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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699285

RESUMEN

We use global airborne observations of propane (C3H8) and ethane (C2H6) from the Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO), as well as U.S.-based aircraft and tower observations by NOAA and from the NCAR FRAPPE campaign as tracers for emissions from oil and gas operations. To simulate global mole fraction fields for these gases, we update the default emissions' configuration of C3H8 used by the global chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem v13.0.0, using a scaled C2H6 spatial proxy. With the updated emissions, simulations of both C3H8 and C2H6 using GEOS-Chem are in reasonable agreement with ATom and HIPPO observations, though the updated emission fields underestimate C3H8 accumulation in the arctic wintertime, pointing to additional sources of this gas in the high latitudes (e.g., Europe). Using a Bayesian hierarchical model, we estimate global emissions of C2H6 and C3H8 from fossil fuel production in 2016-2018 to be 13.3 ± 0.7 (95% CI) and 14.7 ± 0.8 (95% CI) Tg/year, respectively. We calculate bottom-up hydrocarbon emission ratios using basin composition measurements weighted by gas production and find their magnitude is higher than expected and is similar to ratios informed by our revised alkane emissions. This suggests that emissions are dominated by pre-processing activities in oil-producing basins.

2.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 188: 35-44, 2022 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675856

RESUMEN

Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is an environmental pollutant with serious nephrotoxic effects, but the underlying mechanism of HgCl2 nephrotoxicity is not well understood. Ferroptosis and necroptosis are two programmed cell death (PCD) modalities that have been reported singly in heavy metal-induced kidney injury. However, the interaction between ferroptosis and necroptosis in HgCl2-induced kidney injury is unclear. Here, we established a model of HgCl2-exposed chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells to dissect the progresses and mechanisms of these two PCDs. We found that ferroptosis was initially activated in CEK cells after HgCl2 exposure for 12 h, and necroptosis was activated subsequently at 24 h. Importantly, further study indicated that the shift from ferroptosis to necroptosis was driven by ROS, which was produced by iron-dependent Fenton reaction, and the iron chelation by DFO prevented the sequential activation of both ferroptosis and necroptosis. To investigate the source of intracellular iron, the regulation of iron homeostasis was first explored and demonstrated a tendency for intracellular iron overload in CEK cells. Interestingly, the cellular ferritin, a free iron depository, decreased in a time-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that the degradation of ferritin was attributed to the activation of selective cargo receptor nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4)-mediated ferritinophagy, and the inhibition of ferritinophagy by CQ prevented the HgCl2-induced cell death. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HgCl2 released excess free iron via ferritinophagy, led to a sustained accumulation of ROS and ultimately activated ferroptosis and necroptosis sequentially. These findings provide a new understanding for the nephrotoxic mechanism of HgCl2.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 876269, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757427

RESUMEN

Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is characterized by the uncoupling of bone resorption and bone formation induced by estrogen deficiency, which is a complex outcome related to estrogen and the immune system. The interaction between bone and immune cells is regarded as the context of PMOP. Macrophages act differently on bone cells, depending on their polarization profile and secreted paracrine factors, which may have implications for the development of PMOP. PMOP, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) might have pathophysiological links, and the similarity of their pathological mechanisms is partially visible in altered macrophages and cytokines in the immune system. This review focuses on exploring the pathological mechanisms of PMOP, RA, and AD through the roles of altered macrophages and cytokines secretion. First, the multiple effects on cytokines secretion by bone-bone marrow (BM) macrophages in the pathological mechanism of PMOP are reviewed. Then, based on the thought of "different tissue-same cell type-common pathological molecules-disease pathological links-drug targets" and the methodologies of "molecular network" in bioinformatics, highlight that multiple cytokines overlap in the pathological molecules associated with PMOP vs. RA and PMOP vs. AD, and propose that these overlaps may lead to a pathological synergy in PMOP, RA, and AD. It provides a novel strategy for understanding the pathogenesis of PMOP and potential drug targets for the treatment of PMOP.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Artritis Reumatoide , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/etiología , Citocinas , Estrógenos , Femenino , Humanos , Macrófagos/patología , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/etiología
4.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578032

RESUMEN

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with the worst prognosis and few effective therapies. Here we identified MS023, an inhibitor of type I protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), which has antitumor growth activity in TNBC. Pathway analysis of TNBC cell lines indicates that the activation of interferon responses before and after MS023 treatment is a functional biomarker and determinant of response, and these observations extend to a panel of human-derived organoids. Inhibition of type I PRMT triggers an interferon response through the antiviral defense pathway with the induction of double-stranded RNA, which is derived, at least in part, from inverted repeat Alu elements. Together, our results represent a shift in understanding the antitumor mechanism of type I PRMT inhibitors and provide a rationale and biomarker approach for the clinical development of type I PRMT inhibitors.

