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1.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(6): 603-609, 2019 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896765

RESUMEN

Importance: Targeting the early pathogenic steps in Stargardt disease type 1 (STGD1) is critical to advance our understanding of this condition and to develop potential therapies. Lipofuscin precursors may accumulate within photoreceptors, leading to photoreceptor damage and preceding retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death. Fluorescence adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy can provide autofluorescence (AF) images in vivo with microscopic resolution to elucidate the cellular origin of AF abnormalities in STGD1. Objective: To study the spatial distribution of photoreceptor, RPE, and AF abnormalities in patients with STGD1 at a cellular level. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study using fluorescence adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy to compare the cones, rods, and RPE cells between 3 patients with STGD1 and 1 control individual. Imaging sessions were conducted at the University of Rochester. Further image analyses were performed at Beijing Tongren Eye Center and the University of Pittsburgh. Data were collected from August 2015 to February 2016, and analysis began in March 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Structural appearance of cones, rods, and AF structures at different retinal locations. Results: Two women and 1 man with macular atrophy phenotype of STGD1 and visual acuity loss ranging from 20/30 to 20/150 and 1 woman without STGD1 with 20/20 visual acuity were analyzed. Cone and rod spacing was increased in all 3 patients at all locations where photoreceptors were detectable; most cones had a dark appearance. Autofluorescence was low contrast but contained structures consistent with RPE cells in the periphery. In the transition zone peripheral to the foveal atrophic lesion, the structural pattern of AF was more consistent with photoreceptors than RPE cells. The microscopic AF was disrupted within areas of clinically detectable atrophy. Conclusions and Relevance: Adaptive optics high-resolution images of cones, rods, and RPE cells at the leading disease front of STGD1 macular atrophy show an AF pattern that appears to colocalize with photoreceptors or may result from a combination of AF signals from both RPE cells and photoreceptors. This in vivo observation is consistent with histologic reports of fluorescence arising from photoreceptors in STGD1. The detection of bisretinoid accumulation in the photoreceptors may represent an early pathologic step in STGD1 and can provide an in vivo imaging tool to act as a biomarker of disease progression.


Asunto(s)
Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/patología , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/patología , Enfermedad de Stargardt/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Angiografía con Fluoresceína , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmoscopía , Imagen Óptica , Óptica y Fotónica , Adulto Joven
2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(15): 5705-5716, 2018 12 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513531

RESUMEN

Purpose: To characterize in vivo morphometry and multispectral autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell mosaic and its relationship to cone cell topography across the macula. Methods: RPE cell morphometrics were computed in regularly spaced regions of interest (ROIs) from contiguous short-wavelength autofluorescence (SWAF) and photoreceptor reflectance images collected across the macula in one eye of 10 normal participants (23-65 years) by using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Infrared autofluorescence (IRAF) images of the RPE were collected with AOSLO in seven normal participants (22-65 years), with participant overlap, and compared to SWAF quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: RPE cell statistics could be analyzed in 84% of SWAF ROIs. RPE cell density consistently decreased with eccentricity from the fovea (participant mean ± SD: 6026 ± 1590 cells/mm2 at fovea; 4552 ± 1370 cells/mm2 and 3757 ± 1290 cells/mm2 at 3.5 mm temporally and nasally, respectively). Mean cone-to-RPE cell ratio decreased rapidly from 16.6 at the foveal center to <5 by 1 mm. IRAF revealed cells in six of seven participants, in agreement with SWAF RPE cell size and location. Differences in cell fluorescent structure, contrast, and visibility beneath vasculature were observed between modalities. Conclusions: Improvements in AOSLO autofluorescence imaging permit efficient visualization of RPE cells with safe light exposures, allowing individual characterization of RPE cell morphometry that is variable between participants. The normative dataset and analysis of RPE cell IRAF and SWAF herein are essential for understanding microscopic characteristics of cell fluorescence and may assist in interpreting disease progression in RPE cells.


