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PLoS One ; 9(9): e107991, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268119


Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen receptor (AR) remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S)-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R)-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1) region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.

Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Éteres de Glicerilo/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Masculino , Metribolona/farmacología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Receptores Androgénicos/química , Receptores Androgénicos/fisiología , Estereoisomerismo , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos
J Med Chem ; 55(1): 503-14, 2012 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22148427


Extracts of the marine sponge Niphates digitalis collected in Dominica showed strong activity in a cell-based assay designed to detect antagonists of the androgen receptor (AR) that could act as lead compounds for the development of a new class of drugs to treat castration recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). Assay-guided fractionation showed that niphatenones A (3) and B (4), two new glycerol ether lipids, were the active components of the extracts. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data and confimed via total synthesis. Biological evaluation of synthetic analogues of the niphatenones has shown that the enantiomers 7 and 8 are more potent than the natural products in the screening assay and defined preliminary SAR for the new AR antagonist pharmacophore, including the finding that the Michael acceptor enone functionality is not required for activity. Niphatenone B (4) and its enantiomer 8 blocked androgen-induced proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation of PC3 prostate cancer cells that do not express functional AR, consistent with activity as AR antagonists. Use of the propargyl ether 44 and Click chemistry showed that niphatenone B binds covalently to the activation function-1 (AF1) region of the AR N-terminus domain (NTD).

Antineoplásicos/química , Éteres de Glicerilo/química , Poríferos/química , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Animales , Antineoplásicos/síntesis química , Antineoplásicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Éteres de Glicerilo/síntesis química , Éteres de Glicerilo/aislamiento & purificación , Éteres de Glicerilo/farmacología , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Conformación Molecular , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Estereoisomerismo , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Transcripción Genética/efectos de los fármacos
PLoS One ; 6(9): e24197, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21909421


Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Upon binding to androgens, AR becomes transcriptionally active to regulate the expression of target genes that harbor androgen response elements (AREs) in their promoters and/or enhancers. AR is essential for the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells and is therefore a target for current and next-generation therapeutic modalities against prostate cancer. Pathophysiologically relevant protein-protein interaction networks involving AR are, however, poorly understood. In this study, we identified the protein FUsed/Translocated in LipoSarcoma (FUS/TLS) as an AR-interacting protein by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. The hormonal response of FUS expression in LNCaP cells was shown to resemble that of other AR co-activators. FUS displayed a strong intrinsic transactivation capacity in prostate cancer cells when tethered to basal promoters using the GAL4 system. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that FUS was recruited to ARE III of the enhancer region of the PSA gene. Data from ectopic overexpression and "knock-down" approaches demonstrated that AR transcriptional activity was enhanced by FUS. Depletion of FUS reduced androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells. Thus, FUS is a novel co-activator of AR in prostate cancer cells.

Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Proteína FUS de Unión a ARN/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Transactivadores/metabolismo , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Andrógenos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Complejos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Transporte de Proteínas/efectos de los fármacos , Proteína FUS de Unión a ARN/química , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Fracciones Subcelulares/efectos de los fármacos , Fracciones Subcelulares/metabolismo , Transactivadores/química , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos