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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 13503, 2023 08 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598248

RESUMEN

Lakes located in the boreal region are generally supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), which emerges from inflowing inorganic carbon from the surrounding watershed and from mineralization of allochthonous organic carbon. While these CO2 sources gained a lot of attention, processes that reduce the amount of CO2 have been less studied. We therefore examined the CO2 reduction capacity during times of phytoplankton blooms. We investigated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in two lakes at times of blooms dominated by the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata (Erken, Sweden) or by the nuisance alga Gonyostomum semen (Erssjön, Sweden) during two years. Our results showed that pCO2 and phytoplankton densities remained unrelated in the two lakes even during blooms. We suggest that physical factors, such as wind-induced water column mixing and import of inorganic carbon via inflowing waters suppressed the phytoplankton signal on pCO2. These results advance our understanding of carbon cycling in lakes and highlight the importance of detailed lake studies for more precise estimates of local, regional and global carbon budgets.


Asunto(s)
Desequilibrio Ácido-Base , Fitoplancton , Humanos , Dióxido de Carbono , Lagos , Fotosíntesis
2.
ISME J ; 16(12): 2635-2643, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982230

RESUMEN

Understanding processes that determine community membership and abundance is important for many fields from theoretical community ecology to conservation. However, spatial community studies are often conducted only at a single timepoint despite the known influence of temporal variability on community assembly processes. Here we used a spatiotemporal study to determine how environmental fluctuation differences induced by mesocosm volumes (larger volumes were more stable) influence assembly processes of aquatic bacterial metacommunities along a press disturbance gradient. By combining path analysis and network approaches, we found mesocosm size categories had distinct relative influences of assembly process and environmental factors that determined spatiotemporal bacterial community composition, including dispersal and species sorting by conductivity. These processes depended on, but were not affected proportionately by, mesocosm size. Low fluctuation, large mesocosms primarily developed through the interplay of species sorting that became more important over time and transient priority effects as evidenced by more time-delayed associations. High fluctuation, small mesocosms had regular disruptions to species sorting and greater importance of ecological drift and dispersal limitation indicated by lower richness and higher taxa replacement. Together, these results emphasize that environmental fluctuations influence ecosystems over time and its impacts are modified by biotic properties intrinsic to ecosystem size.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Ecosistema , Bacterias/genética
3.
Ecology ; 103(6): e3683, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307820

RESUMEN

In metacommunity ecology, a major focus has been on combining observational and analytical approaches to identify the role of critical assembly processes, such as dispersal limitation and environmental filtering, but this work has largely ignored temporal community dynamics. Here, we develop a "virtual ecologist" approach to evaluate assembly processes by simulating metacommunities varying in three main processes: density-independent responses to abiotic conditions, density-dependent biotic interactions, and dispersal. We then calculate a number of commonly used summary statistics of community structure in space and time and use random forests to evaluate their utility for inferring the strength of these three processes. We find that (i) both spatial and temporal data are necessary to disentangle metacommunity processes based on the summary statistics we test, and including statistics that are measured through time increases the explanatory power of random forests by up to 59% compared to cases where only spatial variation is considered; (ii) the three studied processes can be distinguished with different descriptors; and (iii) each summary statistic is differently sensitive to temporal and spatial sampling effort. Including repeated observations of metacommunities over time was essential for inferring the metacommunity processes, particularly dispersal. Some of the most useful statistics include the coefficient of variation of species abundances through time and metrics that incorporate variation in the relative abundances (evenness) of species. We conclude that a combination of methods and summary statistics is probably necessary to understand the processes that underlie metacommunity assembly through space and time, but we recognize that these results will be modified when other processes or summary statistics are used.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Ecología
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193976