5.
Theriogenology ; 187: 188-194, 2022 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605398

RESUMEN

Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is a well-known toxic heavy metal contaminant, which causes male reproductive function defects. Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an effective antioxidant against heavy metals-induced male reproductive toxicity. The aim of present study was to explore the potentially protective mechanism of Se on HgCl2-induced testis injury in chicken. Firstly, the results showed that Se mitigated HgCl2-induced testicular injury through increasing the blood-testis barrier (BTB) cell-junction proteins expression of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), connexin 43 (Cx43), and N-cadherin. Secondly, Se alleviated HgCl2-induced oxidative stress through decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increasing the superoxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities as well as the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level. Thirdly, Se inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK signaling through decreasing the proteins expression of phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) and phosphorylated-ATF2 (p-ATF2), and alleviated inflammation response through decreasing the proteins expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Collectively, these results demonstrated that Se effectively alleviated HgCl2-induced testes injury via improving antioxidant capacity to reduce inflammation mediated by p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS signaling pathway in chicken. Our data shed a new light on potential mechanisms of Se antagonized HgCl2-induced male reproductive toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Mercurio , Selenio , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Pollos/fisiología , Inflamación/metabolismo , Inflamación/veterinaria , Masculino , Cloruro de Mercurio/metabolismo , Cloruro de Mercurio/toxicidad , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Selenio/farmacología , Transducción de Señal , Testículo , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(21): 12837-12848, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475984

RESUMEN

Graphene/ß-Ga2O3 heterojunctions are widely used in high-power and high-frequency devices, for which thermal management is vital to the device operation and life. Here we apply molecular dynamics simulation to calculate the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) between graphene and ß-Ga2O3. Based on the rigid ion model, a self-consistent interatomic potential with a set of parameters that can well reproduce the basic physical properties of crystal ß-Ga2O3 is fitted. Using this potential, the effects of model size, interface type, temperature, vacancy defects and graphene hydrogenation on the ITR of graphene/ß-Ga2O3 heterojunctions are evaluated. The results show that there is no obvious dependence of ITR on the size of graphene and ß-Ga2O3. It is reported that the ITR values of the (100), (010) and (001) interfaces are 7.28 ± 0.35 × 10-8 K m2 W-1, 6.69 ± 0.44 × 10-8 K m2 W-1 and 5.22 ± 0.35 × 10-8 K m2 W-1 at 300 K, respectively. Both temperature increase and vacancy defect increase can prompt the energy propagation across graphene/ß-Ga2O3 interfaces due to the enhancement of phonon coupling. In addition, graphene hydrogenation provides new channels for in-plane and out-of-plane phonon coupling, and thus reduces the ITR between graphene and ß-Ga2O3. This study provides basic strategies for the thermal design and management of graphene/ß-Ga2O3 based photoelectric devices.

7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 213: 112419, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227994

RESUMEN

In native bone tissue regeneration, blood vessels, providing oxygen and nutrition for tissues, can promote the regeneration of bone and accelerate the repair of a defected area. In this study, Poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) inverse opal scaffolds with high pore interconnectivity were fabricated and further modified with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were co-cultured onto the scaffolds to enhance vascularization for bone tissue regeneration. Cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and morphology were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, live and dead staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrostatic pressure with 0-279 KPa and 1 Hz one hour per day for 7 days was applied to tissue engineered bone constructs to investigate whether the loading stimulation can promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis mutually evaluated in parallel by multiple in vitro assays and in an in vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. The results indicated that the immobilization of VEGF can improve biocompatibility of PLGA scaffolds and promote cell attachment and proliferation. The cell-scaffold constructs showed higher CD31 expression because of the angiogenic differentiation of rMSCs in hydrostatic loading culture condition in vitro. The in vivo CAM model experiment demonstrated that hydrostatic loading stimulated angiogenic differentiation of rMSCs can accelerate tubulogenesis. Furthermore, the new capillaries formed in cell-scaffold constructs were conducive to calcium deposition in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Osteogénesis , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Animales , Técnicas de Cocultivo , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Presión Hidrostática , Ácido Láctico , Neovascularización Patológica , Porosidad , Ratas , Ingeniería de Tejidos/métodos , Andamios del Tejido , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/farmacología
8.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2022 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243583

