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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23626, 2021 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880294

RESUMEN

We show a method to control magnetic interfacial effects in multilayers with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) using helium (He[Formula: see text]) ion irradiation. We report results from SQUID magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance as well as Brillouin light scattering results on multilayers with DMI as a function of irradiation fluence to study the effect of irradiation on the magnetic properties of the multilayers. Our results show clear evidence of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation effects on the magnetic properties which is consistent with interface modification due to the effects of the He[Formula: see text] irradiation. This external degree of freedom offers promising perspectives to further improve the control of magnetic skyrmions in multilayers, that could push them towards integration in future technologies.

2.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6730, 2015 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25823949

RESUMEN

Recently discovered relativistic spin torques induced by a lateral current at a ferromagnet/paramagnet interface are a candidate spintronic technology for a new generation of electrically controlled magnetic memory devices. The focus of our work is to experimentally disentangle the perceived two model physical mechanisms of the relativistic spin torques, one driven by the spin-Hall effect and the other one by the inverse spin-galvanic effect. Here, we show a vector analysis of the torques in a prepared epitaxial transition-metal ferromagnet/semiconductor-paramagnet single-crystal structure by means of the all-electrical ferromagnetic resonance technique. By choice of our structure in which the semiconductor paramagnet has a Dresselhaus crystal inversion asymmetry, the system is favourable for separating the torques due to the inverse spin-galvanic effect and spin-Hall effect mechanisms into the field-like and antidamping-like components, respectively. Since they contribute to distinct symmetry torque components, the two microscopic mechanisms do not compete but complement each other in our system.

3.
Nat Mater ; 13(10): 932-7, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108612

RESUMEN

Controlling spin-related material properties by electronic means is a key step towards future spintronic technologies. The spin Hall effect (SHE) has become increasingly important for generating, detecting and using spin currents, but its strength--quantified in terms of the SHE angle--is ultimately fixed by the magnitude of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) present for any given material system. However, if the electrons generating the SHE can be controlled by populating different areas (valleys) of the electronic structure with different SOC characteristic the SHE angle can be tuned directly within a single sample. Here we report the manipulation of the SHE in bulk GaAs at room temperature by means of an electrical intervalley transition induced in the conduction band. The spin Hall angle was determined by measuring an electromotive force driven by photoexcited spin-polarized electrons drifting through GaAs Hall bars. By controlling electron populations in different (Γ and L) valleys, we manipulated the angle from 0.0005 to 0.02. This change by a factor of 40 is unprecedented in GaAs and the highest value achieved is comparable to that of the heavy metal Pt.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(3): 211-7, 2014 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584275

RESUMEN

Magnetization switching at the interface between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic metals, controlled by current-induced torques, could be exploited in magnetic memory technologies. Compelling questions arise regarding the role played in the switching by the spin Hall effect in the paramagnet and by the spin-orbit torque originating from the broken inversion symmetry at the interface. Of particular importance are the antidamping components of these current-induced torques acting against the equilibrium-restoring Gilbert damping of the magnetization dynamics. Here, we report the observation of an antidamping spin-orbit torque that stems from the Berry curvature, in analogy to the origin of the intrinsic spin Hall effect. We chose the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As as a material system because its crystal inversion asymmetry allows us to measure bare ferromagnetic films, rather than ferromagnetic-paramagnetic heterostructures, eliminating by design any spin Hall effect contribution. We provide an intuitive picture of the Berry curvature origin of this antidamping spin-orbit torque as well as its microscopic modelling. We expect the Berry curvature spin-orbit torque to be of comparable strength to the spin-Hall-effect-driven antidamping torque in ferromagnets interfaced with paramagnets with strong intrinsic spin Hall effect.

5.
Ultramicroscopy ; 120: 78-85, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22842114

RESUMEN

Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov-Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small.

6.
Nat Mater ; 10(9): 655-9, 2011 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21706009

RESUMEN

Injection of spin currents into solids is crucial for exploring spin physics and spintronics. There has been significant progress in recent years in spin injection into high-resistivity materials, for example, semiconductors and organic materials, which uses tunnel barriers to circumvent the impedance mismatch problem; the impedance mismatch between ferromagnetic metals and high-resistivity materials drastically limits the spin-injection efficiency. However, because of this problem, there is no route for spin injection into these materials through low-resistivity interfaces, that is, Ohmic contacts, even though this promises an easy and versatile pathway for spin injection without the need for growing high-quality tunnel barriers. Here we show experimental evidence that spin pumping enables spin injection free from this condition; room-temperature spin injection into GaAs from Ni(81)Fe(19) through an Ohmic contact is demonstrated through dynamical spin exchange. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this exchange can be controlled electrically by applying a bias voltage across a Ni(81)Fe(19)/GaAs interface, enabling electric tuning of the spin-pumping efficiency.

