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1.
Nature ; 587(7834): 414-419, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208962

RESUMEN

Particulate matter is a component of ambient air pollution that has been linked to millions of annual premature deaths globally1-3. Assessments of the chronic and acute effects of particulate matter on human health tend to be based on mass concentration, with particle size and composition also thought to play a part4. Oxidative potential has been suggested to be one of the many possible drivers of the acute health effects of particulate matter, but the link remains uncertain5-8. Studies investigating the particulate-matter components that manifest an oxidative activity have yielded conflicting results7. In consequence, there is still much to be learned about the sources of particulate matter that may control the oxidative potential concentration7. Here we use field observations and air-quality modelling to quantify the major primary and secondary sources of particulate matter and of oxidative potential in Europe. We find that secondary inorganic components, crustal material and secondary biogenic organic aerosols control the mass concentration of particulate matter. By contrast, oxidative potential concentration is associated mostly with anthropogenic sources, in particular with fine-mode secondary organic aerosols largely from residential biomass burning and coarse-mode metals from vehicular non-exhaust emissions. Our results suggest that mitigation strategies aimed at reducing the mass concentrations of particulate matter alone may not reduce the oxidative potential concentration. If the oxidative potential can be linked to major health impacts, it may be more effective to control specific sources of particulate matter rather than overall particulate mass.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/química , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/química , Bronquios/citología , Células Cultivadas , Ciudades , Células Epiteliales , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Oxidación-Reducción , Población Rural , Población Urbana
2.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 68(8): 763-800, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364776

RESUMEN

Poor air quality is still a threat for human health in many parts of the world. In order to assess measures for emission reductions and improved air quality, three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport modeling systems are used in numerous research institutions and public authorities. These models need accurate emission data in appropriate spatial and temporal resolution as input. This paper reviews the most widely used emission inventories on global and regional scales and looks into the methods used to make the inventory data model ready. Shortcomings of using standard temporal profiles for each emission sector are discussed, and new methods to improve the spatiotemporal distribution of the emissions are presented. These methods are often neither top-down nor bottom-up approaches but can be seen as hybrid methods that use detailed information about the emission process to derive spatially varying temporal emission profiles. These profiles are subsequently used to distribute bulk emissions such as national totals on appropriate grids. The wide area of natural emissions is also summarized, and the calculation methods are described. Almost all types of natural emissions depend on meteorological information, which is why they are highly variable in time and space and frequently calculated within the chemistry transport models themselves. The paper closes with an outlook for new ways to improve model ready emission data, for example, by using external databases about road traffic flow or satellite data to determine actual land use or leaf area. In a world where emission patterns change rapidly, it seems appropriate to use new types of statistical and observational data to create detailed emission data sets and keep emission inventories up-to-date. IMPLICATIONS: Emission data are probably the most important input for chemistry transport model (CTM) systems. They need to be provided in high spatial and temporal resolution and on a grid that is in agreement with the CTM grid. Simple methods to distribute the emissions in time and space need to be replaced by sophisticated emission models in order to improve the CTM results. New methods, e.g., for ammonia emissions, provide grid cell-dependent temporal profiles. In the future, large data fields from traffic observations or satellite observations could be used for more detailed emission data.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/química , Humanos
3.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 17(3): 510-24, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25594282

RESUMEN

Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Combustibles Fósiles/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Clima , Modelos Teóricos
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