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Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay8897, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064323


When two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are brought into close proximity to form a van der Waals heterostructure, neighbouring crystals may influence each other's properties. Of particular interest is when the two crystals closely match and a moiré pattern forms, resulting in modified electronic and excitonic spectra, crystal reconstruction, and more. Thus, moiré patterns are a viable tool for controlling the properties of 2D materials. However, the difference in periodicity of the two crystals limits the reconstruction and, thus, is a barrier to the low-energy regime. Here, we present a route to spectrum reconstruction at all energies. By using graphene which is aligned to two hexagonal boron nitride layers, one can make electrons scatter in the differential moiré pattern which results in spectral changes at arbitrarily low energies. Further, we demonstrate that the strength of this potential relies crucially on the atomic reconstruction of graphene within the differential moiré super cell.

Science ; 357(6347): 181-184, 2017 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706067


Cyclotron motion of charge carriers in metals and semiconductors leads to Landau quantization and magneto-oscillatory behavior in their properties. Cryogenic temperatures are usually required to observe these oscillations. We show that graphene superlattices support a different type of quantum oscillation that does not rely on Landau quantization. The oscillations are extremely robust and persist well above room temperature in magnetic fields of only a few tesla. We attribute this phenomenon to repetitive changes in the electronic structure of superlattices such that charge carriers experience effectively no magnetic field at simple fractions of the flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Our work hints at unexplored physics in Hofstadter butterfly systems at high temperatures.

Nat Commun ; 8: 14552, 2017 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211517


An energy gap can be opened in the spectrum of graphene reaching values as large as 0.2 eV in the case of bilayers. However, such gaps rarely lead to the highly insulating state expected at low temperatures. This long-standing puzzle is usually explained by charge inhomogeneity. Here we revisit the issue by investigating proximity-induced superconductivity in gapped graphene and comparing normal-state measurements in the Hall bar and Corbino geometries. We find that the supercurrent at the charge neutrality point in gapped graphene propagates along narrow channels near the edges. This observation is corroborated by using the edgeless Corbino geometry in which case resistivity at the neutrality point increases exponentially with increasing the gap, as expected for an ordinary semiconductor. In contrast, resistivity in the Hall bar geometry saturates to values of about a few resistance quanta. We attribute the metallic-like edge conductance to a nontrivial topology of gapped Dirac spectra.

Nano Lett ; 15(8): 4914-21, 2015 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132110


Many layered materials can be cleaved down to individual atomic planes, similar to graphene, but only a small minority of them are stable under ambient conditions. The rest react and decompose in air, which has severely hindered their investigation and potential applications. Here we introduce a remedial approach based on cleavage, transfer, alignment, and encapsulation of air-sensitive crystals, all inside a controlled inert atmosphere. To illustrate the technology, we choose two archetypal two-dimensional crystals that are of intense scientific interest but are unstable in air: black phosphorus and niobium diselenide. Our field-effect devices made from their monolayers are conductive and fully stable under ambient conditions, which is in contrast to the counterparts processed in air. NbSe2 remains superconducting down to the monolayer thickness. Starting with a trilayer, phosphorene devices reach sufficiently high mobilities to exhibit Landau quantization. The approach offers a venue to significantly expand the range of experimentally accessible two-dimensional crystals and their heterostructures.

Science ; 346(6208): 448-51, 2014 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25342798


Topological materials may exhibit Hall-like currents flowing transversely to the applied electric field even in the absence of a magnetic field. In graphene superlattices, which have broken inversion symmetry, topological currents originating from graphene's two valleys are predicted to flow in opposite directions and combine to produce long-range charge neutral flow. We observed this effect as a nonlocal voltage at zero magnetic field in a narrow energy range near Dirac points at distances as large as several micrometers away from the nominal current path. Locally, topological currents are comparable in strength with the applied current, indicating large valley-Hall angles. The long-range character of topological currents and their transistor-like control by means of gate voltage can be exploited for information processing based on valley degrees of freedom.

Nano Lett ; 14(6): 3270-6, 2014 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24844319


Hexagonal boron nitride is the only substrate that has so far allowed graphene devices exhibiting micrometer-scale ballistic transport. Can other atomically flat crystals be used as substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures? Here we report on our search for alternative substrates. The devices fabricated by encapsulating graphene with molybdenum or tungsten disulfides and hBN are found to exhibit consistently high carrier mobilities of about 60 000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). In contrast, encapsulation with atomically flat layered oxides such as mica, bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, and vanadium pentoxide results in exceptionally low quality of graphene devices with mobilities of ∼1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We attribute the difference mainly to self-cleansing that takes place at interfaces between graphene, hBN, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Surface contamination assembles into large pockets allowing the rest of the interface to become atomically clean. The cleansing process does not occur for graphene on atomically flat oxide substrates.