RESUMEN

Human-induced salinization caused by the use of road deicing salts, agricultural practices, mining operations, and climate change is a major threat to the biodiversity and functioning of freshwater ecosystems. Yet, it is unclear if freshwater ecosystems are protected from salinization by current water quality guidelines. Leveraging an experimental network of land-based and in-lake mesocosms across North America and Europe, we tested how salinization-indicated as elevated chloride (Cl-) concentration-will affect lake food webs and if two of the lowest Cl- thresholds found globally are sufficient to protect these food webs. Our results indicated that salinization will cause substantial zooplankton mortality at the lowest Cl- thresholds established in Canada (120 mg Cl-/L) and the United States (230 mg Cl-/L) and throughout Europe where Cl- thresholds are generally higher. For instance, at 73% of our study sites, Cl- concentrations that caused a ≥50% reduction in cladoceran abundance were at or below Cl- thresholds in Canada, in the United States, and throughout Europe. Similar trends occurred for copepod and rotifer zooplankton. The loss of zooplankton triggered a cascading effect causing an increase in phytoplankton biomass at 47% of study sites. Such changes in lake food webs could alter nutrient cycling and water clarity and trigger declines in fish production. Current Cl- thresholds across North America and Europe clearly do not adequately protect lake food webs. Water quality guidelines should be developed where they do not exist, and there is an urgent need to reassess existing guidelines to protect lake ecosystems from human-induced salinization.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto , Lagos , Salinidad , Calidad del Agua , Animales , Efectos Antropogénicos , Ecosistema , Europa (Continente) , América del Norte , Zooplancton
5.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 37(5): 440-453, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058082

RESUMEN

The widespread salinisation of freshwater ecosystems poses a major threat to the biodiversity, functioning, and services that they provide. Human activities promote freshwater salinisation through multiple drivers (e.g., agriculture, resource extraction, urbanisation) that are amplified by climate change. Due to its complexity, we are still far from fully understanding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of freshwater salinisation. Here, we assess current research gaps and present a research agenda to guide future studies. We identified different gaps in taxonomic groups, levels of biological organisation, and geographic regions. We suggest focusing on global- and landscape-scale processes, functional approaches, genetic and molecular levels, and eco-evolutionary dynamics as key future avenues to predict the consequences of freshwater salinisation for ecosystems and human societies.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Agua Dulce , Biodiversidad , Evolución Biológica , Cambio Climático , Humanos
6.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev ; 85(2)2021 05 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789927

RESUMEN

The ability of ecosystems to withstand disturbances and maintain their functions is being increasingly tested as rates of change intensify due to climate change and other human activities. Microorganisms are crucial players underpinning ecosystem functions, and the recovery of microbial communities from disturbances is therefore a key part of the complex processes determining the fate of ecosystem functioning. However, despite global environmental change consisting of numerous pressures, it is unclear and controversial how multiple disturbances affect microbial community stability and what consequences this has for ecosystem functions. This is particularly the case for those multiple or compounded disturbances that occur more frequently than the normal recovery time. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms that can govern the responses of microbes to multiple disturbances across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We first summarize and discuss properties and mechanisms that influence resilience in aquatic and soil biomes to determine whether there are generally applicable principles. Following, we focus on interactions resulting from inherent characteristics of compounded disturbances, such as the nature of the disturbance, timing, and chronology that can lead to complex and nonadditive effects that are modulating the response of microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota/fisiología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Humanos , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
7.
Ecology ; 102(4): e03283, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428769

RESUMEN

Increasing human impact on the environment is causing drastic changes in disturbance regimes and how they prevail over time. Of increasing relevance is to further our understanding on biological responses to pulse disturbances (short duration) and how they interact with other ongoing press disturbances (constantly present). Because the temporal and spatial contexts of single experiments often limit our ability to generalize results across space and time, we conducted a modularized mesocosm experiment replicated in space (five lakes along a latitudinal gradient in Scandinavia) and time (two seasons, spring and summer) to generate general predictions on how the functioning and composition of multitrophic plankton communities (zoo-, phyto- and bacterioplankton) respond to pulse disturbances acting either in isolation or combined with press disturbances. As pulse disturbance, we used short-term changes in fish presence, and as press disturbance, we addressed the ongoing reduction in light availability caused by increased cloudiness and lake browning in many boreal and subarctic lakes. First, our results show that the top-down pulse disturbance had the strongest effects on both functioning and composition of the three trophic levels across sites and seasons, with signs for interactive impacts with the bottom-up press disturbance on phytoplankton communities. Second, community composition responses to disturbances were highly divergent between lakes and seasons: temporal accumulated community turnover of the same trophic level either increased (destabilization) or decreased (stabilization) in response to the disturbances compared to control conditions. Third, we found functional recovery from the pulse disturbances to be frequent at the end of most experiments. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that top-down, pulse disturbances, either alone or with additional constant stress upon primary producers caused by bottom-up disturbances, can induce profound but often functionally reversible changes across multiple trophic levels, which are strongly linked to spatial and temporal context dependencies. Furthermore, the identified dichotomy of disturbance effects on the turnover in community composition demonstrates the potential of disturbances to either stabilize or destabilize biodiversity patterns over time across a wide range of environmental conditions.


