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1.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(8): 895-904, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620521

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced by high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with liver steatosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, which can be eluded by the co-administration of the lipid metabolism modulator docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol (HT). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice fed a HFD were orally administered either with vehicle, DHA, HT or DHA+HT for 12 weeks. We measured parameters related to insulin resistance, serum lipid levels, liver fatty acid (FA) content and steatosis score, concomitantly with those associated with mitochondrial energy functions modulated by the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a. RESULTS: HFD induced insulin resistance, liver steatosis with n-3 FA depletion, and loss of mitochondrial respiratory functions with diminished NAD+/NADH ratio and ATP levels compared with CD, with the parallel decrease in the expression of the components of the PGC-1α cascade, namely, PPAR-α, FGF21 and AMPK, effects that were not observed in mice subjected to DHA and HT co-administration. CONCLUSIONS: Data presented indicate that the combination of DHA and HT prevents the development of liver steatosis and the associated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by HFD, thus strengthening the significance of this protocol as a therapeutic strategy avoiding disease evolution into more irreversible forms characterised by the absence of adequate pharmacological therapy in human obesity.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(S1): s39-s50, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between malnutrition, socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity in Chilean adult population. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey (ENS) conducted in 2016-2017. Sociodemographic information, weight, height and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured (2003 ENS). Excess weight was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Undernutrition included underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), short stature (height <1·49 m in women and <1·62 m in men) or anaemia (Hb <12 g/l). Education and household income level were used as indicators of SES; ethnicity was self-reported. We applied linear combinations of estimators to compare the prevalence of excess weight and undernutrition by SES and ethnicity. SETTING: Chile. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 5082 adults ≥20 years (64 % women) and 1739 women ≥20 years for anaemia analyses. RESULTS: Overall, >75 % of women and men had excess weight. Low SES women either by income or education had higher excess weight ((82·0 (77·1, 86·1) v. 65·0 (54·8, 74·1)) by income; (85·3 (80·6, 89·0) v. 68·2 (61·6, 74·1) %) by education) and short stature (20-49 years; 31(17·9, 48·2) v. 5·2 (2·2,11·4) by education); obesity was also more frequent among indigenous women (20-49 years; 55·8 (44·4, 66·6) v. 37·2 (32·7, 42·0) %) than non-indigenous women. In men, excess weight did not significantly differ by SES or ethnicity, but short stature concentrated in low SES (20-49 years; 47·6 (24·6, 71·6) v. 4·5 (2·1, 9·5) by education) and indigenous men (21·5 (11·9, 5·5, 11·9) v. 8·2 (5·5, 11·9)) (P < 0·05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, malnutrition is disproportionately concentrated among women of low SES and indigenous origin; these inequalities should be considered when implementing prevention policies.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007744

RESUMEN

The administration of iron induces liver oxidative stress and depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio enhancement and fat accumulation, which may be prevented by antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil (AR-EVOO) supplementation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (50 mg iron/kg diet) or iron-rich diet (IRD; 200 mg/kg diet) with alternate AR-EVOO for 21 days. Liver fatty acid (FA) analysis was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) after lipid extraction and fractionation, besides Δ-5 desaturase (Δ-5 D) and Δ6-D mRNA expression (qPCR) and activity (GLC) measurements. The IRD significantly (p < 0.05) increased hepatic total fat, triacylglycerols, free FA contents and serum transaminases levels, with diminution in those of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs, higher n-6/n-3 ratios, lower unsaturation index and Δ5-D and Δ6-D activities, whereas the mRNA expression of both desaturases was enhanced over control values, changes that were prevented by concomitant AR-EVOO supplementation. N-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs were also decreased by IRD in extrahepatic tissues and normalized by AR-EVOO. In conclusion, AR-EVOO supplementation prevents IRD-induced changes in parameters related to liver FA metabolism and steatosis, an effect that may have a significant impact in the treatment of iron-related pathologies or metabolic disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Ácido Graso Desaturasas/genética , Hígado Graso/prevención & control , Hierro/efectos adversos , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturasa/genética , Aceite de Oliva/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Cromatografía de Gases , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Hígado Graso/inducido químicamente , Hígado Graso/epidemiología , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Aceite de Oliva/química , Aceite de Oliva/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
5.
Food Chem ; 274: 123-129, 2019 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372916

RESUMEN

Fatty acid profiles and distribution among lipid classes in the edible parts of seven commonly consumed marine fishes in Chile were investigated. Peruvian morwong, Chilean jack mackerel and Pacific sandperch were found to be the richest sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with 440.2, 343.7 and 313.9 mg EPA + DHA/100 g raw fillet respectively among the studied fishes. DHA was mainly found in the phospholipid fraction in all cases, following EPA the same trend except for Pacific sandperch, Chilean hake (most EPA in triacylglycerols) and Peruvian morwong (most EPA as free fatty acid). A very favorable n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio was found in all studied species, and PUFA/SFA ratios ranged between 0.94 and 1.72, which is desirable to keep a healthy cardiovascular status. This is the first study reporting fatty acid profiles and distribution of commonly consumed marine fishes in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Productos Pesqueros/análisis , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , Chile , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/análisis , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/química , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/análisis , Peces , Perciformes , Triglicéridos/análisis
6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 162(2): 343-352, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132392

