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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295239, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363759

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization (WHO) is committed to empowering countries by implementing a gender, equity, and human rights approach in the health sector. The objective of this gender and inclusion analysis is to assess potential gender disparities of health sector management in the Kyrgyz Republic. The employed mixed-method approach takes advantage of data triangulation. Besides information from the literature and policy documents available at the international and national levels, the analysis includes interviews and data from the self-assessment of health services managers in the Kyrgyz Republic. A convenience sample of 75 health managers was taken and after up to three reminders a commendable response rate of 80% was achieved which resulted the final sample size of N = 60. A factor analysis using quartimax orthogonal rotation was applied to investigate the correlation between Teaching Qualification, Digitalization, Training Usefulness, Computer Workplace, and Gender Equality. In 2021, the Kyrgyz Republic adopted a new Constitution, which provides a sound legal framework to support gender equality and promote women's empowerment. However, according to a survey, only 42.9% of the respondents felt that equal rights and opportunities were integrated into their job descriptions. Similarly, only 40.7% believed that their institutions' written documents reflected a commitment to equal rights and opportunities for both genders. Two factors were identified as influencing gender equality: (1) personal and (2) technical aspects. Regarding personal aspects, gender equality, teaching qualification, and training usefulness were found to be significant. Regarding technical aspects, the computer workplace was related. In recent years, the Kyrgyz Republic has been developing a culture of gender equality. Political will is essential to promote and make organizational change possible. It is important to create a written mid-term policy that affirms a commitment to gender equality in organizational behavior, structures, staff, and management board compositions. Healthcare institutions need to prepare strategic and operational plans that incorporate gender equality principles.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Derechos de la Mujer , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Kirguistán , Derechos Humanos , Políticas
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 873845, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719609

RESUMEN

Background: Women's happiness and life satisfaction, often summarized as subjective wellbeing, are of great value for most individuals and are associated with various determinants. The countries of the Western Balkan are of particular interest after the political changes in the nineties. Are the women satisfied with their lives today? Methods: We use the most recent datasets of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) for women 15-49 years old and with comparable data coverage for three countries of the Western Balkan belonging to the former Yugoslavia, namely Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. After sorting out variables of limited relevance or quality (missing values >50%), the remaining 32 variables followed a descriptive analysis. Four potential determinants of subjective wellbeing (SWB), an integration of happiness and satisfaction with life, entered an interactive Classification and Regression Tree (iC&RT) to account for their mostly bivariate format: age, education, region, and wealth. Results: The iC&RT analysis determines the influence of 4 independent variables (age, education, region, and wealth) on overall happiness, satisfaction with life, and subjective wellbeing, resulting in a high overall SWB of 88.9% for Montenegro, 82.1% for North Macedonia, and 83% for Serbia. The high relevance of younger age, higher education, and wealth, as critical determinants of a high SWB, and the lesser role of regions except for Serbia is confirmed. The spread of SWB in defined population subgroups ranges from 80.5-92.6% for Montenegro, 64.2-86.8% for North Macedonia, and 75.8-87.4% for Serbia. Conclusions: The three selected South-Eastern European countries of the former Yugoslavia (Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia) represent high levels of subjective wellbeing of women and a narrow range between the lowest and highest population groups. Women in Montenegro take a top position regarding their subjective wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Minería de Datos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Montenegro/epidemiología , República de Macedonia del Norte/epidemiología , Serbia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(4): 683-688, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761941