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Through showing the full picture of double-arm controlled clinical research and systematic review evidence in the field of orally administrated Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of lung cancer, to provide a reference for future clinical research and to indicate a direction for future systematic reviews. METHODS: A comprehensive search of clinical controlled studies was performed regarding orally administered CHM treatment for lung cancer published from January 1970 to September 2020. The language was restricted to Chinese and English. Relevant data were extracted, the quality of systematic reviews was evaluated, and the research evidence was visually displayed. RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials were the most common type of research design. The research sample sizes were typically small. Oral CHM showed certain curative advantages in treating lung cancer. The key stages in oral CHM intervention for lung cancer are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and late palliative treatment. The advantageous outcomes of oral CHM treatment of lung cancer are the short-term efficacy, quality of life, and adverse reactions. The perioperative stage, overall survival, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, and Chinese medicine decoctions are weak research areas. CONCLUSIONS: CHM has staged and therapeutic advantages in treating lung cancer. The overall methodological quality is poor, and the level of evidence requires improvement. It is necessary to carry out large-scale, standardized, and higher-quality research in the superior and weak areas of CHM treatment of lung cancer.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 773114, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300480

RESUMEN

Although performing adaptive immunity, CRISPR-Cas systems are present in only 40% of bacterial genomes. We observed an abrupt increase of bacterial CRISPR-Cas abundance at around 45°C. Phylogenetic comparative analyses confirmed that the abundance correlates with growth temperature only at the temperature range around 45°C. From the literature, we noticed that the diversities of cellular predators (like protozoa, nematodes, and myxobacteria) have a steep decline at this temperature range. The grazing risk faced by bacteria reduces substantially at around 45°C and almost disappears above 60°C. We propose that viral lysis would become the dominating factor of bacterial mortality, and antivirus immunity has a higher priority at higher temperatures. In temperature ranges where the abundance of cellular predators does not change with temperature, the growth temperatures of bacteria would not significantly affect their CRISPR-Cas contents. The hypothesis predicts that bacteria should also be rich in CRISPR-Cas systems if they live in other extreme conditions inaccessible to grazing predators.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 233: 114215, 2022 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227978

RESUMEN

A total of 27 novel pyrrolo-pyridine benzamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. 14 of these derivatives were superior to Cabozantinib in cytotoxic assay, and compound 21 exhibited the best antitumor effect in vitro and vivo. Apoptosis activity was implemented by compound 21 on A549 cells, especially for the greatly enhanced late apoptosis compared with the control group (8.13% vs 4.49%), which was superior to that of Cabozantinib (6.89%). Similarly, 21 stagnated the A549 cells arrest in the two cell distribution phases (G0/G1 and G2/M) in dose-dependence manner. In addition, compound 21 could inhibit c-Met expression compared with Cabozantinib at the same concentration (10 µM). The results of molecular docking and dynamics study demonstrated that compound 21 formed four key hydrogen bonds with c-Met kinase. And key amino acids Met1160, Phe1134 and Phe1223 played a key functional role in the binding free energy. Furthermore, 21 exhibited high antitumor efficacy in tumor growth inhibition rate, which was superior to Cabozantinib (64.5% vs 47.9%). Overall, compound 21 could be considered as a promising antitumor agent.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzamidas/farmacología , Proliferación Celular , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Imidazoles , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Estructura Molecular , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/química , Piridinas/química , Pirroles/química , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Sulfonamidas , Tiofenos
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 110, 2022 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: GC pairs are generally more stable than AT pairs; GC-rich genomes were proposed to be more adapted to high temperatures than AT-rich genomes. Previous studies consistently showed positive correlations between growth temperature and the GC contents of structural RNA genes. However, for the whole genome sequences and the silent sites of the codons in protein-coding genes, the relationship between GC content and growth temperature is in a long-lasting debate. RESULTS: With a dataset much larger than previous studies (681 bacteria and 155 archaea with completely assembled genomes), our phylogenetic comparative analyses showed positive correlations between optimal growth temperature (Topt) and GC content both in bacterial and archaeal structural RNA genes and in bacterial whole genome sequences, chromosomal sequences, plasmid sequences, core genes, and accessory genes. However, in the 155 archaea, we did not observe a significant positive correlation of Topt with whole-genome GC content (GCw) or GC content at four-fold degenerate sites. We randomly drew 155 samples from the 681 bacteria for 1000 rounds. In most cases (> 95%), the positive correlations between Topt and genomic GC contents became statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). This result suggested that the small sample sizes might account for the lack of positive correlations between growth temperature and genomic GC content in the 155 archaea and the bacterial samples of previous studies. Comparing the GC content among four categories (psychrophiles/psychrotrophiles, mesophiles, thermophiles, and hyperthermophiles) also revealed a positive correlation between GCw and growth temperature in bacteria. By including the GCw of incompletely assembled genomes, we expanded the sample size of archaea to 303. Positive correlations between GCw and Topt appear especially after excluding the halophilic archaea whose GC contents might be strongly shaped by intense UV radiation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explains the previous contradictory observations and ends a long debate. Prokaryotes growing in high temperatures have higher GC contents. Thermal adaptation is one possible explanation for the positive association. Meanwhile, we propose that the elevated efficiency of DNA repair in response to heat mutagenesis might have the by-product of increasing GC content like that happens in intracellular symbionts and marine bacterioplankton.


