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1.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3171-3177, 2023 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37088603

RESUMEN

The widespread outbreak of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) recognized in 2022 poses new challenges for public healthcare systems worldwide. With more than 86,000 people infected, there is concern that MPXV may become endemic outside of its original geographical area leading to repeated human spillover infections or continue to be spread person-to-person. Fortunately, classical public health measures (e.g., isolation, contact tracing and quarantine) and vaccination have blunted the spread of the virus, but cases are continuing to be reported in 28 countries in March 2023. We describe here the vaccines and drugs available for the prevention and treatment of MPXV infections. However, although their efficacy against monkeypox (mpox) has been established in animal models, little is known about their efficacy in the current outbreak setting. The continuing opportunity for transmission raises concerns about the potential for evolution of the virus and for expansion beyond the current risk groups. The priorities for action are clear: 1) more data on the efficacy of vaccines and drugs in infected humans must be gathered; 2) global collaborations are necessary to ensure that government authorities work with the private sector in developed and low and middle income countries (LMICs) to provide the availability of treatments and vaccines, especially in historically endemic/enzootic areas; 3) diagnostic and surveillance capacity must be increased to identify areas and populations where the virus is present and may seed resurgence; 4) those at high risk of severe outcomes (e.g., immunocompromised, untreated HIV, pregnant women, and inflammatory skin conditions) must be informed of the risk of infection and be protected from community transmission of MPXV; 5) engagement with the hardest hit communities in a non-stigmatizing way is needed to increase the understanding and acceptance of public health measures; and 6) repositories of monkeypox clinical samples, including blood, fluids, tissues and lesion material must be established for researchers. This MPXV outbreak is a warning that pandemic preparedness plans need additional coordination and resources. We must prepare for continuing transmission, resurgence, and repeated spillovers of MPXV.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas , Embarazo , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , /prevención & control , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Vacunación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068985

RESUMEN

We propose a system that helps decision makers during a pandemic find, in real time, the mass vaccination strategies that best utilize limited medical resources to achieve fast containments and population protection. Our general-purpose framework integrates into a single computational platform a multi-purpose compartmental disease propagation model, a human behavior network, a resource logistics model, and a stochastic queueing model for vaccination operations. We apply the modeling framework to the current COVID-19 pandemic and derive an optimal trigger for switching from a prioritized vaccination strategy to a non-prioritized strategy so as to minimize the overall attack rate and mortality rate. When vaccine supply is limited, such a mixed vaccination strategy is broadly effective. Our analysis suggests that delays in vaccine supply and inefficiencies in vaccination delivery can substantially impede the containment effort. Employing an optimal mixed strategy can significantly reduce the attack and mortality rates. The more infectious the virus, the earlier it helps to open the vaccine to the public. As vaccine efficacy decreases, the attack and mortality rates rapidly increase by multiples; this highlights the importance of early vaccination to reduce spreading as quickly as possible to lower the chances for further mutations to evolve and to reduce the excessive healthcare burden. To maximize the protective effect of available vaccines, of equal importance are determining the optimal mixed strategy and implementing effective on-the-ground dispensing. The optimal mixed strategy is quite robust against variations in model parameters and can be implemented readily in practice. Studies with our holistic modeling framework strongly support the urgent need for early vaccination in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Our framework permits rapid custom modeling in practice. Additionally, it is generalizable for different types of infectious disease outbreaks, whereby a user may determine for a given type the effects of different interventions including the optimal switch trigger.