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: High mammographic breast density (BD) is a strong risk factor of breast cancer; however, little is known in women under 40 years of age. Recently, dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) has been developed as a low-dose method to measure BD in young populations. Thus, our aims were to describe BD in relation to risk factors in Chilean women under 40 years old and to explore the equivalence of DXA to mammography for the measurement of BD. METHODS: We selected 192 premenopausal Chilean female participants of the DERCAM study for whom we have anthropometric, sociodemographic, and gyneco-obstetric data. The subjects received both digital mammograms (Hologic) and breast DXA scans (GE iDXA). Mammographic BD was estimated using a fully automated commercial method (VOLPARA®) and BI-RADS. Breast DXA scans were performed using a standardized protocol and the % fibroglandular volume (%FGV) was estimated considering a two-compartment model of adipose and fibroglandular tissue. RESULTS: The mean age was 37 years (SD = 6.5) and 31.6% of the subjects were obese. The median %FGV and absolute FGV (AFGV) measured by DXA were 9% and 198.1 cm3 and for VOLPARA®, 8.6% and 58.0 cm3, respectively. The precision for %FGV after reposition was 2.8%. The correlation coefficients for %FGV, AFGV, and breast volume between DXA and mammography were over 0.7. Age and body mass index (BMI) were inversely associated with %FGV, and BMI was positively related to AFGV as estimated with DXA or mammography. We did not observe an association with gyneco-obstetric characteristics, education, and %FGV and AFGV; smoking was only associated with AFGV as measured by VOLPARA®. CONCLUSIONS: DXA is an alternative method to measure volumetric BD; thus, it could be used to continuously monitor BD in adult women in follow-up studies or to assess BD in young women.


Asunto(s)
Densidad de la Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Premenopausia , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Mamografía , Oportunidad Relativa , Vigilancia de la Población , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Br J Nutr ; 115(10): 1780-9, 2016 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988836

RESUMEN

Conditional cash-transfer (CCT) programmes have been shown to improve the nutritional and health status of children from poor families. However, CCT programmes may have unintended and not fully known consequences by increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. We examined the impact of Familias en Acción (FA), a large CCT programme in Colombia, on the double burden of malnutrition among pre-school and school-aged children. Height and weight were measured before programme enrolment and during follow-ups in 1290 children from thirty-one treatment municipalities, being compared with 1584 children from sixty-two matched control municipalities. We used a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the effect of FA on children's stunting, BMI z-scores, thinness, overweight and obesity, controlling for individual and municipality-level confounders. At baseline, the prevalences of stunting and overweight were 30·3 and 15·4 %, respectively, in treatment municipalities and 27·9 and 17·4 % in control municipalities. FA was associated with reduced odds of thinness (OR 0·26; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·75) and higher BMI-for-age z-scores (BMI z-scores) (ß 0·14; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·27; P<0·05), although the latter was of small clinical significance. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity decreased over time, but the effect of FA on these outcomes was not significant. The CCT programme in Colombia reduced the odds of thinness, but had no effect on stunting, a more prevalent outcome. The FA programme had no effect on overweight or obesity, although BMI z-scores were higher for children under treatment, raising the possibility of an increase of small clinical significance on BMI among pre-school and school-aged children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Asistencia Pública , Delgadez/epidemiología , Estatura , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Public Health Nutr ; 19(14): 2629-42, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26917239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes provide income to low-income families in return for fulfilling specific behavioural conditions. CCT have been shown to improve child health, but there are few systematic studies of their impact on multiple determinants of child health. We examined the impact of a CCT programme in Colombia on: (i) use of preventive health services; (ii) food consumption and dietary diversity; (iii) mother's knowledge, attitudes and practices about caregiving practices; (iv) maternal employment; and (v) women's empowerment. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the quasi-experimental evaluation of the Familias en Accion programme. Children and families were assessed in 2002, 2003 and 2005-06. We applied a difference-in-differences approach using logistic or linear regression, separately examining effects for urban and rural areas. SETTING: Colombia. SUBJECTS: Children (n 1450) and their families in thirty-one treatment municipalities were compared with children (n 1851) from sixty-five matched control municipalities. RESULTS: Familias en Accion was associated with a significant increase in the probability of using preventive care services (OR=1·85, 95 % CI 1·03, 3·30) and growth and development check-ups (ß=1·36, 95 % CI 0·76, 1·95). It had also a positive impact on dietary diversity and food consumption. No effect was observed on maternal employment, women's empowerment, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about caregiving practices. Overall, Familias en Accion's impact was more marked in rural areas. CONCLUSION: CCT in Colombia increase contact with preventive care services and improve dietary diversity, but they are less effective in influencing mother's employment decisions, empowerment and knowledge of caregiving practices.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Pobreza , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Asistencia Pública , Niño , Colombia , Dieta , Empleo , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Madres
9.
Br J Nutr ; 105(12): 1832-42, 2011 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21281544