Asunto(s)
Archaea , Células Procariotas , Archaea/genética , Composición de Base , Filogenia , Temperatura
12.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(1): 41-4, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025156

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effect of Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture (acupuncture for unblocking governor vessel and regulating qi ) combined with warming acupuncture, Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture, abdominal moxibustion and oral tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsule on postoperative urinary retention. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with postoperative urinary retention were randomized into an acupuncture-moxibustion group, an acupuncture group, a moxibustion group and a medication group, 30 cases in each group. Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture combined with warming acupuncture were applied in the acupuncture-moxibustion group. Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Shuigou (CV 26) etc. in the acupuncture group. Moxibustion was applied at Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Shuidao (ST 28) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) in the moxibustion group. Tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsule was given orally in the medication group. The treatment was once a day, and 5-day treatment was required in each group. Before and after treatment, the residual urine volume of bladder, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the time of first urethral catheter removal were observed, and the clinical efficacy was compared in the 4 groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the residual urine volume of bladder was decreased compared before treatment in the 4 groups (P<0.05), and that in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was less than the other 3 groups (P<0.05). After treatment, the VAS scores were decreased compared before treatment in the acupuncture-moxibustion group, the acupuncture group and the moxibustion group (P<0.05), and those in the 3 groups were lower than the medication group (P<0.05). The time of first urethral catheter removal in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was earlier than the other 3 groups (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 93.3% (28/30) in the acupuncture-moxibustion group, which was superior to 63.3% (19/30) in the acupuncture group, 60.0% (18/30) in the moxibustion group and 66.7% (20/30) in the medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effect of Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture combined with warming acupuncture on postoperative urinary retention is superior to simple acupuncture, abdominal moxibustion and tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsule.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Moxibustión , Retención Urinaria , Puntos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Retención Urinaria/etiología , Retención Urinaria/terapia
14.
J Inorg Biochem ; 229: 111716, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065321

RESUMEN

Mercuric chloride (HgCl2), a heavy metal compound, causes neurotoxicity of animals and humans. Selenium (Se) antagonizes heavy metal-induced organ damage with the properties of anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) against HgCl2-induced neurotoxicity remains obscure. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the protective mechanism of Na2SeO3 on HgCl2-induced brain damage in chickens. Morphological observations showed that Na2SeO3 alleviated HgCl2-induced brain tissues damage. The results also showed that Na2SeO3 decreased the protein expression of S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), and increased the levels of nerve growth factors (NGF), doublecortin domain containing 2 (DCDC2), as well as neurotransmitter to reverse HgCl2-induced brain dysfunction. Further, Na2SeO3 attenuated HgCl2-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Mechanistically, Na2SeO3 activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrKB)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway and suppressed the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis and inflammation caused by HgCl2 exposure. In summary, Na2SeO3 ameliorated HgCl2-induced brain injury via inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation through activating BDNF/TrKB/PI3K/AKT and suppressing NF-κB pathways.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Cloruro de Mercurio/toxicidad , Intoxicación del Sistema Nervioso por Mercurio/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/uso terapéutico , Selenito de Sodio/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Encefalopatías/inducido químicamente , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Pollos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo
15.
Photochem Photobiol ; 98(2): 347-353, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812490

