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1.
J Virol Methods ; 290: 114093, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients, BK Virus (BKV) reactivation may cause serious disease with high morbidity. Particularly for patient management after solid organ transplantation, monitoring of viral load in different clinical specimens is crucial to ensure early diagnosis and response to reactivation. In this study, we evaluated the clinical performance of a custom designed primer /probe set for detection of BKV on the cobas® 6800, a high-throughput platform, employing the open channel of the system for integration of a lab-developed test (LDT). MATERIALS/METHODS: A primer/probe set was optimized for the use on a high-throughput platform. Clinical performance was assessed in EDTA-plasma, serum and urine samples. Limit-of-detection (LOD) was determined by using a dilution series of BKV WHO standard. A CE-labeled PCR test (Altona Diagnostics) was used as a comparison to the assay. RESULTS: The LOD for the LDT BKV assay was 6.7 IU/mL. Inter-and intra-run variability (at 5 x LOD) was low (<1.5 Ct in all specimens). All quality control panel specimens (Instand Germany n = 19) were correctly identified. Of 290 clinical samples tested, results were concordant for 280 samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 96 % and 98 % respectively. The quantitative analysis revealed a strong correlation (linear regression) between the CE-labelled comparator assay and the new BKV LDT assay with r2 = 0.96 for n = 123 urine samples and r2 = 0.98 for n = 167 plasma/serum samples. CONCLUSION: Compared to a CE-IVD assay, the adapted LDT showed good analytical and clinical sensitivity and specificity for the detection and quantification of BKV in different clinical specimens. It represents a convenient solution to automate the LDT workflow with low hands-on time and thus facilitates high-throughput screening for BKV reactivation in immunocompromised patients.

2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 77-90, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617048

RESUMEN

B cells play a central role in antiviral and antiparasitic immunity, not only as producers of antibodies, but also as APCs and mediators of inflammation. In this study, we used 16-color flow cytometry analysis to investigate the frequency, differentiation, and activation status of peripheral B cells of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection or acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria compared with the healthy individuals. As a main result, we observed an increase of the frequency of (CD27-, CD21-) atypical memory B cells and (CD19+, CD27+, CD38+) plasmablasts in malaria and COVID-19 patients. Additionally, CD86, PD-1, CXCR3, and CD39 expression was up-regulated, whereas CD73 was down-regulated on plasmablasts of COVID-19 and malaria patients compared with the bulk B cell population. In particular, there was a more pronounced loss of CD73+ B cells in malaria. The frequency of plasmablasts positively correlated with serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and LDH of COVID-19 patients. In the longitudinal course of COVID-19, a rapid normalization of the frequency of atypical memory B cells was observed. The role and function of plasmablasts and atypical memory B cells in COVID-19 and other acute infections remain to be further investigated. The role of B cells as either "driver or passenger" of hyperinflammation during COVID-19 needs to be clarified.

3.
Sci Immunol ; 6(56)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622974

RESUMEN

Hyperinflammation contributes to lung injury and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the underlying mechanisms involved in lung pathology, we investigated the role of the lung-specific immune response. We profiled immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood collected from COVID-19 patients with severe disease and bacterial pneumonia patients not associated with viral infection. By tracking T cell clones across tissues, we identified clonally expanded tissue-resident memory-like Th17 cells (Trm17 cells) in the lungs even after viral clearance. These Trm17 cells were characterized by a a potentially pathogenic cytokine expression profile of IL17A and CSF2 (GM-CSF). Interactome analysis suggests that Trm17 cells can interact with lung macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which have been associated with disease severity and lung damage. High IL-17A and GM-CSF protein levels in the serum of COVID-19 patients were associated with a more severe clinical course. Collectively, our study suggests that pulmonary Trm17 cells are one potential orchestrator of the hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19.