RESUMEN

Poor physical fitness is associated with increased health-related risks in children. The association of nutritional status indicators and physical fitness in children residing in developing countries is not well characterised. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1945 children of age 5-12 years in Bogotá, Colombia, to assess whether anthropometric and micronutrient status indicators were associated with performance in the shuttle run and standing long jump tests. Stunted children scored significantly lower in the run (0·4 s; P = 0·0002) and jump (6 cm; boys only; P = 0·003) tests than non-stunted children, after adjustment for age and other factors. Children who were thin, overweight or obese ran slower than normal-weight children (P < 0·01). Lower jump scores were associated with overweight or obesity and greater arm fat area in boys only (P < 0·0001). Girls with low ferritin concentrations ran 0·6 s slower than girls with normal ferritin concentrations (P = 0·02). Erythrocyte folate concentrations were linearly related to higher run (P < 0·0001) and long jump scores (P = 0·0001). Boys with marginal or low vitamin B12 status had 4 cm lower long jump scores than children with normal status (P = 0·01). Suboptimal anthropometric and micronutrient status are related to poorer performance in fitness tests. The effects of improving nutritional status on physical fitness of children warrant investigation.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría/métodos , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Micronutrientes/sangre , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ferritinas/sangre , Ácido Fólico/sangre , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Instituciones Académicas , Delgadez , Vitamina B 12/sangre
10.
Food Nutr Bull ; 30(2): 103-11, 2009 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19689088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Latin America, the burden of vitamin A and iron deficiencies has been documented primarily in preschool-age children. There are few recent reports on the vitamin A and iron status of school-age children. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of vitamin A and iron deficiencies in Colombian schoolchildren. METHODS: We examined plasma retinol and ferritin concentrations in relation to socioeconomic and anthropometric factors in a representative sample of 2811 low- and middle-income children 5 to 12 years of age in Bogotá, Colombia. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of deficiencies of vitamin A (plasma retinol < 0.70 micromol/L) and iron (plasma ferritin <15 microg/L) were 14% and 3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, plasma retinol concentrations were positively associated with child's age and household's socioeconomic stratum, whereas ferritin concentrations were positively related to child's age, number of home assets, and having a nonsingle mother. Ferritin concentrations were much lower among girls than boys in the 11- and 12-year-old age group, whereas there were only small positive differences between girls and boys in younger children (p for interaction < .0001). Both vitamin A and iron deficiencies were independently associated with lower z-scores for body-mass-index-for-age, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and C-reactive protein concentrations. Neither vitamin A nor iron status was related to height-for-age. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rates of vitamin A and iron deficiencies among schoolchildren from Bogotd, Colombia, are not negligible. Both vitamin A and iron status are positively associated with socioeconomic status and anthropometric indices. The effect of improving vitamin A and iron status on physical growth and other functional outcomes needs to be further examined in this age group.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Ferropénica/epidemiología , Ferritinas/sangre , Hierro/deficiencia , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/epidemiología , Vitamina A/sangre , Factores de Edad , Anemia Ferropénica/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Hierro/sangre , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud Urbana , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/sangre
11.
J Nutr ; 139(9): 1744-50, 2009 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19587125

RESUMEN

In 2004, Bogotá's Secretary of Education (SED) initiated a snack program in public primary schools. A midmorning food ration was provided free of charge to children to supplement 30 and 50% of their daily requirements of energy and iron, respectively. The purpose of this study, an observational investigation of 3202 children ages 5-12 y, was to examine whether the snack program improved children's nutritional and health status. We measured micronutrient levels (plasma ferritin and vitamin B-12, and erythrocyte folate), anthropometry, and reported morbidity during the first semester of the 2006 school year. After adjusting for socioeconomic status and other school interventions, children at schools receiving the snack (n = 1803) had greater increases in plasma vitamin B-12 (42 pmol/L; P < 0.0001) from baseline to 3 mo of follow-up than children at schools not receiving the snack (n = 1399). They also experienced a smaller decrease in height-for-age Z-scores than children who did not receive the snack (P = 0.001). Provision of the SED snack was associated with significantly fewer reported days with morbidity symptoms (e.g. cough with fever, diarrhea with vomiting), 44% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.02), and 23% fewer days of school absenteeism (P = 0.03). The snack was not related to ferritin or folate levels. In conclusion, provision of a school-administered snack was related to improved vitamin B-12 status and linear growth and decreased reported morbidity. Although provision of the snack was not related to BMI changes over a 4-mo period, snack components such as candy and sugar-sweetened beverages should be replaced with healthier options, as the rates of child overweight in Colombia are not negligible.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Dietéticos , Trastornos del Crecimiento/dietoterapia , Crecimiento , Estado de Salud , Estado Nutricional , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Vitamina B 12/sangre , Estatura , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/sangre , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Observación , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 12(4): 531-7, 2009 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18426633

