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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 14(1): 37-43, ene.-mar. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1894

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the central epithelial thickness (CET) of penetrating keratoplasty corneal specimens obtained from patients with keratoconus (KC) and correlate the histological patterns with their clinical history. METHODS: Ex vivo histological imaging was performed to measure CET and total corneal thickness (TCT) in 56 patients with KC. Microscopic slides from penetrating keratoplasty corneal specimens, stained with hematoxylin and eosin were evaluated using bright field microscopy. CET and TCT were measured, and morphological features were studied. Clinical history regarding duration of KC prior to surgery and length of and tolerance to contact lens wear were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The microscopic slides of all patients available for follow up (n = 48) were analyzed and CET and TCT were measured. The histological evaluation revealed 3 distinctive epithelial patterns. Pattern 1 with central hypertrophic and hydropic changes (n = 19) measured 70.89 ± 25.88 Mum in CET and 308.63 ± 100.74 Mum in TCT; Pattern 2 (n = 14) had not changed, similar to normal epithelium CET and TCT measuring 36.5 ± 7.02 Mum and 260.14 ± 87.93 Mum respectively. Pattern 3 (n = 15) demonstrated thinner central epithelium characterized by atrophy and focal hydropic changes measuring 19.93 ± 4.60 Mum and 268.00 ± 79.39 Mum in CET and TCT respectively (all p < 0.0001). The presence of Pattern 2 characterized by similar to normal CET was correlated with the duration of the condition (R = 0.600, p = 0.030). There was a significant difference in the length of CL wear comparing those with patterns 1 and 2 versus 3 (least no. of CL years) (p = 0.05 and p = 0.33 respectivelly). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with advanced disease have various central corneal epithelial changes detected with histology. Although each central epithelial pattern type was distinctive comparing the 3 patterns, there was no correlation with years of CL wear but only with the duration of the condition


No disponible

2.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562820

RESUMEN

The exponential growth in the use of dental implants in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of peri-implant disease. It appears that viruses may have pathogenic potential for the development of this pathology. The objective of this systematic review is to study the possible association between the presence of Epstein-Barr virus and the development of peri-implantitis. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scielo and Embase databases for cross-sectional and case-control studies in humans published up to and including 4 January 2021. Five studies were included in the qualitative analysis. The meta-analysis did not show a statistically significant difference regarding the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in the peri-implant sulcus between implants with peri-implantitis and healthy implants. In conclusion, no association between the human herpesvirus 4 and peri-implantitis was found. Further research on this topic is essential to develop more effective treatments.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 284: 104-113, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592428

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relationship between adolescent depressive symptoms and academic achievement remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to help clarify the nature and directionality of this association. METHODS: We used a sample of 13,599 British adolescents (main sample of N=3,809 participants). We fitted cross-lagged panel models using four repeated measures of self-reported depressive symptoms and four measures of academic achievement based on British national records between 11-18 years, separately for male and female adolescents and considering polygenic risk scores (PRS) for educational attainment and depression, alongside other child and parental covariates. RESULTS: We found evidence of an overall negative association that was stronger in boys (R=-0.21, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.11) than in girls (-0.13, -0.31 to 0.05). Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower academic achievement at a later stage up to the end of compulsory education (16 years), when the direction of the association reversed, although girls with lower achievement also appeared vulnerable to depressive symptoms at previous stages. The genetic variables derived for this study showed stronger associations for academic achievement, but the PRS for depression also showed a negative association with academic achievement in girls. Child intelligence quotient and peer victimization also showed relevant associations. LIMITATIONS: Observational design, variation around measurement times, missing data. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms and academic achievement should be considered jointly when designing school-based programmes for children and adolescents, alongside gender, child ability and school experience. Including genetic information in research can help to disentangle average from time-varying effects.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494139

RESUMEN

In bone regeneration, obtaining a vital bone as similar as possible to native bone is sought. This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of stem cells in maxillary bone regeneration for implant rehabilitation and to review the different techniques for obtaining and processing these cells. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using the Pubmed/Medline (NCBI), Cochrane, Scielo, and Scopus databases, without restriction on the publication date. The following Mesh terms were used, combined by the Boolean operator "AND": "dental implants" AND "stem cells" AND "bioengineering". Applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, five articles were obtained and three were added after manual search. The results from the meta-analysis (18 patients) did not provide significant differences despite the percentage of bone formed in the maxillary sinus, favoring the stem cell group, and the analysis of the percentage of residual Bio-Oss® showed results favoring the control group. Stem cell regeneration usually shows positive vascular and viable bone formation. In conclusion, using mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration provides benefits in the quality of bone, similar or even superior to autologous bone, all this through a minimally invasive procedure.