4.
Vaccine ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431223

RESUMEN

Neonatal passive immunity, derived from transplacental transfer of IgG antibodies from mother to fetus during pregnancy, can mitigate the risk for severe infections in the early postnatal period. Understanding the placenta as the gateway organ in this process, we aimed to evaluate the influence of specific factors modulating the transplacental IgG transfer rate (TPTR) in 141 mother/neonate pairs. We further evaluated the potential health advantage elicited by maternal IgG with regard to respiratory tract infections during infancy and early childhood. Data and biological samples collected within the prospective longitudinal pregnancy cohort study PRINCE (Prenatal Identification of Children's Health) were used for these analyses. We tested IgG antibody levels against seven pathogens (measles, mumps, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and influenza A) by ELISA and detected seropositivity in 72.6-100% of pregnant women and in 76.3-100% of their neonates, respectively. Cord blood IgG levels reached 137-160% of levels detected in maternal blood. Strikingly, assessment of TPTR for all seven antigens highlighted that TPTR strongly depends on individual placental function. Subsequent in-depth analysis of anti-influenza A IgG revealed a link between cord blood levels and uterine perfusion, measured by uterine artery pulsatility index. Moreover, higher cord blood anti-influenza A IgG levels were associated with a significantly reduced risk for respiratory tract infections during the first six months of life, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity and possible pathogen-agnostic effects of anti-influenza A antibodies. Taken together, our data suggest that early life immunity is modulated by maternal IgG levels and individual placental features such as perfusion. Vaccination of pregnant women, i.e. against influenza, can increase neonatal antibody levels and hereby protect against early life respiratory infections. Consequently, specific guidelines should evolve in order to safeguard neonates born from pregnancies with poorer placental capacity for vertical transfer of protective antibodies.

5.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic strategies silencing and reducing the hepatitis B virus (HBV) reservoir, the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), have the potential to cure chronic HBV infection. We aimed to investigate the impact of small interferring RNA (siRNA) targeting all HBV transcripts or pegylated interferon-α (peg-IFNα) on the viral regulatory HBx protein and the structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (SMC5/6), a host factor suppressing cccDNA transcription. In particular, we assessed whether interventions lowering HBV transcripts can achieve and maintain silencing of cccDNA transcription in vivo. DESIGN: HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice were treated with siRNA or peg-IFNα. Virological and host changes were analysed at the end of treatment and during the rebound phase by qualitative PCR, ELISA, immunoblotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. RNA in situ hybridisation was combined with immunofluorescence to detect SMC6 and HBV RNAs at single cell level. The entry inhibitor myrcludex-B was used during the rebound phase to avoid new infection events. RESULTS: Both siRNA and peg-IFNα strongly reduced all HBV markers, including HBx levels, thus enabling the reappearance of SMC5/6 in hepatocytes that achieved HBV-RNA negativisation and SMC5/6 association with the cccDNA. Only IFN reduced cccDNA loads and enhanced IFN-stimulated genes. However, the antiviral effects did not persist off treatment and SMC5/6 was again degraded. Remarkably, the blockade of viral entry that started at the end of treatment hindered renewed degradation of SMC5/6. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that therapeutics abrogating all HBV transcripts including HBx promote epigenetic suppression of the HBV minichromosome, whereas strategies protecting the human hepatocytes from reinfection are needed to maintain cccDNA silencing.

