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Microb Ecol ; 84(1): 182-197, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406445


Keystone species or ecological engineers are vital to the health of an ecosystem; however, often, their low abundance or biomass present challenges for their discovery, identification, visualization and selection. We report the development of fluorescent in situ hybridization of transcript-annealing molecular beacons (FISH-TAMB), a fixation-free protocol that is applicable to archaea and bacteria. The FISH-TAMB method differs from existing FISH methods by the absence of fixatives or surfactants in buffers, the fast hybridization time of as short as 15 min at target cells' growth temperature, and the omission of washing steps. Polyarginine cell-penetrating peptides are employed to deliver molecular beacons (MBs) across prokaryotic cell walls and membranes, fluorescently labeling cells when MBs hybridize to target mRNA sequences. Here, the detailed protocol of the preparation and application of FISH-TAMB is presented. To demonstrate FISH-TAMB's ability to label intracellular mRNA targets, differentiate transcriptional states, detect active and rare taxa, and keep cell viability, labeling experiments were performed that targeted the messenger RNA (mRNA) of methyl-coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) expressed in (1) Escherichia coli containing a plasmid with a partial mcrA gene of the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri (E. coli mcrA+); (2) M. barkeri; and (3) an anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) enrichment from a deep continental borehole. Although FISH-TAMB was initially envisioned for mRNA of any functional gene of interest without a requirement of prior knowledge of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based taxonomy, FISH-TAMB has the potential for multiplexing and going beyond mRNA and thus is a versatile addition to the molecular ecologist's toolkit, with potentially widespread application in the field of environmental microbiology.

Metano , Microbiota , Archaea , ADN de Archaea/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ/métodos , Metano/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Filogenia , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo
Curr Protoc Cytom ; Chapter 2: 2.20.1-2.20.11, 2013 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23292708


Super-resolution microscopy overcomes diffraction to generate images with superior resolution compared to conventional light microscopy. Localization-based super-resolution methods result in up to ten-fold improvement in resolution by determining the positions of fluorescent molecules with sub-pixel accuracy. This process critically depends on controlled emission at the level of individual fluorophores so that fluorescence is non-overlapping, allowing for accurate centroid determination of diffraction-limited spots by Gaussian fitting of the pixel intensities. The intrinsic photoswitching behavior of many fluorophores provides a convenient way to achieve emitter isolation. Here, we describe methods for label preparation and staining of cellular structures to obtain high-quality images using localization super resolution. We also compare labeling strategies and dye characteristics relevant to all localization-based techniques, such as STORM and PALM.

Aumento de la Imagen , Microscopía/instrumentación , Microscopía/métodos , Animales , Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Colorantes Fluorescentes/farmacología , Humanos , Citometría de Imagen/instrumentación , Citometría de Imagen/métodos , Aumento de la Imagen/instrumentación , Aumento de la Imagen/métodos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/instrumentación , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Microscopía Fluorescente/instrumentación , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Microtúbulos/química , Microtúbulos/ultraestructura , Mitocondrias/química , Mitocondrias/ultraestructura , Práctica Profesional , Coloración y Etiquetado/métodos
J Biomed Opt ; 12(4): 044006, 2007.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17867810


We present a multimodal optical microscope that incorporates six imaging modalities on one common platform. The imaging modalities include three staring modes, optical quadrature microscopy (OQM), differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, and epi-fluorescence microscopy, and three scanning modes, confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM), confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), and two-photon microscopy (2PM). OQM reconstructs the amplitude and phase of an optically transparent specimen within a modified Mach-Zehnder configuration. DIC microscopy images the phase gradient along a specified direction of an optically transparent specimen. CRM detects index of refraction changes that modulate backscatter. Epi-fluorescence microscopy, CFM, and 2PM detect endogenous and exogenous fluorophores within a specimen. The scanning modes are inherently capable of producing three-dimensional (3-D) images due to optical sectioning and localized probing. Illumination and imaging are performed coaxially with minimal changes of optical components between modes. Multimodal images of embryos are shown to demonstrate the microscope's imaging capabilities.

Embrión de Mamíferos/citología , Embrión de Mamíferos/fisiología , Viabilidad Fetal/fisiología , Aumento de la Imagen/instrumentación , Microscopía Confocal/instrumentación , Microscopía Fluorescente/instrumentación , Microscopía de Polarización/instrumentación , Animales , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Aumento de la Imagen/métodos , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/instrumentación , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Ratones , Microscopía Confocal/métodos , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Microscopía de Polarización/métodos , Integración de Sistemas