5.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431172

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: In spite of a digital workflow playing an important role in the intraoral prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with head and neck cancer, information about how it has been implemented and its clinical implications is sparse. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the use of a digital workflow in the intraoral prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with head and neck cancer by analyzing the frequency and type of the digital procedures used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The following terms were applied for the search conducted in the MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane, and SciELO databases: (prosthesis OR dental OR rehabilitation) AND (digital OR CAD-CAM OR intraoral scanner) AND (Cancer OR head neck). Articles that specified data on intraoral prosthetic treatment and analyzed the use of a digital workflow in the different prosthetic phases such as digital scanning and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) in patients with head and neck cancer were included. Data from the frequency and type of digital procedures were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were included, and all had incorporated CAD-CAM techniques in at least 1 of the prosthetic treatment stages (scanning, design, and/or fabrication). Only 1 patient was rehabilitated by using a completely digital workflow. The most frequent prosthetic treatment was an obturator (82.6%). Regarding the image capture method, the most used method was cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) (60.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Most reports described the partial use of a digital workflow in the intraoral prosthetic rehabilitation of patients treated for head and neck cancer. A digital workflow is used for specific stages but not for the entire process. More studies are needed to evaluate digital systems, ideally comparing parameters with the conventional method, and to determine whether this technique has more relevant clinical implications.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(23)2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255825

RESUMEN

Guided bone regeneration techniques are increasingly used to enable the subsequent placement of dental implants. This systematic review aims to analyze the success rate of these techniques in terms of bone gain and complications rate using titanium membranes as a barrier element. Electronic and hand searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline, Scielo, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases for case reports, case series, cohort studies and clinical trials in humans published up to and including 19 September 2020. Thirteen articles were included in the qualitative analysis. Bone gain both horizontally and vertically was comparable to that obtained with other types of membranes more commonly used. The postoperative complication rate was higher that of native collagen membranes and non-resorbable titanium-reinforced membranes, and similar that of crosslinked collagen membranes and titanium meshes. The survival rate of the implants was similar to that of implants placed in native bone. Due to the limited scientific literature published on this issue, more randomized clinical trials comparing occlusive titanium barriers and other types of membranes are necessary to reach more valid conclusions.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276652

RESUMEN

Two-pieces dental implants must provide stability of the implant-abutment-interface. The connection type and platform diameter could influence the biomechanical resistance and stress distribution. This study aims to evaluate the fatigue for different types of connections, external and internal, and different platform diameters. Three implant designs with the same length were used: (a) external hexagon/narrow platform; (b) internal double hexagon/narrow platform; (c) internal octagon/regular platform. A fatigue test was developed to establish the number of cycles needed before fracture. A 30º oblique load with a sinusoidal function of fatigue at a frequency of 15 Hz and 10% stress variation was applied to each system. The fatigue load limit (FLL) for design (a) was 190N, being the nominal-curvature-moment (NCM) = 1.045; FLL = 150 N, with a NCM = 0.825 for (b), and FLL = 325 N, with a NCM = 1.788 for (c). The platform diameter affects the FLL, obtaining lower FLL on a narrow platform. The connection type interferes with the implant walls' width, especially in narrow implants, making internal connections more unstable at this level. Long-term clinical studies to assess the restoration's success rate and survival are mandatory.