7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 6(7): 413-7, 2011 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21602814

RESUMEN

Ferromagnetic resonance is the most widely used technique for characterizing ferromagnetic materials. However, its use is generally restricted to wafer-scale samples or specific micro-magnetic devices, such as spin valves, which have a spatially varying magnetization profile and where ferromagnetic resonance can be induced by an alternating current owing to angular momentum transfer. Here we introduce a form of ferromagnetic resonance in which an electric current oscillating at microwave frequencies is used to create an effective magnetic field in the magnetic material being probed, which makes it possible to characterize individual nanoscale samples with uniform magnetization profiles. The technique takes advantage of the microscopic non-collinearity of individual electron spins arising from spin-orbit coupling and bulk or structural inversion asymmetry in the band structure of the sample. We characterize lithographically patterned (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)(As,P) nanoscale bars, including broadband measurements of resonant damping as a function of frequency, and measurements of anisotropy as a function of bar width and strain. In addition, vector magnetometry on the driving fields reveals contributions with the symmetry of both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions.

8.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11915284

RESUMEN

Teratogenicity of N-methylphenyl-N'-methylphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (MMPD), a rubber antioxidant, was examined in Wistar rats. MMPD was given to pregnant rats by gavage once a day from day 6 through day 15 of pregnancy at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day. The pregnant rats were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy and their fetuses were examined. MMPD was not maternal toxicity at any dose. MMPD did not affect growth or morphological development of fetuses. MMPD caused early embryonic death at 8 mg/kg. It was concluded from these results that the no-observed-adverse-effect level was 2 mg/kg/day for rat fetuses, and 8 mg/kg/day or higher for pregnant rats. The teratogenicity of MMPD was inconclusive due to its embryo-fetal lethality.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/toxicidad , Feto/efectos de los fármacos , Fenilendiaminas/toxicidad , Anomalías Inducidas por Medicamentos , Administración Oral , Animales , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Masculino , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Goma
9.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11534126

RESUMEN

Teratogenicity of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-1-propanol (5FP), an alternative cleaning agent for chlorofluorocarbon, was examined in rats. 5FP was diluted with sesame oil and given to pregnant rats (Crj: Wistar) by gavage once a day from day 7 to 17 of pregnancy at doses of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day. The pregnant rats were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy and their fetuses were examined for malformation. In the pregnant rats, 5FP caused wheezing, salivation, ptosis, reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day. In the fetuses, 5FP reduced body weight, increased the incidences of skeletal variations and retarded the ossification at 1000 mg/kg/day, but did not increase the incidences of malformations. It was concluded from these results that 5FP has no teratogenicity in rats when given by gavage. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was 500 mg/kg/day for rat fetuses, and 250 mg/kg/day for pregnant rats.


Asunto(s)
Detergentes/toxicidad , Fluorocarburos/toxicidad , Propanoles/toxicidad , Anomalías Inducidas por Medicamentos , Administración Oral , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Detergentes/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Feto/efectos de los fármacos , Fluorocarburos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Intercambio Materno-Fetal , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Embarazo , Propanoles/administración & dosificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
10.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11534127

RESUMEN

Teratogenicity of morpholine salts of fatty acids was examined in Wistar rats (Crj: Wistar). Morpholine salts of fatty acids (oleic acid, 50% water solution) was given to pregnant rats by gavage once a day from day 6 through day 15 of pregnancy at doses of 0, 234, 468 and 936 mg/kg/day. The pregnant rats were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy and their fetuses were examined for malformation. Morpholine salts of fatty acids caused nasal discharge, dirty nose and salivation in pregnant rats at doses from 234 mg/kg/day. However, fetal effects, such as malformation and growth retardation, were not observed even at 936 mg/kg. It was concluded that morpholine salts of fatty acids has no teratogenicity in rats when given by oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was 936 mg/kg/day for rat fetuses and less than 234 mg/kg/day for pregnant rats.