6.
J Med Microbiol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404401

RESUMEN

Introduction. Laboratories worldwide are facing high demand for molecular testing during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which might be further aggravated by the upcoming influenza season in the northern hemisphere.Gap Statement. Given that the symptoms of influenza are largely indistinguishable from those of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both SARS-CoV-2 and the influenza viruses require concurrent testing by RT-PCR in patients presenting with symptoms of respiratory tract infection.Aim. We adapted and evaluated a laboratory-developed multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 (dual target), influenza A and influenza B (SC2/InflA/InflB-UCT) on a fully automated high-throughput system (cobas6800).Methodology. Analytical performance was assessed by serial dilution of quantified reference material and cell culture stocks in transport medium, including pretreatment for chemical inactivation. For clinical evaluation, residual portions of 164 predetermined patient samples containing SARS-CoV-2 (n=52), influenza A (n=43) or influenza B (n=19), as well as a set of negative samples, were subjected to the novel multiplex assay.Results. The assay demonstrated comparable analytical performance to currently available commercial tests, with limits of detection of 94.9 cp ml-1 for SARS-CoV-2, 14.6 cp ml-1 for influenza A and 422.3 cp ml-1 for influenza B. Clinical evaluation showed excellent agreement with the comparator assays (sensitivity of 98.1, 97.7 and 100 % for Sars-CoV-2 and influenza A and B, respectively).Conclusion. The SC2/InflA/InflB-UCT allows for efficient high-throughput testing for all three pathogens and thus provides streamlined diagnostics while conserving resources during the influenza season.

7.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are prevalent worldwide. Various viruses have been detected in the ejaculate and can outlast the duration of viremia, indicating replication beyond the blood-testis barrier. HEV replication in diverse organs, however, is still widely misunderstood. We aimed to determine the occurrence, features and morphology of HEV in the ejaculate. METHODS: Presence of HEV in testis was assessed in 12 experimentally HEV-genotype-3 infected pigs. We further tested ejaculate, urine, stool and blood from 3 chronically HEV-genotype-3 infected and 6 immunocompetent patients with acute HEV infection by HEV-PCR. Morphology and genomic characterization of HEV particles from various human compartments were determined by HEV-PCR, density gradient measurement, immune-electron microscopy and genomic sequencing. RESULTS: In 2 of the 3 chronically HEV-infected patients, we observed HEV-RNA (genotype-3c) in seminal plasma and semen with viral loads >2 logs higher than in the serum. Genomic sequencing showed significant differences between viral strains in the ejaculate compared to stool. Under ribavirin-treatment, HEV shedding in the ejaculate outlasted duration of viremia for >9 months. Density gradient measurement and immune-electron microscopy characterized (enveloped) HEV particles in the ejaculate as intact. CONCLUSIONS: The male reproductive system was shown to be a niche of HEV persistence in chronic HEV infection. Surprisingly, sequence analysis revealed distinct genetic HEV variants in the stool and serum, originating from the liver, compared to variants in the ejaculate originating from the male reproductive system. Enveloped HEV particles in the ejaculate did not morphologically differ from serum derived HEV particles.

8.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475692

RESUMEN

Importance: Current recommendations are to avoid tissue for corneal transplant from donors with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or those who were recently exposed to COVID-19 owing to the lack of knowledge about the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in corneal tissues. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in corneal tissue would seem to have clinical relevance for corneal transplant. Objectives: To investigate the presence of viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA in corneal discs of deceased patients with confirmed COVID-19 and assess viral genomic and subgenomic RNA load, possible infectivity, and histologic abnormalities. Design, Setting, and Participants: A case series was conducted of 11 deceased patients with COVID-19 who underwent autopsy between March 20 and May 14, 2020. Eleven corneal discs (1 corneal disc per patient) were harvested for molecular detection of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA, virus isolation, and immunohistochemistry. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads were compared with RNA loads in the conjunctival and throat swab samples and aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and blood samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human corneas. Results: This study comprised 11 patients (6 women [55%]; mean [SD] age, 68.5 [18.8] years). In 6 of 11 eyes (55%), SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA was detected in the cornea; subgenomic RNA was present in 4 of these 6 eyes (67%). Infectivity or the presence of viral structural proteins could not be confirmed in any eye. However, patients whose corneal disc was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA also had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 4 of 6 conjunctival swab samples, 1 of 3 aqueous humor samples, 3 of 5 vitreous humor samples, and 4 of 5 blood samples. Overall, conjunctival swab samples had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 5 of 11 cases. Postmortem SARS-CoV-2 viremia was detected in 5 of 9 patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Viral genomic and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the cornea of patients with COVID-19 viremia. The risk of COVID-19 infection via corneal transplant is low even in donors with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, but further research is necessary to assess the rate of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via corneal transplant.