Asunto(s)
Cadena Alimentaria , Lagos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Humanos , Fitoplancton , Estaciones del Año
8.
Mol Ecol ; 30(5): 1345-1356, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448073

RESUMEN

The immigration history of communities can profoundly affect community composition. For instance, early-arriving species can have a lasting effect on community structure by reducing the invasion success of late-arriving ones through priority effects. This can be particularly important when early-arriving communities coalesce with another community during dispersal (mixing) events. However, the outcome of such community coalescence is unknown as we lack knowledge on how different factors influence the persistence of early-arriving communities and the invasion success of late-arriving taxa. Therefore, we implemented a full-factorial experiment with aquatic bacteria where temperature and dispersal rate of a better adapted community were manipulated to test their joint effects on the resistance of early-arriving communities to invasion, both at community and population level. Our 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based results showed that invasion success of better adapted late-arriving bacteria equaled or even exceeded what we expected based on the dispersal ratios of the recipient and invading communities suggesting limited priority effects on the community level. Patterns detected at the population level, however, showed that resistance of aquatic bacteria to invasion might be strengthened by warming as higher temperatures (a) increased the sum of relative abundances of persistent bacteria in the recipient communities, and (b) restricted the total relative abundance of successfully established late-arriving bacteria. Warming-enhanced resistance, however, was not always found and its strengths differed between recipient communities and dispersal rates. Nevertheless, our findings highlight the potential role of warming in mitigating the effects of invasion at the population level.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Ecosistema , Bacterias/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14380-14392, 2020 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104348

RESUMEN

Assessment of micropollutant biodegradation is essential to determine the persistence of potentially hazardous chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. We studied the dissipation half-lives of 10 micropollutants in sediment-water incubations (based on the OECD 308 standard) with sediment from two European rivers sampled upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. Dissipation half-lives (DT50s) were highly variable between the tested compounds, ranging from 1.5 to 772 days. Sediment from one river sampled downstream from the WWTP showed the fastest dissipation of all micropollutants after sediment RNA normalization. By characterizing sediment bacteria using 16S rRNA sequences, bacterial community composition of a sediment was associated with its capacity for dissipating micropollutants. Bacterial amplicon sequence variants of the genera Ralstonia, Pseudomonas, Hyphomicrobium, and Novosphingobium, which are known degraders of contaminants, were significantly more abundant in the sediment incubations where fast dissipation was observed. Our study illuminates the limitations of the OECD 308 standard to account for variation of dissipation rates of micropollutants due to differences in bacterial community composition. This limitation is problematic particularly for those compounds with DT50s close to regulatory persistence criteria. Thus, it is essential to consider bacterial community composition as a source of variability in regulatory biodegradation and persistence assessments.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bacterias/genética , Ecosistema , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
mSystems ; 5(5)2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994284