Asunto(s)
Aditivos Alimentarios/toxicidad , Ácido Oléico/toxicidad , Anomalías Inducidas por Medicamentos , Administración Oral , Animales , Desarrollo Embrionario y Fetal/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Feto/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Intercambio Materno-Fetal , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
11.
Xenobiotica ; 30(10): 1005-17, 2000 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11315102

RESUMEN

1. The in vitro metabolic activation of o-phenylphenol has been evaluated as yielding a toxic metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (phenylhydroquinone), by p-hydroxylation in liver microsomes of rat and human. The involvement of rat CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and human CYP1A2 in the p-hydroxylation of o-phenylphenol is suggested. 2. 2,3- and phenylhydroquinone, which induced DNA single-strand scission in the presence of 1 microM CuCl2, were the most cytotoxic chemicals examined to cultured mammalian cell lines among o-phenylphenol, m-phenylphenol, p-phenylphenol, 2,2'-, 4,4'-, 2,3- and phenylhydroquinone. 3. Rat and human liver microsomes catalysed the formation of phenylhydroquinone, but not 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, using o-phenylphenol as a substrate. A higher rate of metabolic activation of o-phenylphenol was observed with livers of the male than the female rats by 5.6- and 2.6-fold respectively. 4. Inhibitory antibodies against the male-specific CYP2C11 inhibited hepatic o-phenylphenol p-hydroxylation in the male F344 and Sprague-Dawley rat by > 70%. Liver microsomes from the isoniazid-treated rats produced 1.8- and 3-fold induction of o-phenylphenol p-hydroxylation and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (a CYP2E1-dependent activity) respectively. 5. Human CYP1A2, expressed by baculovirus-mediated cDNA expression systems, exhibited a remarkably higher capacity for o-phenylphenol p-hydroxylation at concentrations of 5 (> 5-fold), 50 (> 2-fold) and 500 microM (> 2-fold) than CYP2A, CYP2B, CYP2Cs, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 on the basis of pmol P450. 6. Among various CYP inhibitors tested here, 7,8-benzoflavone and furafylline, typical human CYP1A2 inhibitors, inhibited the microsomal p-hydroxylation of o-phenylphenol in human livers most potently by 70 and 50% respectively. 7. The results thus indicate the involvement of rat CYP2C11/CYP2E1 and human CYP1A2 in the hepatic p-hydroxylation of o-phenylphenol.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburo de Aril Hidroxilasas , Compuestos de Bifenilo/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Hidroquinonas/farmacocinética , Microsomas Hepáticos/enzimología , Fenoles/farmacocinética , Polímeros/farmacocinética , Esteroide 16-alfa-Hidroxilasa , Esteroide Hidroxilasas/metabolismo , Animales , Biotransformación , Compuestos de Bifenilo/toxicidad , Familia 2 del Citocromo P450 , Citocromos , Humanos , Hidroquinonas/toxicidad , Hidroxilación , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Cinética , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentales , Masculino , Polifenoles , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas F344 , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Células Tumorales Cultivadas
12.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10859940

RESUMEN

The teratogenicity of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) was assessed in Wistar rats (Crj: Wistar). Sodium chlorite dissolved in distilled water was given to pregnant Wistar rats by gavage once a day from day 6 through 15 of pregnancy at doses of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The pregnant rats were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy, and their fetuses were examined for malformations. Sodium chlorite caused decreased food consumption, anemia, sedation, hematuria, and death in the pregnant rats at 100 mg/kg, but no fetal effects, such as malformations or growth retardation, were observed even at 100 mg/kg. It was concluded that sodium chlorite has no teratogenicity in rats when administered orally. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was 50 mg/kg/day for pregnant rats and 100 mg/kg/day or more for rat fetuses.


Asunto(s)
Cloruros/toxicidad , Anomalías Inducidas por Medicamentos , Administración Oral , Anemia/inducido químicamente , Animales , Cloruros/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Desarrollo Embrionario y Fetal/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Hematuria/inducido químicamente , Masculino , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18267610

RESUMEN

To measure the characteristics of ultrasonic motors, such as the maximum torque, torque-speed relationship and the frictional coefficient at the contact surface, a method in which the torque is calculated from the transient responses is proposed. The rise curve that is the transitional change in the rotor speed soon after turning on the motor gives the load characteristics, while the fall curve that is the decay of the rotor speed after turning off the motor yields the frictional coefficient of the contact surface. This method requires only a short time (the transient time of the motor) to complete the measurement. The relations between the transient responses, the load characteristics and the frictional force are analyzed, and the method is applied to a hybrid transducer type rotary motor and a traveling wave type linear motor.