3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 955-959, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700664

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is among the deadliest infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history. As with all past pandemics, the specific mechanism of its emergence in humans remains unknown. Nevertheless, a large body of virologic, epidemiologic, veterinary, and ecologic data establishes that the new virus, SARS-CoV-2, evolved directly or indirectly from a ß-coronavirus in the sarbecovirus (SARS-like virus) group that naturally infect bats and pangolins in Asia and Southeast Asia. Scientists have warned for decades that such sarbecoviruses are poised to emerge again and again, identified risk factors, and argued for enhanced pandemic prevention and control efforts. Unfortunately, few such preventive actions were taken resulting in the latest coronavirus emergence detected in late 2019 which quickly spread pandemically. The risk of similar coronavirus outbreaks in the future remains high. In addition to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, we must undertake vigorous scientific, public health, and societal actions, including significantly increased funding for basic and applied research addressing disease emergence, to prevent this tragic history from repeating itself.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/clasificación , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(5): 841-848.e3, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289263

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), underscores the urgency to develop experimental systems for studying this virus and identifying countermeasures. We report a reverse genetic system for SARS-CoV-2. Seven complimentary DNA (cDNA) fragments spanning the SARS-CoV-2 genome were assembled into a full-genome cDNA. RNA transcribed from the full-genome cDNA was highly infectious after electroporation into cells, producing 2.9 × 106 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/mL of virus. Compared with a clinical isolate, the infectious-clone-derived SARS-CoV-2 (icSARS-CoV-2) exhibited similar plaque morphology, viral RNA profile, and replication kinetics. Additionally, icSARS-CoV-2 retained engineered molecular markers and did not acquire other mutations. We generated a stable mNeonGreen SARS-CoV-2 (icSARS-CoV-2-mNG) by introducing this reporter gene into ORF7 of the viral genome. icSARS-CoV-2-mNG was successfully used to evaluate the antiviral activities of interferon (IFN). Collectively, the reverse genetic system and reporter virus provide key reagents to study SARS-CoV-2 and develop countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , ADN Complementario/genética , Organismos Modificados Genéticamente/genética , Organismos Modificados Genéticamente/patogenicidad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Clonales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Genes Reporteros/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Interferones/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , ARN Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Vero/virología , Replicación Viral/fisiología
5.
Viruses ; 11(7)2019 07 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319534

RESUMEN

Recent reports from Europe and the USA described Seoul orthohantavirus infection in pet rats and their breeders/owners, suggesting the potential emergence of a "new" public health problem. Wild and laboratory rat-induced Seoul infections have, however, been described since the early eighties, due to the omnipresence of the rodent reservoir, the brown rat Rattus norvegicus. Recent studies showed no fundamental differences between the pathogenicity and phylogeny of pet rat-induced Seoul orthohantaviruses and their formerly described wild or laboratory rat counterparts. The paucity of diagnosed Seoul virus-induced disease in the West is in striking contrast to the thousands of cases recorded since the 1980s in the Far East, particularly in China. This review of four continents (Asia, Europe, America, and Africa) puts this "emerging infection" into a historical perspective, concluding there is an urgent need for greater medical awareness of Seoul virus-induced human pathology in many parts of the world Given the mostly milder and atypical clinical presentation, sometimes even with preserved normal kidney function, the importance of simple but repeated urine examination is stressed, since initial but transient proteinuria and microhematuria are rarely lacking.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal/virología , Virus Seoul/fisiología , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Animales Salvajes , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Geografía Médica , Salud Global , Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal/transmisión , Mascotas , Ratas
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 387-388, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666956

RESUMEN

Although Seoul orthohantavirus is the only globally spread hantavirus pathogen, few confirmed human infections with this virus have been reported in Western countries, suggesting lower medical awareness of the milder, transient, and often chameleon-like symptoms of this zoonosis. We describe lesser known clinical and laboratory characteristics to help improve underreporting of this virus.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal/diagnóstico , Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal/virología , Virus Seoul , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Pruebas Serológicas , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Evaluación de Síntomas
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(1): e2-e13, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340981

