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1.
Science ; 375(6579): 430-433, 2022 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084955

RESUMEN

In thermodynamic equilibrium, current in metallic systems is carried by electronic states near the Fermi energy, whereas the filled bands underneath contribute little to conduction. Here, we describe a very different regime in which carrier distribution in graphene and its superlattices is shifted so far from equilibrium that the filled bands start playing an essential role, leading to a critical-current behavior. The criticalities develop upon the velocity of electron flow reaching the Fermi velocity. Key signatures of the out-of-equilibrium state are current-voltage characteristics that resemble those of superconductors, sharp peaks in differential resistance, sign reversal of the Hall effect, and a marked anomaly caused by the Schwinger-like production of hot electron-hole plasma. The observed behavior is expected to be common to all graphene-based superlattices.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6392, 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737289

RESUMEN

Oscillatory magnetoresistance measurements on graphene have revealed a wealth of novel physics. These phenomena are typically studied at low currents. At high currents, electrons are driven far from equilibrium with the atomic lattice vibrations so that their kinetic energy can exceed the thermal energy of the phonons. Here, we report three non-equilibrium phenomena in monolayer graphene at high currents: (i) a "Doppler-like" shift and splitting of the frequencies of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonons emitted when the electrons undergo inter-Landau level (LL) transitions; (ii) an intra-LL Mach effect with the emission of TA phonons when the electrons approach supersonic speed, and (iii) the onset of elastic inter-LL transitions at a critical carrier drift velocity, analogous to the superfluid Landau velocity. All three quantum phenomena can be unified in a single resonance equation. They offer avenues for research on out-of-equilibrium phenomena in other two-dimensional fermion systems.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3054, 2020 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528007

RESUMEN

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

4.
Sci Adv ; 6(16): eaay7838, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494602

RESUMEN

Magnetic fields force ballistic electrons injected from a narrow contact to move along skipping orbits and form caustics. This leads to pronounced resistance peaks at nearby voltage probes as electrons are effectively focused inside them, a phenomenon known as magnetic focusing. This can be used not only for the demonstration of ballistic transport but also to study the electronic structure of metals. Here, we use magnetic focusing to probe narrowbands in graphene bilayers twisted at ~2°. Their minibands are found to support long-range ballistic transport limited at low temperatures by intrinsic electron-electron scattering. A voltage bias between the layers causes strong minivalley splitting and allows selective focusing for different minivalleys, which is of interest for using this degree of freedom in frequently discussed valleytronics.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2339, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393747

RESUMEN

Electron-electron interactions play a critical role in many condensed matter phenomena, and it is tempting to find a way to control them by changing the interactions' strength. One possible approach is to place a studied system in proximity of a metal, which induces additional screening and hence suppresses electron interactions. Here, using devices with atomically-thin gate dielectrics and atomically-flat metallic gates, we measure the electron-electron scattering length in graphene and report qualitative deviations from the standard behavior. The changes induced by screening become important only at gate dielectric thicknesses of a few nm, much smaller than a typical separation between electrons. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with the scattering rates extracted from measurements of electron viscosity in monolayer graphene and of umklapp electron-electron scattering in graphene superlattices. The results provide a guidance for future attempts to achieve proximity screening of many-body phenomena in two-dimensional systems.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4008, 2019 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488842

RESUMEN

At very small twist angles of ∼0.1°, bilayer graphene exhibits a strain-accompanied lattice reconstruction that results in submicron-size triangular domains with the standard, Bernal stacking. If the interlayer bias is applied to open an energy gap inside the domain regions making them insulating, such marginally twisted bilayer graphene is expected to remain conductive due to a triangular network of chiral one-dimensional states hosted by domain boundaries. Here we study electron transport through this helical network and report giant Aharonov-Bohm oscillations that reach in amplitude up to 50% of resistivity and persist to temperatures above 100 K. At liquid helium temperatures, the network exhibits another kind of oscillations that appear as a function of carrier density and are accompanied by a sign-changing Hall effect. The latter are attributed to consecutive population of the narrow minibands formed by the network of one-dimensional states inside the gap.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3334, 2019 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350410

RESUMEN

Van der Waals materials and their heterostructures offer a versatile platform for studying a variety of quantum transport phenomena due to their unique crystalline properties and the exceptional ability in tuning their electronic spectrum. However, most experiments are limited to devices that have lateral dimensions of only a few micrometres. Here, we perform magnetotransport measurements on graphene/hexagonal boron-nitride Hall bars and show that wider devices reveal additional quantum effects. In devices wider than ten micrometres we observe distinct magnetoresistance oscillations that are caused by resonant scattering of Landau-quantised Dirac electrons by acoustic phonons in graphene. The study allows us to accurately determine graphene's low energy phonon dispersion curves and shows that transverse acoustic modes cause most of phonon scattering. Our work highlights the crucial importance of device width when probing quantum effects and also demonstrates a precise, spectroscopic method for studying electron-phonon interactions in van der Waals heterostructures.

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