RESUMEN

While fastidious microbes can be abundant and ubiquitous in their natural communities, many fail to grow axenically in laboratories due to auxotrophies or other dependencies. To overcome auxotrophies, these microbes rely on their surrounding cohort. A cohort may consist of kin (ecotypes) or more distantly related organisms (community) with the cooperation being reciprocal or nonreciprocal and expensive (Black Queen hypothesis) or costless (by-product). These metabolic partnerships (whether at single species population or community level) enable dominance by and coexistence of these lineages in nature. Here we examine the relevance of these cooperation models to explain the abundance and ubiquity of the dominant fastidious bacterioplankton of a dimictic mesotrophic freshwater lake. Using both culture-dependent (dilution mixed cultures) and culture-independent (small subunit [SSU] rRNA gene time series and environmental metagenomics) methods, we independently identified the primary cohorts of actinobacterial genera "Candidatus Planktophila" (acI-A) and "Candidatus Nanopelagicus" (acI-B) and the proteobacterial genus "Candidatus Fonsibacter" (LD12). While "Ca Planktophila" and "Ca. Fonsibacter" had no correlation in their natural habitat, they have the potential to be complementary in laboratory settings. We also investigated the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase enzyme KatG (a common good which "Ca Planktophila" is dependent upon) and its most likely providers in the lake. Further, we found that while ecotype and community cooperation combined may explain "Ca Planktophila" population abundance, the success of "Ca. Nanopelagicus" and "Ca. Fonsibacter" is better explained as a community by-product. Ecotype differentiation of "Ca. Fonsibacter" as a means of escaping predation was supported but not for overcoming auxotrophies.IMPORTANCE This study examines evolutionary and ecological relationships of three of the most ubiquitous and abundant freshwater bacterial genera: "Ca Planktophila" (acI-A), "Ca. Nanopelagicus" (acI-B), and "Ca. Fonsibacter" (LD12). Due to high abundance, these genera might have a significant influence on nutrient cycling in freshwaters worldwide, and this study adds a layer of understanding to how seemingly competing clades of bacteria can coexist by having different cooperation strategies. Our synthesis ties together network and ecological theory with empirical evidence and lays out a framework for how the functioning of populations within complex microbial communities can be studied.

11.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(9)2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766791

RESUMEN

The sensitivity and spatial recovery of river sediment biofilms along 1 km after the input of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in two river reaches with different degrees of anthropogenic influence were investigated. First, at the upper reach, we observed an inhibition of some microbial functions (microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activities) and strong shifts in bacterial community composition (16S rRNA gene), whereas an increase in microbial biomass and activity and less pronounced effect on microbial diversity and community composition were seen at the lower reach. Second, at the lower reach we observed a quick spatial recovery (around 200 m downstream of the effluent) as most of the functions and community composition were similar to those from reference sites. On the other hand, bacterial community composition and water quality at the upper reach was still altered 1 km from the WWTP effluent. Our results indicate that biofilms in the upstream sites were more sensitive to the effect of WWTPs due to a lower degree of tolerance after a disturbance than communities located in more anthropogenically impacted sites.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Aguas Residuales , Bacterias/genética , Biopelículas , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11333, 2020 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647292

RESUMEN

Climate change is expected to increase the incidences of extremes in environmental conditions. To investigate how repeated disturbances affect microbial ecosystem resistance, natural lake bacterioplankton communities were subjected to repeated temperature disturbances of two intensities (25 °C and 35 °C), and subsequently to an acidification event. We measured functional parameters (bacterial production, abundance, extracellular enzyme activities) and community composition parameters (richness, evenness, niche width) and found that, compared to undisturbed control communities, the 35 °C treatment was strongly affected in all parameters, while the 25 °C treatment did not significantly differ from the control. Interestingly, exposure to multiple temperature disturbances caused gradually increasing stability in the 35 °C treatment in some parameters, while others parameters showed the opposite, indicating that the choice of parameters can strongly affect the outcome of a study. The acidification event did not lead to stronger changes in community structure, but functional resistance of bacterial production towards acidification in the 35 °C treatments increased. This indicates that functional resistance in response to a novel disturbance can be increased by previous exposure to another disturbance, suggesting similarity in stress tolerance mechanisms for both disturbances. These results highlight the need for understanding function- and disturbance-specific responses, since general responses are likely to be unpredictable.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2455, 2020 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051469