9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113671, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338782

RESUMEN

We sequentially assessed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in 1253 hospital workers including 1026 HCWs at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf at three time points during the early phase of the epidemic. By the end of the study in July 2020, the overall seroprevalence was 1.8% (n = 22), indicating the overall effectiveness of infection control interventions in mitigating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospital workers.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , /inmunología , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seroconversión , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327991

RESUMEN

Analyses of infection chains have demonstrated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is highly transmissive. However, data on postmortem stability and infectivity are lacking. Our finding of nasopharyngeal viral RNA stability in 79 corpses showed no time-dependent decrease. Maintained infectivity is supported by virus isolation up to 35 hours postmortem.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Nasofaringe/virología , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Mucosa Respiratoria/virología , /aislamiento & purificación , Cadáver , Humanos
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(4): 100060, 2020 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205065

RESUMEN

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to complete its infection cycle and causes severe hepatitis, with limited therapeutic options. To determine the prospect of T cell therapy in HBV/HDV co-infection, we study the impact of HDV on viral antigen processing and presentation. Using in vitro models of HBV/HDV co-infection, we demonstrate that HDV boosts HBV epitope presentation, both in HBV/HDV co-infected and neighboring mono-HBV-infected cells through the upregulation of the antigen processing pathway mediated by IFN-ß/λ. Liver biopsies of HBV/HDV patients confirm this upregulation. We then validate in vitro and in a HBV/HDV preclinical mouse model that HDV infection increases the anti-HBV efficacy of T cells with engineered T cell receptors. Thus, by unveiling the effect of HDV on HBV antigen presentation, we provide a framework to better understand HBV/HDV immune pathology, and advocate the utilization of engineered HBV-specific T cells as a potential treatment for HBV/HDV co-infection.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245470

RESUMEN

Increasing worldwide, prevalence of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria demands urgent a need for rapid detection and accurate identification of carbapenemases. The BD Phoenix CPO detect (PCD) assay possesses an in-built capacity for parallel susceptibility testing and detection of carbapenemases. Here, the ability of the assay to detect and classify carbapenemase production was tested in a collection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and non-fermentative gram-negative rods. The ability of the PCD assay to detect and classify carbapenemases was investigated in a collection of 194 clinical, carbapenem-resistant isolates (Enterobacterales [n = 65]; non-fermentative gram-negative rods [n = 129]). AST results were compared to MICS determined by gradient diffusion to determine accuracy of the PCD assay. The accuracy of the PCD assay to detect carbapenemases was compared to the results of molecular isolate characterization using a LDT multiplex carbapenemase PCR assay. All 194 isolates classified as carbapenem-resistant by reference susceptibility testing were also classified correctly as CRO by the PCD assay. Performance analysis of the PCD assay to detect carbapenemase production revealed an overall sensitivity of 98.29% and specificity of 17.95% for the detection of carbapenemase production. For the classification of carbapenemases classes A, B, and D, the PCD correctly classified 79.17% Enterobacterales and 67.16% non-fermentative gram-negative rods. The PCD assay is a reliable tool for the detection of carbapenem resistance and allows for parallel analysis of carbapenemase production. However, while sensitivity is high, low specificity in carbapenemase detection and erroneous classification demands mandatory confirmation by alternative methods, especially in non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103195

RESUMEN

We provide detailed clinical, virological and immunological data of a B-cell depleted patient treated with obinutuzumab for follicular lymphoma with protracted COVID-19 and viremia. A sustained response was achieved after two courses of remdesivir and subsequent convalescent plasma therapy. Immunocompromised patients might require combined and prolonged antiviral treatment regimens.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007476