RESUMEN

The photolysis reactions of (8-cyano-7-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)methyl (CyHQ)-caged amines have been investigated using time-resolved spectroscopy methods. Unexpectedly, an unconventional Hofmann-Martius rearrangement reaction with high yield and regioselectivity occurred during the photolysis of some CyHQ-protected dialkylanilines (such as compounds 1a and 2a). To have more insights into the mechanism of this unexpected photorearrangement reaction, we characterized the reaction intermediates directly using time-resolved spectroscopy. Our new results showed that the anionic form of compound 1a was photoexcited to the singlet excited state, then a heterolytic cleavage of the C-N bond took place to give CyHQ+ and the corresponding aniline. Thereafter, the recombined intermediate 6 was found to appear in about 19.7 and 44.3 ps for 1a (A) and 2a (A), respectively, before the generation of an ortho-substituted aniline (1b and 2b) via the excited-state deprotonation of 6. Thus, a logical photodynamic mechanism of this photoinduced Hofmann-Martius rearrangement reaction was deduced. This new insight into the reaction mechanisms may be helpful for the design of novel related photoactivatable aniline molecules and for understanding other similar photorearrangement reaction mechanisms.

16.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(3): 403-409, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165006

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the difference of pelvic size and shape between Tibetan and Chinese Han women. Data on pelvic dimension measures including interspinous diameter (IS), intercrestal diameter (IC), external conjugate (EC) and transverse outlet (TO) were acquired from two population-based studies amongst Tibetan women in Lhasa, and Chinese Han women in Shaanxi province in China. After coarsened exact matching, there was no statistical difference between any characteristics amongst Tibetan and Chinese Han women (p>.05). The generalised estimating equation models showed Tibetan women had significantly lower IS and IC means than Chinese Han women (IS: 24.39 cm vs. 24.77 cm, p<.001; IC: 26.35 cm vs. 26.93 cm, p<.001) but statistically higher in TO mean (9.12 cm vs. 9.03 cm, p<.001). This study showed Tibetan women have smaller pelvis compared to Chinese Han women. This should offer a useful literature on the comparison of pelvis between Tibetan and Chinese Han women although the difference is small.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? Previous studies in China indicated different populations have different dimensions of pelvis, with the pelvis of Uighur women being bigger than Chinese Han women, and that of Zhuang and Tu women being smaller than Chinese Han women. Little research reports the specific size of Tibetan women's pelvis. Living at high altitude, the Tibetan population have differentiated demographics and show local adaptions, such as unelevated haemoglobin, and significant catch-up growth for infants compared with Chinese Han infants. Therefore, there is a strong rationale for better understanding pelvic characteristics amongst this population.What the results of this study add? This study showed Tibetan women have smaller pelvises compared to Chinese Han women. Tibetan women have a smaller interspinous diameter and intercrestal diameter than Chinese Han women, which leads to relatively narrow hip.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This study provides useful comparative information on pelvic features between Tibetan and Chinese Han women although the findings of differences were small. In addition, during the formulation of women's health policy, the results of this study can provide data to support the selection of appropriate indicators of obstetrics and gynaecology for different populations of pregnant women during antenatal care and delivery.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , China , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Pelvis , Embarazo , Tibet/epidemiología
17.
J Plant Physiol ; 269: 153592, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923363

RESUMEN

Dioscorea composita (D. composita) is a perennial dioecious herb with strong biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. However, what roles WRKY transcription factors might play in regulating abiotic stress responses in this medicinal plant is unknown. Here, we isolated DcWRKY3 from D. composita and analyzed its role in stress tolerance. DcWRKY3 is a group I WRKY transcription factor that localized to the nucleus and specifically bound to the W-box cis-elements, but lacked transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. The expression of DcWRKY3 was strongly affected by salt stress. The heterologous expression of DcWRKY3 strongly enhanced the seed germination rate and root length of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress. The DcWRKY3-expressing transgenic lines (DcWRKY3-OEs) also showed higher proline content and antioxidant enzyme activity but lower malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen (ROS) levels compared with the wild type. Moreover, these plants showed upregulated expression of genes related to the salt-stress response and ROS clearance. These findings indicate that DcWRKY3 plays a positive role in the salt-stress response by improving the ROS scavenging ability and maintaining the balance of osmotic pressure in plants. Further studies showed that DcWRKY3 binds to the promoter of AtP5CS1, but not AtSOD and AtRD22, suggesting that DcWRKY3 improves salt tolerance in plants by directly or indirectly regulating the expression of downstream genes. This functional characterization of DcWRKY3 provides new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the response of D. composita to salt stress.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiología , Dioscorea/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Tolerancia a la Sal/genética , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 37(5): 1047-1057, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995020