8.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230847

RESUMEN

The voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv1.3 has been implicated in proliferation in many cell types, based on the observation that Kv1.3 blockers inhibited proliferation. By modulating membrane potential, cell volume, and/or Ca2+ influx, K+  channels can influence cell cycle progression. Also, noncanonical channel functions could contribute to modulate cell proliferation independent of K+ efflux. The specificity of the requirement of Kv1.3 channels for proliferation suggests the involvement of molecule-specific interactions, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly identified. Heterologous expression of Kv1.3 channels in HEK cells has been shown to increase proliferation independently of K+ fluxes. Likewise, some of the molecular determinants of Kv1.3-induced proliferation have been located in the C-terminus region, where individual point mutations of putative phosphorylation sites (Y447A and S459A) abolished Kv1.3-induced proliferation. Here, we investigated the mechanisms linking Kv1.3 channels to proliferation exploring the correlation between Kv1.3 voltage-dependent molecular dynamics and cell cycle progression. Using transfected HEK cells, we analyzed both the effect of changes in resting membrane potential on Kv1.3-induced proliferation and the effect of mutated Kv1.3 channels with altered voltage dependence of gating. We conclude that voltage-dependent transitions of Kv1.3 channels enable the activation of proliferative pathways. We also found that Kv1.3 associated with IQGAP3, a scaffold protein involved in proliferation, and that membrane depolarization facilitates their interaction. The functional contribution of Kv1.3-IQGAP3 interplay to cell proliferation was demonstrated both in HEK cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Our data indicate that voltage-dependent conformational changes of Kv1.3 are an essential element in Kv1.3-induced proliferation.

9.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 929-943, 2020 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215484

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To present an update the orofacial manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and present a clinical case with the initial signs in the oral cavity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed on Pubmed with the keywords 'Wegener's granulomatosis', 'etiology', 'oral manifestations', 'oral cavity', 'gingiva'. The inclusion criteria were papers published in English in the last 10 years that made reference to clinical cases with in which the oral cavity was affected. The quality of the results was assessed with 'The 2013 Care Checklist'. RESULTS: Nineteen clinical cases were analysed. The average quality was 7.68/13 (range 5-10/13). 73.7% of patients were women, the most frequent area for the lesions was the gingiva and the most prevalent lesion was gingival hyperplasia. 68.4% of the patients had this lesion as a first sign, 21.1% as a progression and 10.5% as a recurrence. 68.4% of the lesions resolved once medical treatment was established. CONCLUSION: GPA is a multisystem disorder associated with considerable morbidity and mortality if not treated. Early diagnosis improves the prognosis. The first manifestation of the disease can be seen in the oral cavity. It is important that dentists recognise the oral manifestation in order to improve the prognosis. Key words: granulomatosis, polyangiiitis, Wegener's granulomatosis.


Asunto(s)
Hiperplasia Gingival , Granulomatosis con Poliangitis , Femenino , Encía , Granulomatosis con Poliangitis/diagnóstico , Granulomatosis con Poliangitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Pronóstico
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176128

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The goal of this systematic review is to assess the accuracy and complications (including failure) of dynamic navigation in placing zygomatic implants. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), trial register (clinicaltrial.gov), and Google Scholar were searched systematically up to May 2020. In addition, the reference lists of included systematic reviews were hand searched. The New Castle Ottawa and Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Reports were used for quality assessment. RESULTS: Ninety-four studies were assessed, and finally, 12 articles were included. According to Joanna Briggs Institute tool, the mean score of case reports (±standard deviation) was 6.4 (range, 5/9 to 8/9) and the mean score of observational studies (±standard deviation) was 5.66 (range, 5/9 to 7/9) as measured by New Castle Ottawa tool. Included materials pointed out that higher accuracy and drastic cut down on the risk of perioperative/postoperative complications were reported by using the dynamic navigation system compared with freehand implant placement. CONCLUSIONS: Application of dynamic navigation systems is a reliable technology for zygomatic implant placement, especially in difficult cases with a history of maxillary deficiency. Evidence of reliability and accuracy of dynamic navigation technique in multicenter large randomized and prospective controlled studies is still lacking.

11.
Case Rep Dent ; 2020: 8891772, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178465

RESUMEN

When a tooth is extracted, a bone remodeling of the alveolar process occurs irretrievably. Various techniques have emerged over time to maintain the thickness of the bone crest in fixed prosthetics on teeth and implants. The socket shield and pontic shield techniques are aimed at minimizing buccal bone remodeling, especially in the aesthetic area. We present a case of an aesthetic sector rehabilitated with partial fixed denture using the socket shield and pontic shield techniques.