Asunto(s)
Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Conos/citología , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/citología , Adulto , Anciano , Recuento de Células , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mosaicismo , Oftalmoscopía/métodos , Imagen Óptica , Óptica y Fotónica , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Adulto Joven
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(39): E8214-E8223, 2017 09 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878022

RESUMEN

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and related macular dystrophies (MDs) are a major cause of vision loss. However, the mechanisms underlying their progression remain ill-defined. This is partly due to the lack of disease models recapitulating the human pathology. Furthermore, in vivo studies have yielded limited understanding of the role of specific cell types in the eye vs. systemic influences (e.g., serum) on the disease pathology. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell-retinal pigment epithelium (hiPSC-RPE) derived from patients with three dominant MDs, Sorsby's fundus dystrophy (SFD), Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy/malattia Leventinese (DHRD), and autosomal dominant radial drusen (ADRD), and demonstrate that dysfunction of RPE cells alone is sufficient for the initiation of sub-RPE lipoproteinaceous deposit (drusen) formation and extracellular matrix (ECM) alteration in these diseases. Consistent with clinical studies, sub-RPE basal deposits were present beneath both control (unaffected) and patient hiPSC-RPE cells. Importantly basal deposits in patient hiPSC-RPE cultures were more abundant and displayed a lipid- and protein-rich "drusen-like" composition. Furthermore, increased accumulation of COL4 was observed in ECM isolated from control vs. patient hiPSC-RPE cultures. Interestingly, RPE-specific up-regulation in the expression of several complement genes was also seen in patient hiPSC-RPE cultures of all three MDs (SFD, DHRD, and ADRD). Finally, although serum exposure was not necessary for drusen formation, COL4 accumulation in ECM, and complement pathway gene alteration, it impacted the composition of drusen-like deposits in patient hiPSC-RPE cultures. Together, the drusen model(s) of MDs described here provide fundamental insights into the unique biology of maculopathies affecting the RPE-ECM interface.


Asunto(s)
Lámina Basal de la Coroides/patología , Enfermedades Hereditarias del Ojo/patología , Células Madre Pluripotentes Inducidas/citología , Degeneración Macular/patología , Drusas Retinianas/patología , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/citología , Ceguera/genética , Ceguera/patología , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Drusas del Disco Óptico/congénito , Drusas del Disco Óptico/patología , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/patología , Inhibidor Tisular de Metaloproteinasa-3/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(3): 586-591, 2017 01 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28049835

RESUMEN

Although imaging of the living retina with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provides microscopic access to individual cells, such as photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and blood cells in the retinal vasculature, other important cell classes, such as retinal ganglion cells, have proven much more challenging to image. The near transparency of inner retinal cells is advantageous for vision, as light must pass through them to reach the photoreceptors, but it has prevented them from being directly imaged in vivo. Here we show that the individual somas of neurons within the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer can be imaged with a modification of confocal AOSLO, in both monkeys and humans. Human images of RGC layer neurons did not match the quality of monkey images for several reasons, including safety concerns that limited the light levels permissible for human imaging. We also show that the same technique applied to the photoreceptor layer can resolve ambiguity about cone survival in age-related macular degeneration. The capability to noninvasively image RGC layer neurons in the living eye may one day allow for a better understanding of diseases, such as glaucoma, and accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies that aim to protect these cells. This method may also prove useful for imaging other structures, such as neurons in the brain.


Asunto(s)
Oftalmoscopía/métodos , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/citología , Animales , Femenino , Glaucoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis/anatomía & histología , Macaca mulatta/anatomía & histología , Degeneración Macular/diagnóstico por imagen , Degeneración Macular/patología , Masculino , Fenómenos Ópticos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Conos/citología , Especificidad de la Especie
5.
Biomed Opt Express ; 4(11): 2527-39, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24298413

RESUMEN

Morgan and colleagues demonstrated that the RPE cell mosaic can be resolved in the living human eye non-invasively by imaging the short-wavelength autofluorescence using an adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscope. This method, based on the assumption that all subjects have the same longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) correction, has proved difficult to use in diseased eyes, and in particular those affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work, we improve Morgan's method by accounting for chromatic aberration variations by optimizing the confocal aperture axial and transverse placement through an automated iterative maximization of image intensity. The increase in image intensity after algorithmic aperture placement varied depending upon patient and aperture position prior to optimization but increases as large as a factor of 10 were observed. When using a confocal aperture of 3.4 Airy disks in diameter, images were obtained using retinal radiant exposures of less than 2.44 J/cm(2), which is ~22 times below the current ANSI maximum permissible exposure. RPE cell morphologies that were strikingly similar to those seen in postmortem histological studies were observed in AMD eyes, even in areas where the pattern of fluorescence appeared normal in commercial fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. This new method can be used to study RPE morphology in AMD and other diseases, providing a powerful tool for understanding disease pathogenesis and progression, and offering a new means to assess the efficacy of treatments designed to restore RPE health.