RESUMEN

Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental and industrial pollutant that accumulated in the body and induces oxidative stress and inflammation damage. Selenium (Se) has been reported to antagonize immune organs damage caused by heavy metals. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevent effect of Se on mercuric chloride (HgCl2 )-induced thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF) damage in chickens. The results showed that HgCl2 caused immunosuppression by reducing the relative weight, cortical area of the thymus and BF, and the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Meanwhile, HgCl2 induced oxidative stress and imbalance in cytokines expression in the thymus and BF. Further, we found that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome mediated HgCl2 -induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Mechanically, the targeting and inhibitory effect of microRNA (miR)-135b/183 on forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) were an upstream event for HgCl2 -activated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Most importantly, Se effectively attenuated the aforementioned damage in the thymus and BF caused by HgCl2 and inhibited the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by reversing the expression of FOXO1 through inhibiting miR-135b/183. In conclusion, the miR-135b/183-FOXO1/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome axis might be a novel mechanism for Se to antagonize HgCl2 -induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the central immune organs of chickens.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Selenio , Animales , Pollos/metabolismo , Inflamasomas/metabolismo , Cloruro de Mercurio/toxicidad , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/metabolismo , Selenio/farmacología
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 757909, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804044

RESUMEN

Salmonella Infantis has emerged as a major clinical pathogen causing gastroenteritis worldwide in recent years. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella has evolved to manipulate and benefit from the cell death signaling pathway. In this study, we discovered that S. Infantis inhibited apoptosis of infected Caco-2 cells by phosphorylating Akt. Notably, Akt phosphorylation was observed in a discontinuous manner: immediately 0.5 h after the invasion, then before peak cytosolic replication. Single-cell analysis revealed that the second phase was only induced by cytosolic hyper-replicating bacteria at 3-4 hpi. Next, Akt-mediated apoptosis inhibition was found to be initiated by Salmonella SopB. Furthermore, Akt phosphorylation increased mitochondrial localization of Bcl-2 to prevent Bax oligomerization on the mitochondrial membrane, maintaining the mitochondrial network homeostasis to resist apoptosis. In addition, S. Infantis induced pyroptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase-1 (p10) and GSDMS-N levels. In contrast, cells infected with the ΔSopB strain displayed faster but less severe pyroptosis and had less bacterial load. The results indicated that S. Infantis SopB-mediated Akt phosphorylation delayed pyroptosis, but aggravated its severity. The wild-type strain also caused more severe diarrhea and intestinal inflammatory damage than the ΔSopB strain in mice. These findings revealed that S. Infantis delayed the cells' death by intermittent activation of Akt, allowing sufficient time for replication, thereby causing more severe inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Carga Bacteriana , Proteínas Bacterianas/fisiología , Células Epiteliales/microbiología , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Salmonella enterica/fisiología , Animales , Apoptosis , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Citosol/microbiología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Mitocondrias/fisiología , Fosforilación , Procesamiento Proteico-Postraduccional , Piroptosis , Salmonelosis Animal/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/enzimología , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Vacuolas/microbiología
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 113018, 2021 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837874

RESUMEN

Mercury (Hg) is a persistent heavy metal contaminant with definite hepatotoxicity. Selenium (Se) has been shown to alleviate liver damage induced by heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the mechanism of the antagonistic effect of Se on mercury chloride (HgCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity in chickens. Firstly, we confirmed that Se alleviated HgCl2-induced liver injury through histopathological observation and liver function analyzation. The results also showed that Se prevented HgCl2-induced liver lipid accumulation and dyslipidemia by regulating the gene expression related to lipid as well as glucose metabolism. Moreover, Se blocked the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signaling pathway, which was the key to alleviate the inflammation caused by HgCl2. Mechanically, Se inhibited immoderate mitochondrial division, fusion, and biogenesis caused by HgCl2, and also improved mitochondrial respiration, which were essential for preventing energy metabolism disorder and inflammation. In conclusion, our results suggested that Se inhibited energy metabolism disorder and inflammation by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, thereby alleviating HgCl2-induced liver injury in chickens. These results are expected to provide potential intervention and therapeutic targets for diseases caused by inorganic mercury poisoning.

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