12.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 12(10): e964-e971, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154799

RESUMEN

Background: The objective of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between the glycemic control and the prevalence of apical periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients. The null hypothesis was that apical periodontitis is not associated with glycemic control. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional design, the radiographic records of 216 type 2 diabetic patients (65.0 ± 10.7 years), 117 men (54.2%) and women (45.8%), were examined. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was used to assess glycemic control, considering an HbA1c level < 6.5% as well-controlled diabetes. Apical periodontitis was diagnosed as radiolucent periapical lesions using the periapical index score. The Student t test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The average HbA1c value was 7.0 ± 2.2%. Forty seven (21.8%) had HbA1c levels under 6.5% (mean ± SD = 6.0 ± 2.2%), being considered well-controlled patients, and 169 (78.2%) had an HbA1c level ≥ 6.5% (mean ± SD = 7.8 ± 2.24%), being considered poor controlled patients. Forty four per cent of diabetics had apical periodontitis, 12.5% had root-filled teeth, and 52.3% had root filled teeth with radiolucent periapical lesions. No significant differences were observed in any of these three variables between patients with good or poor glycemic control. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the presence of radiolucent periapical lesions in at least one tooth did not correlate significantly with HbA1c levels (OR = 1.4; 95% C.I. = 0.70 - 3.09; p = 0.31). Conclusions: The results reveal no association of glycemic control with the prevalence of apical periodontitis or root canal treatment in diabetic patients. Key words:Apical periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, endodontic medicine, glycated haemoglobin.

13.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes edentulism as a physical impairment that results in a negative impact in the daily activities. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to compare the satisfaction and the quality of life, in patients treated with implant retained overdentures with two mandibular implants (IOD) against those with mandibular conventional complete dentures (CCD). METHODS: Different search strategies were used to screen for articles in Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane Library and Scielo of the last 17 years (2003-2020). The keywords used were: "quality of life OR satisfaction" AND "complete denture OR conventional denture" AND "overdenture OR implant retained." RESULTS: Six articles and two more were added by manual search. The population was 400 in the CCD and 412 for IOD. The mean age was 64.3 ± 6.41 years. The group was comprised of 283 men and 427 women. The scores obtained in the visual analog scale (VAS) before and after the treatment were statistically significant in favor of the IOD for overall satisfaction, (WMD: 12.329; 95% CI: 4.873 to 19.784, p-value = 0.001), comfort, speech and stability. For esthetics and chewing there was non-significant improvement while hygiene worsened for the IOD. For the comparison after the treatment between both treatment modalities a statistically significant improvement was found in overall satisfaction (WMD: 14.408; 95% CI: 8.589 to 20.226, p-value < 0.001), comfort, speech, chewing and stability in favor of the IOD but not in esthetics or hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis show the superiority of the IOD, despite is not achieved in all aspects.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242437, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211766

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been recognized as an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour among adults, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is lacking. This study explored associations between ACE and hospital admission due to non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Adults admitted to a tertiary care hospital for medical management of self-poisoning were included as cases, and age and sex matched controls were recruited from the outpatient department. ACE were measured using the World Health Organization's Childhood Adversity Scale. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and religion were used to quantify the association between ACE and self-poisoning. RESULTS: The study included 235 cases and 451 controls. Cases were 2.5 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.6) more likely to report an ACE than controls and had higher ACE scores. Childhood physical abuse (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2, 19.0) and emotional abuse or neglect (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3, 10.1, and 3.7, 95% CI 2.3, 6.0 respectively), increased the risk of self-poisoning in adulthood, as did witnessing household violence (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4, 3.4), growing up in a household with a mentally ill or suicidal household member (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.4), and experiencing parental death/separation/divorce (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0, 4.9) as a child. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing exposures to ACEs should be a priority for prevention of suicide and self-harm in Sri Lanka. Innovative methods to increase support for children facing adversity should be explored.