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER) is confronted with challenges to improve education for public health professionals. In this article, we attempt to answer the question: Did ASPHER members improve their organization and programmes to enable their graduates to acquire the competences to tackle the diverse areas of public health defined in the Ten Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs)? METHODS: ASPHER run two surveys among its membership: In 2011, 66 Schools and Departments of Public Health (SDPHs) took part (82.5%), while in 2015-16, 78 SDPHs (81.3%). The performance of graduates was estimated using a Likert scale. RESULTS: In 2015-16, the SDPHs delivered 169 academic programmes (2.2 on average per SDPH). Among the SDPHs participating in both surveys, significant differences could not be determined, neither for the organization (except increasingly using social media) nor for teaching areas. The performance of graduates did not show significant differences except for the deterioration of EPHO-8 ('assuring sustainable organizational structures and financing'). However, the qualitative data revealed progressive dynamics regarding innovations in the organizational set-up, digitalization, teaching/training, introduction of new modules and research. CONCLUSIONS: The results generated do not allow us to state that the innovative elements introduced after the first survey in 2011 have had a clear impact reflected in the second survey carried out in 2015-16, but perhaps this is due to the need for a broader follow-up in order to objectify the potential consequences derived from the boost generated by the changes introduced.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Salud Pública/educación , Escuelas de Salud Pública/organización & administración , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Libyan J Med ; 14(1): 1607698, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The United Nations Assembly adopted the Sustainable Development Goals to succeed the Millennium Development Goals in September 2015. From a European perspective, the development of health in the countries of North Africa are of special interest as a critical factor of overall social development in Europe's Mediterranean partners. In this paper, we address the mortality related SDG-3 targets, the likelihood to achieve them until 2030 and analyze how they are defined. METHODS: We projected mortality trends from 2000-2015 to 2030, based on mortality estimates by inter-agency groups and the WHO in mother and child health, non-communicable diseases, and road traffic mortality. The gap analysis compares the time remaining until 2030 to the time needed to complete the target assuming a linear trend of the respective indicator. A delay of not more than 3.75 years is considered likely to achieve the target. RESULTS: The SDG-3 targets of a Maternal Mortality Ratio below 70 per 100 000 live births and an U5MR below 25 per 1 000 live births have been achieved by Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia. Libya and Tunisia have also achieved the target for Newborn Mortality with Egypt close to achieving it as well. Algeria and Morocco are generally on track for most of the indicators, including deaths from non-communicable diseases and suicide rates; however, all of the countries are lagging when it comes to deadly Road Traffic Injuries for 2030. Mauritania is the only North African country which is not likely to reach the 2030 targets for any of the mortality indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality statistics may be incomplete there is an impressive gradient from East to West showing Mauritania and deadly road traffic injuries as the most problematic areas. Given the large differences between countries baselines, we consider it preferable to set realistic targets to be achieved until 2030.


Asunto(s)
Salud/normas , Mortalidad/tendencias , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Naciones Unidas/organización & administración , Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , África del Norte/epidemiología , Argelia , Salud Infantil/normas , Egipto , Humanos , Libia , Mauritania , Marruecos , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Objetivos Organizacionales , Factores de Tiempo , Túnez
7.
Front Public Health ; 7: 386, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921750

RESUMEN

Objectives: The Government of Liberia has set ambitious national health targets for 2021 to reduce the high maternal, newborn, and child mortality rate and to improve the related health services. Additionally, Sustainable Development Goal 3 provides a long-term target for 2030. The objective of this article is to analyze the gaps between the targets and collected data. Materials and Methods: Relevant national documents were scrutinized to identify targets and related indicators which can serve as benchmarks for future achievements in Liberia's maternal, newborn, and child health. For each indicator, progress observed will be compared with that needed to meet the target, based on the indicator value in a baseline year, a later observed value, and the expected value in 2021 and 2030, respectively. Results: The Gap Analysis reveals achievements and serious delays for 21 health and health system indicators. Based on national data the reduction of the maternal mortality ratio will take an additional -8.2 years for the 2021 target and -12.5 years for the 2030 target. The Neonatal Mortality rate is experiencing similar delays of -7.9 years for 2021 and -12.9 for 2030 whereas the targets for the Under-5-Mortality rate can be achieved with small delays of -1.8 and -1.7 years. Conclusions: The Government of Liberia requires persistent efforts and international support to achieve its national targets and the Sustainable Development Goal 3 for health.

