phenomena, such as, for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Berry phase. By manipulating the phase of light one can create 'twisted' photons, vortex knots and dislocations which has led to the emergence of the field of singular optics relying on abrupt phase changes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of singular visible-light nano-optics which exploits the benefits of both plasmonic field enhancement and the peculiarities of the phase of light. We show that properly designed plasmonic metamaterials exhibit topologically protected zero reflection yielding to sharp phase changes nearby, which can be employed to radically improve the sensitivity of detectors based on plasmon resonances. By using reversible hydrogenation of graphene and binding of streptavidin-biotin, we demonstrate an areal mass sensitivity at a level of fg mm(-2) and detection of individual biomolecules, respectively. Our proof-of-concept results offer a route towards simple and scalable single-molecule label-free biosensing technologies.

13.
Nat Commun ; 3: 640, 2012 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22273678

RESUMEN

Optics is renowned for displaying quantum phenomena. Indeed, studies of emission and absorption lines, the photoelectric effect and blackbody radiation helped to build the foundations of quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, it came as a surprise that the visible transparency of suspended graphene is determined solely by the fine structure constant, as this kind of universality had been previously reserved only for quantized resistance and flux quanta in superconductors. Here we describe a plasmonic system in which relative optical transparency is determined solely by the fine structure constant. The system consists of a regular array of gold nanoparticles fabricated on a thin metallic sublayer. We show that its relative transparency can be quantized in the near-infrared, which we attribute to the quantized contact resistance between the nanoparticles and the metallic sublayer. Our results open new possibilities in the exploration of universal dynamic conductance in plasmonic nanooptics.


Asunto(s)
Oro/química , Absorción , Grafito/química , Ensayo de Materiales , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Modelos Estadísticos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnología/métodos , Óptica y Fotónica , Física/métodos , Propiedades de Superficie
14.
Opt Lett ; 35(7): 956-8, 2010 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20364182

RESUMEN

We present what we believe to be the first experimental study of the optical response of collective plasmon resonances in regular arrays of nanoresonators to local environment. Recently observed collective plasmon modes arise due to diffractive coupling of localized plasmons and yield almost 1 order of magnitude improvement in resonance quality. We measure the response of these modes to tiny variations of the refractive index of both gaseous and liquid media. We show that the phase sensitivity of the collective resonances can be more than 2 orders of magnitude better than the best amplitude sensitivity of the same nanodot array as well as 1 order of magnitude better than the phase sensitivity in surface plasmon resonance sensors.


Asunto(s)
Oro/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Nanoestructuras/ultraestructura , Nanotecnología/instrumentación , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie/instrumentación , Transductores , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
15.
Nano Lett ; 10(3): 874-9, 2010 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20143865

RESUMEN

We present results from composite plasmonic nanostructures designed to achieve the cascaded enhancement of electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. Our structures comprise a small metallic nanodisc suspended above a larger disk. We probe the optical properties of these structures by coating them with a layer of a visible-light fluorophore and observing fluorescence signals with the help of scanning confocal microscopy. A 43 +/- 5-fold increase in the far-field fluorescence signal has been observed for two-tier composite nanostructures, when compared to the signal obtained from individual nanodiscs. Our results offer the prospect of using such nanostructures for field concentration, optical manipulation of nanoobjects, chemical and biological sensing.


Asunto(s)
Oro/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Nanoestructuras/ultraestructura , Nanotecnología/métodos , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/métodos , Resonancia por Plasmón de Superficie/métodos , Cristalización/métodos , Luz , Sustancias Macromoleculares/química , Ensayo de Materiales , Conformación Molecular , Tamaño de la Partícula , Propiedades de Superficie
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(24): 246806, 2010 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231549

RESUMEN

We present composite plasmonic nanostructures designed to achieve cascaded enhancement of electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. Our structures were made with the help of electron-beam lithography and comprise a set of metallic nanodisks placed one above another. The optical properties of reproducible arrays of these structures were studied by using scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy. We show that our composite nanostructures robustly demonstrate dramatic enhancement of the Raman signals when compared to those measured from constituent elements.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(8): 087403, 2008 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18764660

RESUMEN

We experimentally demonstrate extremely narrow plasmon resonances with half-width of just several nanometers in regular arrays of metallic nanoparticles. These resonances are observed at Rayleigh's cutoff wavelengths for Wood anomalies and based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons. We show experimentally that reflection from an array of nanoparticles can be completely suppressed at certain wavelengths. As a result, our metal nanostructures exhibit pi-jump for the phase of the reflected light.

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