15.
Value Health ; 23(12): 1662-1670, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248522

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. Different CBT delivery formats (face-to-face [F2F], multimedia, and hybrid) and intensities have been used to expand access to the treatment. The aim of this study is to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of different CBT delivery modes. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different CBT delivery modes and variations in intensity in comparison with treatment as usual (TAU). The model covered an average treatment period of 4 months with a 5-year follow-up period. The model was populated using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and various sources from the literature. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of treatments compared with the next best option after excluding all the dominated and extended dominated options are: £209/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for 6 (sessions) × 30 (minutes) F2F-CBT versus TAU; £4 453/QALY for 8 × 30 F2F versus 6 × 30 F2F; £12 216/QALY for 8 × 60 F2F versus 8 × 30 F2F; and £43 072/QALY for 16 × 60 F2F versus 8 × 60 F2F. The treatment with the highest net monetary benefit for thresholds of £20 000 to £30 000/QALY was 8 × 30 F2F-CBT. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis illustrated 6 × 30 F2F-CBT had the highest probability (32.8%) of being cost-effective at £20 000/QALY; 16 × 60 F2F-CBT had the highest probability (31.0%) at £30 000/QALY. CONCLUSIONS: All CBT delivery modes on top of TAU were found to be more cost-effective than TAU alone. Four F2F-CBT options (6 × 30, 8 × 30, 8 × 60, 16 × 60) are on the cost-effectiveness frontier. F2F-CBT with intensities of 6 × 30 and 16 × 60 had the highest probabilities of being cost-effective. The results, however, should be interpreted with caution owing to the high level of uncertainty.

16.
Braz Dent J ; 31(6): 650-656, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237237

RESUMEN

Patients with a history of cancer are increasingly common in the dental office. Treating cancer patients requires a multidisciplinary team, which should include the dentist, in order to control the complications that occur in the oral cavity and also to recover the patient undergoing treatment in any of its types: surgical, medical, radiotherapeutic, or its possible combinations. Dental implants can be a safe and predictable treatment option for prosthetic rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to describe in retrospect the success rate of osseointegrated implants in oncology and non-oncology patients placed by the Master of Dentistry in Oncology and Immunocompromised Patients, as well as the Master of Medicine, Surgery and Oral Implantology of the University of Barcelona Dental Hospital, between July 2011 and March 2016. 466 patients were reviewed, with a total of 1405 implants placed, considering the oncological history of the patients and the implant success rate. The total success rate in the concerned period was 96.65%. When comparing cancer patients with healthy ones, the success rate has been 93.02% in the first case, and 97.16% in the latter. According to the literature review, our results encourage implant placement in cancer patients, it is important to recognize that this is an analysis of a complex care pathway with a large number of confounding variables. However, the findings should not be considered as generalizable.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Neoplasias , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
BMJ ; 371: m3934, 2020 11 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239318

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective interventions in recently detoxified, alcohol dependent patients for implementation in primary care. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials comparing two or more interventions that could be used in primary care. The population was patients with alcohol dependency diagnosed by standardised clinical tools and who became detoxified within four weeks. DATA EXTRACTION: Outcomes of interest were continuous abstinence from alcohol (effectiveness) and all cause dropouts (as a proxy for acceptability) at least 12 weeks after start of intervention. RESULTS: 64 trials (43 interventions) were included. The median probability of abstinence across placebo arms was 25%. Compared with placebo, the only intervention associated with increased probability of abstinence and moderate certainty evidence was acamprosate (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 2.33, corresponding to an absolute probability of 38%). Of the 62 included trials that reported all cause dropouts, interventions associated with a reduced number of dropouts compared with placebo (probability 50%) and moderate certainty of evidence were acamprosate (0.73, 0.62 to 0.86; 42%), naltrexone (0.70, 0.50 to 0.98; 41%), and acamprosate-naltrexone (0.30, 0.13 to 0.67; 17%). Acamprosate was the only intervention associated with moderate confidence in the evidence of effectiveness and acceptability up to 12 months. It is uncertain whether other interventions can help maintain abstinence and reduce dropouts because of low confidence in the evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is lacking for benefit from interventions that could be implemented in primary care settings for alcohol abstinence, other than for acamprosate. More evidence from high quality randomised controlled trials is needed, as are strategies using combined interventions (combinations of drug interventions or drug and psychosocial interventions) to improve treatment of alcohol dependency in primary care. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016049779.

18.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 650-656, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1132343

RESUMEN

Abstract Patients with a history of cancer are increasingly common in the dental office. Treating cancer patients requires a multidisciplinary team, which should include the dentist, in order to control the complications that occur in the oral cavity and also to recover the patient undergoing treatment in any of its types: surgical, medical, radiotherapeutic, or its possible combinations. Dental implants can be a safe and predictable treatment option for prosthetic rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to describe in retrospect the success rate of osseointegrated implants in oncology and non-oncology patients placed by the Master of Dentistry in Oncology and Immunocompromised Patients, as well as the Master of Medicine, Surgery and Oral Implantology of the University of Barcelona Dental Hospital, between July 2011 and March 2016. 466 patients were reviewed, with a total of 1405 implants placed, considering the oncological history of the patients and the implant success rate. The total success rate in the concerned period was 96.65%. When comparing cancer patients with healthy ones, the success rate has been 93.02% in the first case, and 97.16% in the latter. According to the literature review, our results encourage implant placement in cancer patients, it is important to recognize that this is an analysis of a complex care pathway with a large number of confounding variables. However, the findings should not be considered as generalizable.