14.
Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom ; 18(9): 724-6, 1989 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2790259

RESUMEN

The combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is effective for separation and identification of the hydroxylamine metabolites of alicyclic primary amines after acetylation. These products give mass spectra containing diagnostic fragment ions which are of great value for identification of metabolites. The mass spectra of diacetyl alicyclic primary hydroxylamines gave prominent characteristic peaks at m/z (M - 42), (M - 42 - 42), (M - 101), 118 (AcNOAc) and 76 (AcNOH). GC/MS analysis of the incubation extracts has shown that the N-hydroxylamines are the major metabolites of alicyclic primary amines in rabbit liver microsomes.


Asunto(s)
Hidroxilaminas/análisis , Animales , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hidroxilaminas/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Microsomas Hepáticos/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Oxígeno , Conejos
15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 37(4): 1097-9, 1989 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2766411

RESUMEN

In order to investigate the isotope effect on the microsomal oxidative deamination of cyclohexylamine, alpha-deuterium(D)-labelled cyclohexylamine was synthesized. The deuterium labelling was found exclusively at the alpha-position with a purity of greater than 99 atom percent. Metabolic studies in vitro indicate that a significant deuterium isotope effect operates in the oxidative deamination of alpha-D-labelled cyclohexylamine. On incubation with rabbit liver microsomes in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and oxygen, the ratio of apparent deamination rate constants (kH/kD) was 2.0 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- S.D.).


Asunto(s)
Ciclohexilaminas/síntesis química , Microsomas Hepáticos/metabolismo , Animales , Ciclohexilaminas/metabolismo , Desaminación , Técnicas In Vitro , Marcaje Isotópico , Conejos
16.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 270(1): 320-9, 1989 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2930194

RESUMEN

Deuterium isotope effects on the kinetic parameters for deamination and N-hydroxylation of cyclohexylamine (CHA) catalyzed by rabbit liver microsomes with NADPH are investigated. Both reactions are inhibited by carbon monoxide and have the characteristics of typical cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase reactions. A small and significant deuterium isotope effect operates in the oxidative deamination of CHA. The apparent isotope effects, i.e., VH/VD and (V/K)H/(V/K)D ratios for deamination, are 1.75 and 1.8-2.3, respectively. On the basis of N-hydroxylation, the VH/VD and (V/K)H/(V/K)D ratios are 0.8-0.9. The N-hydroxylation rate of alpha-deuterated CHA (D-CHA) is somewhat higher than that of CHA. The increased increment of hydroxylamine formation seems to coincide with the decreased amount of deamination. Substitution of deuterium in the alpha-position of CHA results in metabolic switching of cytochrome P450 from deamination to N-hydroxylation with low deuterium isotope effects. The data are interpreted in terms of an initial one-electron abstraction from the nitrogen to form an aminium cation radical followed by recombination with iron-bound hydroxyl radical leading to N-hydroxylamine, or followed by alpha-carbon deprotonation to form a neutral carbon radical. The latter can lead to a carbinolamine intermediate for deamination by way of imine or recombination with nascent iron-bound hydroxyl radical. The relative rates of the reactions depend on the alpha-carbon deprotonation rates of amines.


Asunto(s)
Ciclohexilaminas/metabolismo , Deuterio , Microsomas Hepáticos/metabolismo , Animales , Monóxido de Carbono/farmacología , Cromatografía de Gases , Desaminación , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hidroxilación , Cinética , Masculino , Microsomas Hepáticos/enzimología , NADP/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción/efectos de los fármacos , Oxígeno/farmacología , Conejos
17.
Xenobiotica ; 18(9): 1039-48, 1988 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3227703