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Investigation whether in depth characterization of virus variant patterns can be used for epidemiological analysis of the first SARS-CoV-2 infection clusters in Hamburg, Germany. METHODS: Metagenomic RNA- and amplicon-sequencing and subsequent variant calling in 25 respiratory samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients involved in the earliest infection clusters in Hamburg. RESULTS: Amplikon sequencing and cluster analyses of these SARS-CoV-2 sequences allowed the identification of the first infection cluster and five non-related infection clusters occurring at the beginning of the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the Hamburg metropolitan region. Viral genomics together with epidemiological analyses revealed that the index patient acquired the infection in Northern Italy and transmitted it to two out of 134 contacts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms clearly distinguished the virus variants of the index and other clusters and allowed to track in which sequences worldwide these mutations were first described. Minor variant analyses identified the transmission of intra-host variants in the index cluster and household clusters. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variant tracing allows the identification of infection clusters and the follow up of infection chains occurring in the population. Furthermore, the follow up of minor viral variants in infection cluster can provide further resolution on transmission events indistinguishable on consensus sequence level.

17.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(11): 919-929, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prominent clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include CNS manifestations. However, it is unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, gains access to the CNS and whether it causes neuropathological changes. We investigated the brain tissue of patients who died from COVID-19 for glial responses, inflammatory changes, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS. METHODS: In this post-mortem case series, we investigated the neuropathological features in the brains of patients who died between March 13 and April 24, 2020, in Hamburg, Germany. Inclusion criteria comprised a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and availability of adequate samples. We did a neuropathological workup including histological staining and immunohistochemical staining for activated astrocytes, activated microglia, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the olfactory bulb, basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum. Additionally, we investigated the presence and localisation of SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry in selected patients and brain regions. FINDINGS: 43 patients were included in our study. Patients died in hospitals, nursing homes, or at home, and were aged between 51 years and 94 years (median 76 years [IQR 70-86]). We detected fresh territorial ischaemic lesions in six (14%) patients. 37 (86%) patients had astrogliosis in all assessed regions. Activation of microglia and infiltration by cytotoxic T lymphocytes was most pronounced in the brainstem and cerebellum, and meningeal cytotoxic T lymphocyte infiltration was seen in 34 (79%) patients. SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in the brains of 21 (53%) of 40 examined patients, with SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins found in cranial nerves originating from the lower brainstem and in isolated cells of the brainstem. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS was not associated with the severity of neuropathological changes. INTERPRETATION: In general, neuropathological changes in patients with COVID-19 seem to be mild, with pronounced neuroinflammatory changes in the brainstem being the most common finding. There was no evidence for CNS damage directly caused by SARS-CoV-2. The generalisability of these findings needs to be validated in future studies as the number of cases and availability of clinical data were low and no age-matched and sex-matched controls were included. FUNDING: German Research Foundation, Federal State of Hamburg, EU (eRARE), German Center for Infection Research (DZIF).


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Autopsia/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuropatología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
J Clin Virol ; 132: 104650, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents a unique challenge to diagnostic laboratories. There are preliminary studies correlating qRT-PCR results from different materials to clinical outcomes, yet, comparability is limited due to the plethora of different assays used for diagnostics. In this study we evaluate clinical performance and linear range for the SARS-CoV-2 IVD (cobas6800/8800 system, a fully automated sample-to-result platform) in different clinically relevant matrix materials outside official specifications. METHODS: Assay performance was assessed in human plasma, BAL/BL and transport medium following chemical inactivation. For analytical evaluation, respective matrix materials were spiked with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in ten-fold dilution series. The efficacy of chemical inactivation by guanidine hydrochloride solution was confirmed in cell culture infectivity experiments. For correlation, a total of 289 predetermined clinical samples including respiratory swabs, plasma and lower respiratory tract specimens were subjected to the SARS-CoV-2 IVD test and results were compared. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 IVD showed excellent linearity over four to six log steps depending on matrix material. Chemical inactivation resulted in a reduction in plaque forming units of at least 3.5 log steps, while having no significant impact on assay performance. Inter-run consistency from three different testing sites demonstrated excellent comparability of RT-PCR results (maximum deviation was 1.53 CT). Clinical evaluation for respiratory swabs showed very good agreement with the comparator assay (Positive agreement 95.7 %, negative agreement 98.9 %). CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 IVD test for the cobas6800/8800 systems offers excellent linear range and inter-run consistency for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in different matrices outside official specifications.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18588, 2020 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122689