Resumo Pacientes com histórico de câncer são cada vez mais comuns no consultório odontológico. O tratamento de pacientes com câncer requer uma equipe multidisciplinar, que deve incluir o dentista, a fim de controlar as complicações que ocorrem na cavidade oral e também para tratar o paciente com qualquer uma das modalidades de tratamento: cirúrgica, médica, radioterápica ou suas possíveis combinações. Os implantes dentários podem ser uma opção de tratamento segura e previsível para reabilitação protética. O objetivo deste artigo é propor um estudo retrospectivo sobre a taxa de sucesso de implantes osseointegrados em pacientes oncológicos e não oncológicos atendidos no Mestrado em Odontologia em Pacientes Oncológicos e Imunodeprimidos, bem como no Mestrado em Medicina, Cirurgia e Implantodontia Oral do Hospital Odontológico da Universidade de Barcelona, entre julho de 2011 e março de 2016. Foram revisados 466 pacientes, com um total de 1405 implantes instalados, considerando o histórico oncológico dos pacientes e a taxa de sucesso do implante. Resultados: A taxa de sucesso total no período em questão foi de 96,65%. Na comparação entre pacientes com câncer e saudáveis, a taxa de sucesso foi de 93,02% no primeiro caso e 97,16% no segundo. Conclusão: De acordo com a revisão da literatura, nossos resultados encorajam a colocação de implantes em pacientes com câncer, é importante reconhecer que esta é uma análise complexa que requer cuidado devido ao grande número de variáveis. No entanto, os resultados não devem ser considerados de forma generalizada.

19.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 244, 2020 10 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076982

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Internalising problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common and represent an important economical and societal burden. The effectiveness of parenting interventions in reducing the risk of internalising problems in children and adolescents has not yet been summarised. The aims of this review are to assess the effectiveness of parenting interventions in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of internalising problems in children and adolescents and to determine which intervention components and which intervention aspects are most effective for reducing the risk of internalising problems in children and adolescents. METHODS: Electronic searches in OVID SP versions of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; EBSCO version of ERIC and ClinicalTrials.gov have been performed to identify randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of parenting interventions. At least two independent researchers will assess studies for inclusion and extract data from each paper. The risk of bias assessment will be conducted independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Statistical heterogeneity is anticipated given potential variation in participant characteristics, intervention type and mode of delivery, and outcome measures. Random effects models, assuming a common between-study variability, will be used to account for statistical heterogeneity. Results will be analysed using a network meta-analysis (NMA). If appropriate, we will also conduct a component-level NMA, where the 'active ingredients' of interventions are modelled using a network meta-regression approach. DISCUSSION: Preventing and reducing internalising problems could have major beneficial effects at the economic and societal level. Informing policy makers on the effectiveness of parenting interventions and on which intervention's component is driving the effect is important for the development of treatment strategies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42020172251.

20.
Membranes (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027973

RESUMEN

Popularity of hollow fiber-supported liquid membranes (HF-SLM) for liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) has increased in the last decades. In particular, HF-SLM are applied for sample treatment in the determination and speciation of metals. Up to the date, optimization of preconcentration systems has been focused on chemical conditions. However, criteria about fiber selection are not reflected in published works. HFs differ in pore size, porosity, wall thickness, etc., which can affect efficiency and/or selectivity of chemical systems in extraction of metals. In this work, Ag+ transport using tri-isobutylphosphine sulfide (TIBPS) has been used as a model to evaluate differences in metal transport due to the properties of three different fibers. Accurel PP 50/280 fibers, with a higher effective surface and smaller wall thickness, showed the highest efficiency for metal transport. Accurel PP Q3/2 exhibited intermediate efficiency but easier handling and, finally, Accurel PP S6/2 fibers, with a higher wall thickness, offered poorer efficiency but the highest stability and capability for metal speciation. Summarizing, selection of the polymeric support of HF-SLM is a key factor in their applicability of LPME for metals in natural waters.

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