8.
Global Health ; 14(1): 30, 2018 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548339

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a gap in knowledge on long term pace of population aging acceleration and related net-migration rate changes in WHO European Region and its adjacent MENA countries. We decided to compare European Union (EU-28) region with the EU Near Neighborhood Policy Region East and EU Near Neighborhood Policy Region South in terms of these two essential features of third demographic transition. One century long perspective dating back to both historical data and towards reliable future forecasts was observed. METHODS: United Nation's Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimates on indicators of population aging and migration were observed. Time horizon adopted was 1950-2050. Targeted 44 countries belong to either one of three regions named by EU diplomacy as: European Union or EU-28, EU Near Neighborhood Policy Region East (ENP East) and EU Near Neighborhood Policy Region South (ENP South). RESULTS: European Union region currently experiences most advanced stage of demographic aging. The latter one is the ENP East region dominated by Slavic nations whose fertility decline continues since the USSR Era back in late 1980s. ENP South region dominated by Arab League nations remains rather young compared to their northern counterparts. However, as the Third Demographic Transition is inevitably coming to these societies they remain the spring of youth and positive net emigration rate. Probably the most prominent change will be the extreme fall of total fertility rate (children per woman) in ENP South countries (dominantly Arab League) from 6.72 back in 1950 to medium-scenario forecasted 2.10 in 2050. In the same time net number of migrants in the EU28 (both sexes combined) will grow from - 91,000 in 1950 to + 394,000 in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: Long term migration from Eastern Europe westwards and from MENA region northwards is historically present for many decades dating back deep into the Cold War Era. Contemporary large-scale migrations outsourcing from Arab League nations towards rich European Protestant North is probably the peak of an iceberg in long migration routes history. However, in the decades to come acceleration of aging is likely to question sustainability of such movements of people.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/historia , Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Dinámica Poblacional/tendencias , Unión Europea , Predicción , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Naciones Unidas
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 22(4): 123-134, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632729

RESUMEN

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) comprises 15-member states with an estimated population of 350 million. This account relates the present status of maternal, neonatal, and under-five-mortality to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets set for 2030. For each SDG indicator, progress observed was compared with that needed to meet the target (assuming linear progression). The time gap was calculated as the difference between the time remaining to the target year (2030) and the estimated time needed to achieve the target. The highest maternal mortality ratio is found in Sierra Leone (1360 in 2015), followed by Nigeria (814) and Liberia (725). Whereas Sierra Leone and Nigeria keep high positions also for the neonatal and under-five mortality rate, Liberia ranks clearly better than the ECOWAS average. Globally skilled health professionals' density is 25 per 10,000 population and in Nigeria close to it with 20.1 whereas Guinea takes the last position with 1.4. The gap analysis shows that ECOWAS countries have a realistic chance to likely reach the SDG targets in 2030 with a delay of less than 4 years regarding maternal, neonatal, and under-five-mortality although their skilled health professionals' density is considerably lower than for the entire African region.


Asunto(s)
Salud Infantil , Madres , Desarrollo Sostenible , África Occidental , Niño , Mortalidad del Niño , Femenino , Objetivos , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Mortalidad Materna
10.
J Med Econ ; 20(5): 483-492, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035843

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Inter-regional comparison of health-reform outcomes in south-eastern Europe (SEE). METHODS: Macro-indicators were obtained from the WHO Health for All Database. Inter-regional comparison among post-Semashko, former Yugoslavia, and prior-1989-free-market SEE economies was conducted. RESULTS: United Nations Development Program Human Development Index growth was strongest among prior-free-market SEE, followed by former Yugoslavia and post-Semashko. Policy cuts to hospital beds and nursing-staff capacities were highest in post-Semashko. Physician density increased the most in prior-free-market SEE. Length of hospital stay was reduced in most countries; frequency of outpatient visits and inpatient discharges doubled in prior-free-market SEE. Fertility rates fell for one third in Post-Semashko and prior-free-market SEE. Crude death rates slightly decreased in prior-free-market-SEE and post-Semashko, while growing in the former Yugoslavia region. Life expectancy increased by 4 years on average in all regions; prior-free-market SEE achieving the highest longevity. Childhood and maternal mortality rates decreased throughout SEE, while post-Semashko countries recorded the most progress. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in healthcare resources and outcomes were observed among three historical health-policy legacies in south-eastern Europe. These different routes towards common goals created a golden opportunity for these economies to learn from each other.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Tasa de Natalidad/tendencias , Comparación Transcultural , Europa Oriental/epidemiología , Capacidad de Camas en Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Front Public Health ; 4: 241, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27843892

RESUMEN

This opinion piece focuses on global health action by hands-on bottom-up practice: initiation of an organizational framework and securing financial efficiency are - however - essential, both clearly a domain of well-trained public health professionals. Examples of action are cited in the four main areas of global threats: planetary climate change, global divides and inequity, global insecurity and violent conflicts, and global instability and financial crises. In conclusion, a stable health systems policy framework would greatly enhance success. However, such organizational framework dries out if not linked to public debates channeling fresh thoughts and controversial proposals: the structural stabilization is essential but has to serve not to dominate bottom-up activities. In other words, a horizontal management is required, a balanced equilibrium between bottom-up initiative and top-down support. Last but not least, rewarding voluntary and charity work by public acknowledgment is essential.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; 19(15): 2734-42, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087502