RESUMEN

Global terrorism is a rapidly growing threat to world security, and increases the risk of bioterrorism. In this Review, we discuss the potential threat of bioterrorism, agents that could be exploited, and recent developments in technologies and policy for detecting and controlling epidemics that have been initiated intentionally. The local and international response to infectious disease epidemics, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and west African Ebola virus epidemic, revealed serious shortcomings which bioterrorists might exploit when intentionally initiating an epidemic. Development of new vaccines and antimicrobial therapies remains a priority, including the need to expedite clinical trials using new methodologies. Better means to protect health-care workers operating in dangerous environments are also needed, particularly in areas with poor infrastructure. New and improved approaches should be developed for surveillance, early detection, response, effective isolation of patients, control of the movement of potentially infected people, and risk communication. Access to dangerous pathogens should be appropriately regulated, without reducing progress in the development of countermeasures. We conclude that preparedness for intentional outbreaks has the important added value of strengthening preparedness for natural epidemics, and vice versa.


Asunto(s)
Armas Biológicas , Bioterrorismo , Enfermedades Transmisibles/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vacunas/inmunología , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/inmunología , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Enfermedades Transmisibles/tratamiento farmacológico , Salud Global , Humanos , Profilaxis Posexposición , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Cuarentena/métodos , Toxinas Biológicas/análisis , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidad , Virus/genética , Virus/inmunología , Virus/patogenicidad
8.
Antiviral Res ; 133: 234-41, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544703

RESUMEN

The 10th International Conference on Hantaviruses, organized by the International Society on Hantaviruses, was held from May 31-June 3, 2016 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. These conferences have been held every three years since 1980. The current report summarizes research presented on all aspects of hantavirology: ecology and epidemiology, virus replication, phylogeny, pathogenesis, immune response, clinical studies, vaccines and therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Hantavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Hantavirus/virología , Orthohantavirus/clasificación , Orthohantavirus/fisiología , Animales , Infecciones por Hantavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Hantavirus/epidemiología , Humanos
9.
Front Public Health ; 3: 271, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636067

RESUMEN

Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to improve the capabilities in this region to guard against the potential future risk from especially dangerous pathogens. The dissolution of the Soviet Union left behind many scientists still working to study pathogens using antiquated protocols in unsafe laboratories. To address this situation, the CTR program began improving laboratory infrastructure, establishing biosafety and biosecurity programs, and training scientists in modern techniques, with emphasis on biosurveillance and safe containment of especially dangerous pathogens. In the Republic of Georgia, this effort culminated in the construction of a modern containment laboratory, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research in Tbilisi to house both isolated especially dangerous pathogens as well as the research to be conducted on these agents. The need now is to utilize and sustain the investment made by CTR by establishing strong public and animal health science programs in these facilities tailored to the needs of the region and the goals for which this investment was made. A similar effort is ongoing in other former Soviet Republics. Here, we provide the analysis and recommendations of an international panel of expert scientists appointed by the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to provide advice to the stakeholders on the scientific path for the future. The emphasis is on an implementation strategy for decision makers and scientists to consider providing a sustainable biological science program in support of the One Health initiative. Opportunities, potential barriers, and lessons learned while meeting the needs of the Republic of Georgia and the Caucasus region are discussed. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a model for similar scientific needs in not only the former Soviet Union republics but also other regions challenged by infectious diseases where the CTR program operates.

11.
J Public Health Policy ; 36(3): 283-6, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925086

RESUMEN

For many infectious diseases, a low burden of disease does not equate to reduced potential public health importance. Many zoonotic infectious diseases have the potential for human-to-human transmission with potentially devastating consequences as currently seen with Ebola. Policymakers should not be lulled into thinking that the best use of resources is to allocate them only to the most obvious current problems.