6.
J Biol Chem ; 288(21): 14742-55, 2013 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23580649

RESUMEN

The autosomal recessive mutation, sld, attenuates mucous cell expression in murine sublingual glands with corresponding effects on mucin 19 (Muc19). We conducted a systematic study including genetic mapping, sequencing, and functional analyses to elucidate a mutation to explain the sld phenotype in neonatal mice. Genetic mapping and gene expression analyses localized the sld mutation within the gene Muc19/Smgc, specifically attenuating Muc19 transcripts, and Muc19 knock-out mice mimic the sld phenotype in neonates. Muc19 transcription is unaffected in sld mice, whereas mRNA stability is markedly decreased. Decreased mRNA stability is not due to a defect in 3'-end processing nor to sequence differences in Muc19 transcripts. Comparative sequencing of the Muc19/Smgc gene identified four candidate intronic mutations within the Muc19 coding region. Minigene splicing assays revealed a novel splicing event in which insertion of two additional repeats within a CA repeat region of intron 53 of the sld genome enhances retention of intron 54, decreasing the levels of correctly spliced transcripts. Moreover, pateamine A, an inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, inhibits degradation of aberrant Muc19 transcripts. The mutation in intron 53 thus enhances aberrant splicing leading to degradation of aberrant transcripts and decreased Muc19 message stability, consistent with the sld phenotype. We propose a working model of the unique splicing event enhanced by the mutation, as well as putative explanations for the gradual but limited increase in Muc19 glycoprotein expression and its restricted localization to subpopulations of mucous cells in sld mice during postnatal gland development.


Asunto(s)
Intrones/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Mucinas/biosíntesis , Mutación , Estabilidad del ARN/fisiología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Glándula Sublingual/metabolismo , Empalme Alternativo/fisiología , Animales , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Mucinas/genética , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta/fisiología , ARN Mensajero/genética , Glándula Sublingual/citología , Glándula Sublingual/crecimiento & desarrollo
7.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 52(5): 671-81, 2004 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15100244

RESUMEN

Human fractalkine (CX3CL1), a delta-chemokine, is implicated in the mediation of multiple cell functions. In addition to serving as a chemotactic factor for mononuclear cell subtypes, membrane-bound fractalkine may promote viral infection by interacting with virions that encode putative fractalkine-binding proteins. Fractalkine expression in normal epithelial tissues studied to date is either constitutive or is upregulated with inflammation. In salivary glands, the expression of fractalkine is unknown. Moreover, salivary glands are a major site for the persistent and productive infection by human herpesvirus (HHV)-7, which encodes two putative fractalkine-binding gene products, U12 and U51. Surprisingly, the cellular distribution of HHV-7 in major salivary glands has not been explored. We therefore determined by immunohistochemistry the cellular localization of fractalkine in three different salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, and labial glands. Fractalkine expression was highly variable, ranging from high to undetectable levels. We further examined the association of fractalkine with inflammatory cell infiltration or HHV-7 infection of salivary epithelial cells. Inflammatory cells were always adjacent to epithelial cells expressing fractalkine, consistent with a function of fractalkine in inflammatory cell recruitment and/or retention in salivary glands. In contrast, HHV-7-infected epithelial cells did not always express fractalkine, suggesting that fractalkine may not be an absolute requirement for viral entry.


Asunto(s)
Quimiocinas CX3C/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 7/metabolismo , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Membrana/metabolismo , Glándulas Salivales/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Complejo CD3/metabolismo , Quimiocina CX3CL1 , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/virología , Femenino , Herpesvirus Humano 7/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamación/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Glándula Parótida/metabolismo , Glándula Parótida/patología , Glándula Parótida/virología , Glándulas Salivales/patología , Glándulas Salivales/virología , Glándula Submandibular/metabolismo , Glándula Submandibular/patología , Glándula Submandibular/virología
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