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify the role of mother's education in the nutritional status of children aged 2-5 years in Serbia. DESIGN: Nationally representative population-based study. Age- and gender-specific BMI percentiles of children were analysed. In accordance with the WHO growth reference, children with BMI less than the 5th percentile were considered undernourished. Logistic regression was used to calculate the association between mother's education and other socio-economic determinants as possible confounders. SETTING: UNICEF's fourth Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, conducted in both Roma and non-Roma settlements in Serbia. SUBJECTS: Children (n 2603) aged 2-5 years (mean age 3·05 years). RESULTS: Less than 5 % of children aged 2-5 years were undernourished. There were significantly more undernourished children among the Roma population, in the capital of Serbia and among those whose mothers were less educated. There were statistically significant differences according to mother's education in all socio-economic characteristics (ethnicity, area, region of living and wealth index). Mother's level of education proved to be the most important factor for child's nutritional status; place of living (region) was also associated. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's education is the most significant predictor of children's undernutrition. It confirms that investment in females' education will bring benefits and progress not only for women and their children, but also for society as a whole.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Escolaridad , Madres , Estado Nutricional , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Serbia , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 15: 25, 2015 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889166

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Training is the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes and is one of the most important components in any organization's strategy. There is increasing demand for formal and informal training programs especially for physicians in leadership positions. This study determined the learning outcomes after a specific training program for hospital management teams. METHODS: The study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 at the Centre School of Public Health and Management, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade and included 107 participants involved in the management in 20 Serbian general hospitals. The management teams were multidisciplinary, consisting of five members on average: the director of the general hospital, the deputy directors, the head nurse, and the chiefs of support services. The managers attended a training program, which comprised four modules addressing specific topics. Three reviewers independently evaluated the level of management skills at the beginning and 12 months after the training program. Principal component analysis and subsequent stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of learning outcomes. RESULTS: The quality of the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analyses performed by the trainees improved with differences between 0.35 and 0.49 on a Likert scale (p < 0.001). Principal component analysis explained 81% of the variance affecting their quality of strategic planning. Following the training program, the external environment, strategic positioning, and quality of care were predictors of learning outcomes. The four regression models used showed that the training program had positive effects (p < 0.001) on the ability to formulate a Strategic Plan comprising the hospital mission, vision, strategic objectives, and action plan. CONCLUSION: This study provided evidence that training for strategic planning and management enhanced the strategic decision-making of hospital management teams, which is a requirement for hospitals in an increasingly competitive, complex and challenging context. For the first time, half of state general hospitals involved in team training have formulated the development of an official strategic plan. The positive effects of the formal training program justify additional investment in future education and training.