RESUMEN

Despite improvements in diagnosis, intensive-care medicine and surgical technique, the mortality of patients with secondary peritonitis is still high. Early and aggressive empiric antibiotic treatment has strong impact on the outcome. This retrospective study investigates bacterial and fungal pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity in patients with secondary peritonitis. All patients that underwent emergency laparotomy due to secondary peritonitis at the Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed and overall 414 patients were included. We correlated the intra-abdominal localization of the organ perforation with intraoperative microbiological findings and corresponding sensitivities to relevant antibiotics. Overall, the most common findings were Escherichia coli (39%) and other Enterobacterica (24%). Depending on the location of the perforation, Cefuroxime/Metronidazole and Cefutaxime/Metronidazole were effective (based on in vitro susceptibility testing) in only 55-73% of the patients, while Meropenem/Vancomycin was able to control the peritonitis in more than 98% of the patients; independent of the location. Besides early source control, appropriate empiric treatment plays a pivotal role in treatment of secondary peritonitis. We are able to show that the frequently used combinations of second or third generation Cephalosporins with Metronidazole are not always sufficient, which is due to the biological resistance of the bacteria. Further clinical studies are needed to determine whether calculated use of broad-spectrum antibiotics with a sensitivity rate > 99%, such as Carbapenem plus Vancomycin, can improve overall survival rates in critically ill patients with secondary peritonitis.

20.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947995

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been associated with immunological phenomena. Their clinical significance, however, still needs to be clarified, that is, whether cryoglobulins or autoantibodies impact overt disease in HEV-infected individuals. To better understand, we analyzed these different immune phenomena in three cohorts, each representing different types of HEV infection. METHODS: The cohorts included: (i) immunocompetent patients with acute hepatitis E, (ii) immunosuppressed patients with chronic hepatitis E, and (iii) individuals with asymptomatic HEV infection. Together, they consisted of 57 individuals and were studied retrospectively for the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), cryoglobulins, and serum total IgG. They were then compared with a control cohort of 17 untreated patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. RESULTS: Thirteen (23%) were immunocompetent patients with acute hepatitis E (median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) = 872 U/L), 15 (26%) were immunosuppressed patients with chronic hepatitis E (median ALT = 137 U/L), and 29 (51%) were blood donors with asymptomatic HEV infection (median ALT = 35 U/L). Overall, 24% tested positive for elevated ANA titers of >1:160, and 11% presented with a specific ANA pattern. ANA detection was not associated with the type of HEV infection, IgG levels, sex, or age. All individuals tested negative for anti-mitochondrial antibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, liver-kidney microsomal antibodies, anti-myeloperoxidase-, and anti-proteinase-3 antibodies. Five patients (9%) tested positive for cryoglobulins. Notably, cryoglobulinemia was present in overt hepatitis E (Groups (i) and (ii); one acute and four chronic HEV infections), but was not present in any of the asymptomatic blood donors (p = 0.02). The frequency of cryoglobulins and elevated ANAs did not differ significantly between HEV and HBV/HCV patients. CONCLUSION: In line with findings on HBV and HCV infections, we frequently observed detection of ANAs (24%) and cryoglobulins (9%) in association with HEV infections. The presence of cryoglobulins was limited to patients with overt hepatitis E. We add to the findings on the immune phenomena of hepatitis E.

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