Asunto(s)
Prioridades en Salud , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Salud Pública , Zoonosis
12.
Assay Drug Dev Technol ; 13(1): 44-54, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25710545

RESUMEN

High-throughput screening (HTS) has been integrated into the drug discovery process, and multiple assay formats have been widely used in many different disease areas but with limited focus on infectious agents. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of HTS campaigns using infectious wild-type pathogens rather than surrogates or biochemical pathogen-derived targets. Concurrently, enhanced emerging pathogen surveillance and increased human mobility have resulted in an increase in the emergence and dissemination of infectious human pathogens with serious public health, economic, and social implications at global levels. Adapting the HTS drug discovery process to biocontainment laboratories to develop new drugs for these previously uncharacterized and highly pathogenic agents is now feasible, but HTS at higher biosafety levels (BSL) presents a number of unique challenges. HTS has been conducted with multiple bacterial and viral pathogens at both BSL-2 and BSL-3, and pilot screens have recently been extended to BSL-4 environments for both Nipah and Ebola viruses. These recent successful efforts demonstrate that HTS can be safely conducted at the highest levels of biological containment. This review outlines the specific issues that must be considered in the execution of an HTS drug discovery program for high-containment pathogens. We present an overview of the requirements for HTS in high-level biocontainment laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Bioensayo/instrumentación , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/instrumentación , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/instrumentación , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento/instrumentación , Laboratorios , Tecnología Farmacéutica/instrumentación , Diseño de Fármacos , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Robótica/instrumentación , Manejo de Especímenes/instrumentación
13.
mBio ; 6(2): e00137, 2015 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25698835

RESUMEN

Available evidence demonstrates that direct patient contact and contact with infectious body fluids are the primary modes for Ebola virus transmission, but this is based on a limited number of studies. Key areas requiring further study include (i) the role of aerosol transmission (either via large droplets or small particles in the vicinity of source patients), (ii) the role of environmental contamination and fomite transmission, (iii) the degree to which minimally or mildly ill persons transmit infection, (iv) how long clinically relevant infectiousness persists, (v) the role that "superspreading events" may play in driving transmission dynamics, (vi) whether strain differences or repeated serial passage in outbreak settings can impact virus transmission, and (vii) what role sylvatic or domestic animals could play in outbreak propagation, particularly during major epidemics such as the 2013-2015 West Africa situation. In this review, we address what we know and what we do not know about Ebola virus transmission. We also hypothesize that Ebola viruses have the potential to be respiratory pathogens with primary respiratory spread.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/transmisión , África Occidental/epidemiología , Animales , Ebolavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/virología , Humanos , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
14.
Assay Drug Dev Technol ; 12(3): 155-61, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24735442

RESUMEN

Nipah virus is a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen that causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. To identify novel small molecules that target Nipah virus replication as potential therapeutics, Southern Research Institute and Galveston National Laboratory jointly developed an automated high-throughput screening platform that is capable of testing 10,000 compounds per day within BSL-4 biocontainment. Using this platform, we screened a 10,080-compound library using a cell-based, high-throughput screen for compounds that inhibited the virus-induced cytopathic effect. From this pilot effort, 23 compounds were identified with EC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 20.0 µM and selectivities >10. Three sulfonamide compounds with EC50 values <12 µM were further characterized for their point of intervention in the viral replication cycle and for broad antiviral efficacy. Development of HTS capability under BSL-4 containment changes the paradigm for drug discovery for highly pathogenic agents because this platform can be readily modified to identify prophylactic and postexposure therapeutic candidates against other BSL-4 pathogens, particularly Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Antivirales/química , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/instrumentación , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento/instrumentación , Virus Nipah/efectos de los fármacos , Virus Nipah/fisiología , Sulfonamidas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Chlorocebus aethiops , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/instrumentación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Robótica/instrumentación , Células Vero , Replicación Viral/fisiología
15.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4305, 2014 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24603493