RESUMEN

Temporal variations in microbial metacommunity structure and assembly processes in response to shifts in environmental conditions are poorly understood. Hence, we conducted a temporal field study by sampling rock pools in four-day intervals during a 5-week period that included strong changes in environmental conditions due to intensive rain. We characterized bacterial and microeukaryote communities by 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. Using a suite of null model approaches (elements of metacommunity structure, Raup-Crick beta-diversity and quantitative process estimates) to assess dynamics in community assembly, we found that strong changes in environmental conditions induced small but significant temporal changes in assembly processes and triggered different responses in bacterial and microeukaryotic metacommunities, promoting distinct selection processes. Incidence-based approaches showed that the assemblies of both communities were mainly governed by stochastic processes. In contrast, abundance-based methods indicated the dominance of historical contingency and unmeasured factors in the case of bacteria and microeukaryotes, respectively. We distinguished these processes from dispersal-related processes using additional tests. Regardless of the applied null model, our study highlights that community assembly processes are not static, and the relative importance of different assembly processes can vary under different conditions and between different microbial groups.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Copépodos/genética , Daphnia/genética , Plancton/genética , Animales , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Modelos Biológicos , Plancton/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Estaciones del Año , Procesos Estocásticos
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5110, 2019 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911066

RESUMEN

Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environments where they provide important ecosystem functions. A key property believed to influence the community structure and function of biofilms is thickness. However, since biofilm thickness is inextricably linked to external factors such as water flow, temperature, development age and nutrient conditions, its importance is difficult to quantify. Here, we designed an experimental system in a wastewater treatment plant whereby nitrifying biofilms with different thicknesses (50 or 400 µm) were grown in a single reactor, and thus subjected to identical external conditions. The 50 and 400 µm biofilm communities were significantly different. This beta-diversity between biofilms of different thickness was primarily caused by deterministic factors. Turnover (species replacement) contributed more than nestedness (species loss) to the beta-diversity, i.e. the 50 µm communities were not simply a subset of the 400 µm communities. Moreover, the two communities differed in the composition of nitrogen-transforming bacteria and in nitrogen transformation rates. The study illustrates that biofilm thickness alone is a key driver for community composition and ecosystem function, which has implications for biotechnological applications and for our general understanding of biofilm ecology.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Microbiota/fisiología , Reactores Biológicos/microbiología , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Aguas Residuales/microbiología
15.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 11(3): 306-315, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618071

RESUMEN

During recent years, many studies have shown that different processes including drift, environmental selection and dispersal can be important for the assembly of bacterial communities in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, we lack a conceptual overview about the ecological context and factors that influence the relative importance of the different assembly mechanisms and determine their dynamics in time and space. Focusing on free-living, i.e., nonhost associated, bacterial communities, this minireview, therefore, summarizes and conceptualizes findings from empirical studies about how (i) environmental factors, such as environmental heterogeneity, disturbances, productivity and trophic interactions; (ii) connectivity and dispersal rates (iii) spatial scale, (iv) community properties and traits and (v) the use of taxonomic/phylogenetic or functional metrics influence the relative importance of different community assembly processes. We find that there is to-date little consistency among studies and suggest that future studies should now address how (i)-(v) differ between habitats and organisms and how this, in turn, influences the temporal and spatial-scale dependency of community assembly processes in microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología Ambiental , Microbiota , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Ambiente , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia
16.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2188, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294307

RESUMEN

Dispersal can influence the response of bacterial communities to environmental changes and disturbances. However, the extent to which dispersal contributes to the community response in dependence of the character and strength of the disturbance remains unclear. Here, we conducted a transplant experiment using dialysis bags in which bacterioplankton originating from brackish and marine regions of the Saint Lawrence Estuary were reciprocally incubated in the two environments for 5 days. Dispersal treatments were set-up by subjecting half of the microcosms in each environment to an exchange of cells between the marine and brackish assemblages at a daily exchange rate of 6% (v/v), and the other half of microcosms were kept as the non-dispersal treatments. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing was then used to examine the diversity and composition of the active communities. Alpha diversity of the marine communities that were exposed to the brackish environment was elevated greatly by dispersal, but declined in the absence of dispersal. This indicates that dispersal compensated the loss of diversity in the marine communities after a disturbance by introducing bacterial taxa that were able to thrive and coexist with the remaining community members under brackish conditions. On the contrary, alpha diversity of the brackish communities was not affected by dispersal in either environment. Furthermore, dispersal led to an increase in similarity between marine and brackish communities in both of the environments, with a greater similarity when the communities were incubated in the brackish environment. These results suggest that the higher initial diversity in the brackish than in the marine starting community made the resident community less susceptible to dispersing bacteria. Altogether, this study shows that dispersal modifies the diversity and composition of the active communities in response to a salinity disturbance, and enables the local adjustment of specific bacteria under brackish environmental conditions.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13463, 2018 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194445