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine correlates of home usage of commercially available cooking fats in Bogotá, Colombia and to determine their fatty acid composition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Bogotá, Colombia. SUBJECTS: A representative sample of low- and middle-income families (n 2408). RESULTS: The types of fat primarily used for cooking at home were mixed vegetable oils (66 %), sunflower oil (21 %) and other oils/fats including margarine (13 %). In multivariate analysis, usage of sunflower oil as the primary cooking fat was positively related to home ownership, age of the father and health as a reason for choosing the main cooking fat, and inversely associated with the number of people per room and an index of household food insecurity. The trans fat content of sunflower oil was unexpectedly higher (mean 4.2 %, range 2.2-8.6) than that of the vegetable mixture oils (mean 3.1 %, range 1.1-6.5). CONCLUSIONS: Vegetable oils are the primary home cooking fats in Bogotá, Colombia. Higher socio-economic status is associated with usage of sunflower oil. Paradoxically, oblivious to the higher trans content of sunflower oil and the negligible amount of n-3 fatty acids, families commonly reported 'health' as a reason to choose sunflower over other oils.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Grasas de la Dieta , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/química , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Mantequilla/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Aceite de Girasol , Ácidos Grasos Trans/análisis
13.
J Nutr ; 138(7): 1391-8, 2008 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18567766

RESUMEN

Vitamin B-12 is related to neurocognitive function in school-age children, yet sociodemographic and dietary correlates of vitamin B-12 status in this age group are not well characterized. The prevalences of vitamin B-12 or folate deficiencies in Colombia are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 2800 low- and middle-income children aged 5-12 y from Bogotá's public schools. Plasma vitamin B-12 and erythrocyte folate concentrations (mean +/- SD) were 327 +/- 106 pmol/L and 858 +/- 256 nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) was 1.6% and the prevalence of marginal status (148-221 pmol/L) was 15.0%. Only 2 children had folate deficiency (<305 nmol/L). In multivariate analysis, mean vitamin B-12 concentrations significantly decreased with age and were 15 pmol/L higher in girls than boys (95%CI = 8, 23). Vitamin B-12 was inversely related to the mother's parity and positively associated with the amount of money spent on food per person per day at home and the household's neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) classification. Folate concentrations were lower in girls than in boys and significantly increased with the household's SES. We identified 4 dietary patterns with principal components analysis of a FFQ in a random subsample (n = 972). Plasma vitamin B-12 was strongly, positively associated with a pattern that included frequent intake of beef, chicken, and dairy products in a dose-response manner (P-trend, adjusted, = 0.008). Low vitamin B-12 status is not negligible in Colombian school children and is associated with poverty and marginal intake of animal food sources.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina B 12/sangre , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Ácido Fólico/sangre , Deficiencia de Ácido Fólico/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Deficiencia de Vitamina B 12/epidemiología
14.
J Nutr ; 137(12): 2747-55, 2007 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18029494

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to determine the sociodemographic and dietary correlates of household and child food insecurity in Bogotá, Colombia and to examine whether food insecurity is a risk factor for underweight or overweight in this population. We analyzed data from 2359 families with 2526 children 5-12 y of age who completed a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006. The survey was representative of low- and middle-income families who had children enrolled in the public primary school system of Bogotá. We used a 16-item food insecurity scale, modified from the United States Household Food Security Survey Module, assessed children's dietary intake with a FFQ, and measured their height and weight. Mothers' anthropometry was obtained through self-report. We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI from binomial regression models. Household food insecurity with hunger and child food insecurity were each positively associated with maternal age, parity, and single parent status and inversely related to mean household income and number of home assets. Animal protein and snack food intake were inversely related to child food insecurity. In multivariate analyses, food-insecure children were 3 times more likely to be underweight than food-secure children (95% CI = 1.6, 5.4; P = 0.0007). Hunger in the household was significantly associated with maternal underweight. Food insecurity was not related to child stunting, child overweight, or maternal overweight. The prevalence of food insecurity in Bogotá is high and related to poverty. Food insecurity does not necessarily predict overweight in countries undergoing the nutrition transition.


Asunto(s)
Hambre , Delgadez , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia , Femenino , Alimentos , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso , Pobreza
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