RESUMEN

1. Substrate selectivity and species difference in the oxidative deamination of the alicyclic primary amines, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine, cycloheptylamine, 1- and 2-aminoindane, and 1- and 2-aminotetralin were studied using liver microsomes from rats and rabbits. 2. The deamination rates of the amines were much greater with liver microsomes from rabbits than from rats. Substrate selectivity resulted in much faster deamination of 1-aminoindane and 1-aminotetralin than of the corresponding 2-amino compounds, especially in rats. 3. When 1-aminoindane and 1-aminotetralin were incubated with rat liver microsomes and NADPH under 18O2, oxygen-18 was incorporated into the deaminated products, 1-indanone and 1-tetralone. The carbinolamine is a key intermediate in the oxidative deamination by rat liver microsomes, indicating the contribution of cytochrome P-450-dependent alpha-C-oxidation to the reaction. 4. Alicyclic primary amines gave type II binding spectra with rat and rabbit liver microsomes, but the spectra appeared to contain type I components. 5. The ratios of the alcohols, cyclohexanol, 2-tetralol and 2-indanol in the deaminated products were high in both rats and rabbits. The ketones were precursors of the alcohols, and substrate selectivity in reduction of the alicyclic ketones with NADPH was similar in both species.


Asunto(s)
Aminas/metabolismo , Microsomas Hepáticos/metabolismo , Animales , Cromatografía de Gases , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Masculino , Oxidación-Reducción , Isótopos de Oxígeno , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas , Espectrofotometría , Relación Estructura-Actividad
18.
J Toxicol Sci ; 13(2): 61-70, 1988 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3172283

RESUMEN

The thyrotoxic effect of Rose bengal (RB) (4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodofluorescein disodium salt; Food Red No. 105) was examined in male (C57BL/6N X C3H/N) F1 mice. They were given drinking-water containing RB at levels of 0 (control), 0.125 and 0.250% for 2 weeks. The effect resulted in decreases in serum levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and slight increases in serum 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels and thyroid weight, but no difference in the values for the body-weight gain, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activities. However, the in vitro inhibitory effect of RB on TPO activity was observed by addition of RB to the TPO-catalyzed guaiacol oxidation. These results suggest that RB might have weak goitrogenic properties, inhibiting the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 and/or inhibiting TPO to lead a decrease of T4 and T3 formation.


Asunto(s)
Yoduro Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Rosa Bengala/farmacología , Hormonas Tiroideas/sangre , Animales , Yoduro Peroxidasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos , Glándula Tiroides/efectos de los fármacos , Glándula Tiroides/enzimología , Glándula Tiroides/metabolismo , Hormonas Tiroideas/biosíntesis , Tirotropina/sangre , Tiroxina/biosíntesis , Tiroxina/sangre , Triyodotironina/biosíntesis , Triyodotironina/sangre , Triyodotironina Inversa/sangre
20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 77(3): 395-404, 1985 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3919466

RESUMEN

The metabolism and disposition of tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TPCP) were studied in the rat after a single oral administration of [methyl-14C] TPCP. At a dosage of 7.8 mg/kg, most of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine (41%) and feces (44%) in 7 days. For 3 days, the expiratory excretion as 14CO2 amounted to 18% of the radioactivity, but was reduced to 3% by treatment of the animal with neomycin. In separate rats, the biliary excretion amounted to 28% of the dose in 24 hr. At a dose of 89.6 mg/kg, the radioactivity was excreted in urine (12%) and feces (77%) in 7 days, and the expired air (6%) in 3 days. At 24, 72, and 168 hr after oral administration, the concentration of radioactivity was relatively high in adipose tissue, liver, and kidney. The major urinary metabolites were p-hydroxybenzoic acid, di-p-cresyl phosphate (DCP), and p-cresyl p-carboxyphenyl phosphate (1coDCP). The biliary metabolites were DCP, 1coDCP, and the oxidized triesters, di-p-cresyl p-carboxyphenyl phosphate (1coTPCP), and p-cresyl di-p-carboxyphenyl phosphate (2coTPCP). The main fecal metabolite was TPCP, and the others were similar to those of bile. Following oral administration, TPCP was absorbed from the intestine, distributed to the fatty tissues, and moderately metabolized to a variety of products of oxidation and dearylation of TPCP, which were then excreted in the urine, feces, bile, and expired air. The intestinal microflora appeared to play an important role in degrading biliary metabolites to 14CO2 through the enterohepatic circulation in rats.


Asunto(s)
Cresoles/metabolismo , Retardadores de Llama , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Tritolilfosfatos/metabolismo , Animales , Bilis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Heces/análisis , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Neomicina/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas , Tritolilfosfatos/toxicidad
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