RESUMEN

Algal blooms occur frequently in lakes and oceans and the causes and consequences of those are often studied. In this study, we focus on a less well known type of algal bloom by the freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen. This species' abundance and occurrence is increasing, especially in brown water lakes, the most abundant lake type in the boreal zone. The aim of the study was to investigate which environmental factors are associated with G. semen by statistical evaluation of field data of 95 Swedish lakes over five years. Although we found G. semen to be associated with dark waters it was, contrary to our expectations, mainly high concentrations of iron, and only to a lesser extent high TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations, that were associated with blooms of G. semen. In addition, high phosphorus concentrations and low pH also appear to facilitate G. semen blooms. We suggest that browning of lakes caused by increased iron concentrations may decrease net heterotrophy by fostering heavy algal blooms, i.e. the opposite to commonly assumed effects of increased DOM (dissolved organic matter).


Asunto(s)
Eutrofización , Hierro/análisis , Lagos/química , Carbono/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Suecia
18.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 10(4): 493-500, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733107

RESUMEN

Disturbances are believed to be one of the main factors influencing variations in community diversity and functioning. Here we investigated if exposure to a pH press disturbance affected the composition and functional performance of a bacterial community and its resistance, recovery and resilience to a second press disturbance (salt addition). Lake bacterial assemblages were initially exposed to reduced pH in six mesocosms whereas another six mesocosms were kept as reference. Seven days after the pH disturbance, three tanks from each treatment were exposed to a salt disturbance. Both bacterial production and enzyme activity were negatively affected by the salt treatment, regardless if the communities had been subject to a previous disturbance or not. However, cell-specific enzyme activity had a higher resistance in communities pre-exposed to the pH disturbance compared to the reference treatment. In contrast, for cell-specific bacterial production resistance was not affected, but recovery was faster in the communities that had previously been exposed to the pH disturbance. Over time, bacterial community composition diverged among treatments, in response to both pH and salinity. The difference in functional recovery, resilience and resistance may depend on differences in community composition caused by the pH disturbance, niche breadth or acquired stress resistance.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Plancton/fisiología , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Microbiología del Agua , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Celulosa 1,4-beta-Celobiosidasa/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lagos/microbiología , Plancton/clasificación , Plancton/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plancton/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Salinidad , beta-Glucosidasa/metabolismo
19.
Ecol Lett ; 21(1): 21-30, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106075

RESUMEN

Ecological stability is the central framework to understand an ecosystem's ability to absorb or recover from environmental change. Recent modelling and conceptual work suggests that stability is a multidimensional construct comprising different response aspects. Using two freshwater mesocosm experiments as case studies, we show how the response to single perturbations can be decomposed in different stability aspects (resistance, resilience, recovery, temporal stability) for both ecosystem functions and community composition. We find that extended community recovery is tightly connected to a nearly complete recovery of the function (biomass production), whereas systems with incomplete recovery of the species composition ranged widely in their biomass compared to controls. Moreover, recovery was most complete when either resistance or resilience was high, the latter associated with low temporal stability around the recovery trend. In summary, no single aspect of stability was sufficient to reflect the overall stability of the system.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Ecosistema
20.
ISME J ; 12(2): 644-646, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053147

RESUMEN

The order and timing of species arrival during community assembly can have long term effects on community structure due to priority effects. The importance of such processes in complex bacterial communities where dispersal involves mixing of entire communities is currently not known. Here we used a transplant experiment with two bacterioplankton communities of different origin (freshwater and brackish). Sterile medium of each origin was initially inoculated with a bacterial community of different ('alien') origin, followed by dispersal of the respective 'home' community at different time points after initial inoculation. We found that the later the dispersal with the 'home' community occurred the smaller the effect on the final community composition. This suggests that priority effects by the initially inoculated community reduce the establishment success of taxa from the later arriving community and that this effect depends on dispersal timing.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Microbiología del Agua , Agua Dulce/microbiología , Plancton/fisiología
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