Asunto(s)
Administración Hospitalaria/educación , Administradores de Hospital/educación , Equipos de Administración Institucional , Liderazgo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Técnicas de Planificación , Formulación de Políticas , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Vojnosanit Pregl ; 72(2): 160-8, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25831909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Continuing Medical Education (CME), conceptualised as lifelong learning (LLL) aims at improving human resources and continuing professional development. Various documents of European institutions underline its key importance. This paper therefore tries to analyse the current status of CME and the main deficits in the delivery of LLL courses at medical faculties in Serbia with special consideration of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade with detailed financial data available. METHODS: Data of 2,265 medical courses submitted in 2011 and 2012 for accredita- tion were made available, thereof 403 courses submitted by 4 medical faculties in Serbia (Belgrade, Kragujevac, Nil, Novi Sad). A subset of more detailed information on 88 delivered courses with 5,600 participants has been provided by the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade. All data were transferred into an Excel file and analysed with XLSTAT 2009. To reduce the complexity and possible redundancy we performed a principal component analysis (PCA). Correlated component regression (CCR) models were used to identify determinants of course participation. RESULTS: During the 2-year period 12.9% of all courses were submitted on pre-clinical and 62.4% on clinical topics, 12.2% on public health, while 61.5% of all took place in Belgrade. The subset of the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade comprised 3,471 participants registered with 51 courses accredited and delivered in 2011 and 2,129 participants with 37 courses accredited and delivered in 2012. The median number of participants per course for the entire period was 45; the median fee rates for participants were 5,000 dinars in 2011 and 8,000 in 2012, resulting together with donations--in a total income for both years together of 16,126,495.00 dinar or almost 144,000.00 euro. This allowed for a median payment of approximately 90 eur per hour lectured in 2011 and 49 euro in 2012. The 2 factors, D1 (performance) and D2 (attractiveness), identified in the PCA for Medical Faculties in Serbia, explain 71.8% of the variance. Most relevant are the duration of the courses, credit points" and hours per credit point gained by lecturers and participants respectively. In the PCA for Belgrade D1 and D2 explain 40.7% of the total variance. The CCR on the number of participants reveals the highest positive impact from the number of lecturers per course and the expenditure on amenities, the highest negative impact from the total income collected per participant. CONCLUSION: The faculties of medicine in Serbia should reconsider the entire structure of their organisation of CME, especially to improve the quantity and quality of registration limit the course fee rates per hour and reduce administrative and other costs request lecturing in CME programmes as obligatory for academic promotion and organise a focused marketing.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica Continua/estadística & datos numéricos , Docentes Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica Continua/economía , Humanos , Serbia
15.
Front Public Health ; 3: 46, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25806364
16.
Glob Health Action ; 7: 24352, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25249060

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts' points of view and these are mainly government driven. DESIGNS: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. RESULTS: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. CONCLUSION: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.


Asunto(s)
Logro , Salud Global , Objetivos , Política de Salud , Administración en Salud Pública , Niño , Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Países en Desarrollo , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Hambre , Pobreza , Medicina Preventiva/organización & administración , Salud de la Mujer
17.
Glob Health Action ; 7: 23569, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24560262

RESUMEN

Global health ethics is a relatively new term that is used to conceptualize the process of applying moral value to health issues that are typically characterized by a global level effect or require action coordinated at a global level. It is important to acknowledge that this account of global health ethics takes a predominantly geographic approach and may infer that the subject relates primarily to macro-level health phenomena. However, global health ethics could alternatively be thought of as another branch of health ethics. It may then relate to specific topics in themselves, which might also include micro-level health phenomena. In its broadest sense, global health ethics is a normative project that is best characterized by the challenge of developing common values and universal norms for responding to global health threats. Consequently, many subjects fall within its scope. Whilst several accounts of global health ethics have been conceptualized in the literature, a concise demarcation of the paradigm is still needed. Through means of a literature review, this paper presents a two-part introduction to global health ethics. First, the framework of 'borrowed' ethics that currently form the core of global health ethics is discussed in relation to two essential ethical considerations: 1) what is the moral significance of health and 2) what is the moral significance of boundaries? Second, a selection of exemplar ethical topics is presented to illustrate the range of topics within global health ethics.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global/ética , Países en Desarrollo , Teoría Ética , Ética en Investigación , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado , Modelos Teóricos , Justicia Social , Responsabilidad Social
18.
Glob Health Action ; 7: 23694, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24560267

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides. REVIEW: For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world. Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand. Civil society, as an indispensable activator of public health development, mainly represented by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is characterised by a high degree of fragmentation and lack of public accountability. The World Federation of Public Health Associations is used as an example of an NGO with a global mission and fostering regional cooperation as an indispensable intermediate level.The lack of a globally valid terminology of basic public health functions is prohibitive for coordinated global and regional efforts. Attempts to harmonise essential public health functions, services and operations are under way to facilitate communication and mutual understanding. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1) Given the limited effects of the Millennium Development Goal agenda, the Post-2015 Development Goals should focus on integrated regional development. 2) A code of conduct for NGOs should be urgently developed for the health sector, and NGOs should be registered and accredited. 3) The harmonisation of the basic terminology for global public health essentials should be enhanced.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Programas Gente Sana/organización & administración , Humanos , Organizaciones , Salud Pública/métodos
19.
Glob Health Action ; 7: 23695, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24560268

RESUMEN

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Programas Gente Sana , Planificación en Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Programas Gente Sana/organización & administración , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Objetivos Organizacionales , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
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