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Science ; 375(6579): 430-433, 2022 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084955


In thermodynamic equilibrium, current in metallic systems is carried by electronic states near the Fermi energy, whereas the filled bands underneath contribute little to conduction. Here, we describe a very different regime in which carrier distribution in graphene and its superlattices is shifted so far from equilibrium that the filled bands start playing an essential role, leading to a critical-current behavior. The criticalities develop upon the velocity of electron flow reaching the Fermi velocity. Key signatures of the out-of-equilibrium state are current-voltage characteristics that resemble those of superconductors, sharp peaks in differential resistance, sign reversal of the Hall effect, and a marked anomaly caused by the Schwinger-like production of hot electron-hole plasma. The observed behavior is expected to be common to all graphene-based superlattices.

Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2103257, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365697


Superconductors with nontrivial band structure topology represent a class of materials with unconventional and potentially useful properties. Recent years have seen much success in creating artificial hybrid structures exhibiting the main characteristics of 2D topological superconductors. Yet, bulk materials known to combine inherent superconductivity with nontrivial topology remain scarce, largely because distinguishing their central characteristic-the topological surface states-has proved challenging due to a dominant contribution from the superconducting bulk. In this work, a highly anomalous behavior of surface superconductivity in topologically nontrivial 3D superconductor In2 Bi, where the surface states result from its nontrivial band structure, itself a consequence of the non-symmorphic crystal symmetry and strong spin-orbit coupling, is reported. In contrast to smoothly decreasing diamagnetic susceptibility above the bulk critical field, Hc2 , as seen in conventional superconductors, a near-perfect, Meissner-like screening of low-frequency magnetic fields well above Hc2 is observed. The enhanced diamagnetism disappears at a new phase transition close to the critical field of surface superconductivity, Hc3 . Using theoretical modeling, the anomalous screening is shown to be consistent with modification of surface superconductivity by the topological surface states. The possibility of detecting signatures of the surface states using macroscopic magnetization provides a new tool for the discovery and identification of topological superconductors.

Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4533, 2018 10 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382090


Viscous electron fluids have emerged recently as a new paradigm of strongly-correlated electron transport in solids. Here we report on a direct observation of the transition to this long-sought-for state of matter in a high-mobility electron system in graphene. Unexpectedly, the electron flow is found to be interaction-dominated but non-hydrodynamic (quasiballistic) in a wide temperature range, showing signatures of viscous flows only at relatively high temperatures. The transition between the two regimes is characterized by a sharp maximum of negative resistance, probed in proximity to the current injector. The resistance decreases as the system goes deeper into the hydrodynamic regime. In a perfect darkness-before-daybreak manner, the interaction-dominated negative response is strongest at the transition to the quasiballistic regime. Our work provides the first demonstration of how the viscous fluid behavior emerges in an interacting electron system.

Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(3): 223-227, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870843


A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 104 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect. The conduction electrons occupy a single 2D subband and have a small effective mass. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap increases by more than 0.5 eV with decreasing the thickness from bulk to bilayer InSe. The band-edge optical response vanishes in monolayer InSe, which is attributed to the monolayer's mirror-plane symmetry. Encapsulated 2D InSe expands the family of graphene-like semiconductors and, in terms of quality, is competitive with atomically thin dichalcogenides and black phosphorus.

Nat Commun ; 7: 11670, 2016 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27241162


Although graphene has the longest mean free path of carriers of any known electronic material, very few novel devices have been reported to harness this extraordinary property. Here we demonstrate a ballistic nano-rectifier fabricated by creating an asymmetric cross-junction in single-layer graphene sandwiched between boron nitride flakes. A mobility ∼200,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is achieved at room temperature, well beyond that required for ballistic transport. This enables a voltage responsivity as high as 23,000 mV mW(-1) with a low-frequency input signal. Taking advantage of the output channels being orthogonal to the input terminals, the noise is found to be not strongly influenced by the input. Hence, the corresponding noise-equivalent power is as low as 0.64 pW Hz(-1/2). Such performance is even comparable to superconducting bolometers, which however need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, output oscillations are observed at low temperatures, the period of which agrees with the lateral size quantization.