RESUMEN

Melioidosis is an endemic disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Concerns exist regarding B. pseudomallei use as a potential bio-threat agent causing persistent infections and typically manifesting as severe pneumonia capable of causing fatal bacteremia. Development of suitable therapeutics against melioidosis is complicated due to high degree of genetic and phenotypic variability among B. pseudomallei isolates and lack of data establishing commonly accepted strains for comparative studies. Further, the impact of strain variation on virulence, disease presentation, and mortality is not well understood. Therefore, this study evaluate and compare the virulence and disease progression of B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and HBPUB10303a, following aerosol challenge in a standardized BALB/c mouse model of infection. The natural history analysis of disease progression monitored conditions such as weight, body temperature, appearance, activity, bacteremia, organ and tissue colonization (pathological and histological analysis) and immunological responses. This study provides a detailed, direct comparison of infection with different B. pseudomallei strains and set up the basis for a standardized model useful to test different medical countermeasures against Burkholderia species. Further, this protocol serves as a guideline to standardize other bacterial aerosol models of infection or to define biomarkers of infectious processes caused by other intracellular pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Burkholderia pseudomallei/patogenicidad , Melioidosis/microbiología , Animales , Carga Bacteriana , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Quimiocinas/sangre , Citocinas/sangre , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Recuento de Leucocitos , Pulmón/metabolismo , Melioidosis/sangre , Melioidosis/mortalidad , Melioidosis/patología , Ratones , Mortalidad , Virulencia
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 82(3): 371-5, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20207858

RESUMEN

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an emerging pathogen that is transmitted in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Egypt, and the Arabian peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF, like other diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses, typically present in locations with very limited health resources, where initial diagnosis must be based only on history and physical examination. Although general signs and symptoms of human RVF have been documented, a specific clinical syndrome has not been described. In 2007, a Kenyan outbreak of RVF provided opportunity to assess acutely ill RVF patients and better delineate its presentation and clinical course. Our data reveal an identifiable clinical syndrome suggestive of severe RVF, characterized by fever, large-joint arthralgia, and gastrointestinal complaints and later followed by jaundice, right upper-quadrant pain, and delirium, often coinciding with hemorrhagic manifestations. Further characterization of a distinct RVF clinical syndrome will aid earlier detection of RVF outbreaks and should allow more rapid implementation of control.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre del Valle del Rift/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brotes de Enfermedades , Resultado Fatal , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/epidemiología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/patología
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 15(7): e1, 2009 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19624910

RESUMEN

Directors of all major BioSafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories in the United States met in 2008 to review the current status of biocontainment laboratory operations and to discuss the potential impact of a proposed 2-person security rule on maximum-containment laboratory operations. Special attention was paid to the value and risks that would result from a requirement that 2 persons be physically present in the laboratory at all times. A consensus emerged indicating that a video monitoring system represents a more efficient, economical standard; provides greater assurance that pathogens are properly manipulated; and offers an increased margin of employee safety and institutional security. The 2-person security rule (1 to work and 1 to observe) may decrease compliance with dual responsibilities of safety and security by placing undue pressure on the person being observed to quickly finish the work, and by placing the observer in the containment environment unnecessarily.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios/normas , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Seguridad/normas , Medidas de Seguridad/normas , Lugar de Trabajo/normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Science ; 313(5788): 807-12, 2006 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16873609

RESUMEN

Comparative genomics of 45 epidemiologically varied variola virus isolates from the past 30 years of the smallpox era indicate low sequence diversity, suggesting that there is probably little difference in the isolates' functional gene content. Phylogenetic clustering inferred three clades coincident with their geographical origin and case-fatality rate; the latter implicated putative proteins that mediate viral virulence differences. Analysis of the viral linear DNA genome suggests that its evolution involved direct descent and DNA end-region recombination events. Knowing the sequences will help understand the viral proteome and improve diagnostic test precision, therapeutics, and systems for their assessment.


Asunto(s)
ADN Viral/genética , Evolución Molecular , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Viruela/virología , Virus de la Viruela/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Eliminación de Gen , Genómica , Humanos , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta , Filogenia , Proteoma/análisis , Proteoma/genética , Recombinación Genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Viruela/epidemiología , Viruela/mortalidad , Virus de la Viruela/clasificación , Virus de la Viruela/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Viruela/patogenicidad , Proteínas Virales/química , Proteínas Virales/genética , Virulencia/genética
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