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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638689

RESUMEN

Gonadotropins are essential for regulating ovarian development, steroidogenesis, and gametogenesis. While follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes the development of ovarian follicles, luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates preovulatory maturation of oocytes, ovulation, and formation of corpus luteum. Cognate receptors of FSH and LH are G-protein coupled receptors that predominantly signal through cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent mechanisms that activate protein kinases. Subsequent vital steps in response to gonadotropins are mediated through activation or inhibition of transcription factors required for follicular gene expression. Estrogen receptors, classical ligand-activated transcriptional regulators, play crucial roles in regulating gonadotropin secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis as well as gonadotropin function in the target organs. In this review, we discuss the role of estrogen receptor ß (ERß) regulating gonadotropin response during folliculogenesis. Ovarian follicles in Erß knockout (ErßKO) mutant female mice and rats cannot develop beyond the antral state, lack oocyte maturation, and fail to ovulate. Theca cells (TCs) in ovarian follicles express LH receptor, whereas granulosa cells (GCs) express both FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH receptor (LHCGR). As oocytes do not express the gonadotropin receptors, the somatic cells play a crucial role during gonadotropin induced oocyte maturation. Somatic cells also express high levels of estrogen receptors; while TCs express ERα and are involved in steroidogenesis, GCs express ERß and are involved in both steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis. GCs are the primary site of ERß-regulated gene expression. We observed that a subset of gonadotropin-induced genes in GCs, which are essential for ovarian follicle development, oocyte maturation and ovulation, are dependent on ERß. Thus, ERß plays a vital role in regulating the gonadotropin responses in ovary.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639112

RESUMEN

Interaction between light signaling and stress response has been recently reported in plants. Here, we investigated the role of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), a key regulator of light signaling, in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in Arabidopsis. The cop1-4 mutant Arabidopsis plants were highly sensitive to ER stress induced by treatment with tunicarmycin (Tm). Interestingly, the abundance of nuclear-localized COP1 increased under ER stress conditions. Complementation of cop1-4 mutant plants with the wild-type or variant types of COP1 revealed that the nuclear localization and dimerization of COP1 are essential for its function in plant ER stress response. Moreover, the protein amount of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), which inhibits bZIP28 to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), decreased under ER stress conditions in a COP1-dependent manner. Accordingly, the binding of bZIP28 to the BIP3 promoter was reduced in cop1-4 plants and increased in hy5 plants compared with the wild type. Furthermore, introduction of the hy5 mutant locus into the cop1-4 mutant background rescued its ER stress-sensitive phenotype. Altogether, our results suggest that COP1, a negative regulator of light signaling, positively controls ER stress response by partially degrading HY5 in the nucleus.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647615

RESUMEN

Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located close to the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) on human chromosome 21 and is related to the Down syndrome (DS) phenotype. To identify a novel binding partner of RCAN1, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and identified mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1 (MEK1) as a partner. MEK1 was able to bind and phosphorylate RCAN1 in vitro and in vivo. MEK1-dependent RCAN1 phosphorylation caused an increase in RCAN1 expression by increasing the protein half-life. Nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent activation of the MEK1 pathway consistently induced RCAN1 expression. Moreover, we found that RCAN1 overexpression inhibited NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and expression of neuronal marker genes, such as growth cone-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and synapsin I, via inhibition of MEK1-ERK1/2 pathways. Our findings provide evidence that MEK1-dependent RCAN1 phosphorylation acts as an important molecular mechanism in the control of neuronal differentiation.

4.
5.
Opt Lett ; 46(19): 5043-5046, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598265

RESUMEN

Colored films absorb solar radiation at specific visible wavelengths, and they consequently heat up above atmospheric temperatures when exposed to sunlight. In this Letter, we report nanometer-thick TiN-based multilayers of light cyan, magenta, and yellow colors that can provide 24 h sub-atmospheric cooling when covered with high-emissivity polymers. Outdoor experiments have demonstrated that these visibly tinted films retain sub-atmospheric temperatures during daytime and nighttime. All fabricated films generated almost color-independent cooling powers and even surpassed commercial white paint at TiN thicknesses <5nm. Our work thus highlights the potential of multispectral selective absorbers as esthetic passive coolers.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623801

RESUMEN

A comparative study of doping aliovalent ions, Zr- or Al-, into Ni-rich Li(Ni,Co,Mn)O2 cathode materials is conducted in terms of the electrochemical properties and chemical analysis, especially on the surface region. The solubility and chemical composition for the given sol-gel treatment matches well with the computational results with which the infinitesimal Zr-coating is identified as exhibiting increased charge capacity with prolonged cycle life. Specifically, the whole process can be understood by the suppressed lithium-ion charge transfer resistance (RCT) during the cycles, which can be facilitated by the decreased NiO formation during the cyclic reactions.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624243

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Risk stratification tools are useful to provide appropriate clinical care for older patients with pneumonia. This study aimed to compare a Frailty Index (FI) with pneumonia severity measures, CURB-65, and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), for predicting mortality and persistent disability after pneumonia. DESIGN: Single-center prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 190 patients aged ≥65 years who were hospitalized with pneumonia at a university hospital in Korea between October 2019 and September 2020. METHODS: At admission, a 50-item deficit-accumulation FI (range: 0-1), CURB-65 (range: 0-5), and PSI (range: 0-395) scores were calculated. The outcomes were death and a composite outcome of death or decline in ability to perform daily activities and physical task 6 months later. RESULTS: The median age was 79 years (interquartile range: 74-85), and 70 (36.8%) patients were women. The patients who died (n = 53) had higher FI (median, 0.46 vs 0.20; P < .011), CURB-65 score (median, 3 vs 2; P = .001), and PSI score (median, 149 vs 116; P < .001) than those who did not. The C-statistics (95% confidence intervals) for 6-month mortality were 0.69 (0.61-0.77) for the FI, 0.62 (0.53-0.71) for CURB-65, and 0.71 (0.62-0.79) for the PSI (P = .019). The C-statistics for the 6-month composite outcome were 0.73 (0.65-0.81) for the FI, 0.64 (0.55-0.73) for CURB-65, and 0.69 (0.60-0.77) for the PSI (P = .096). The C-statistics improved when the FI was added to CURB-65 (from 0.64 to 0.74; P = .003) and to the PSI (from 0.69 to 0.75; P = .044) for the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Measuring frailty provides additive value to widely used pneumonia severity measures in predicting death or persistent hospitalization-associated disability in older adults after pneumonia hospitalization. Early recognition of frailty may be useful to identify those who require in-hospital and post-acute care interventions for functional recovery.

8.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610961

RESUMEN

Aberrant epigenetic transcriptional regulation is linked to metastasis, a primary cause of cancer-related death. Dissecting the epigenetic mechanisms controlling metastatic progression may uncover important insights to tumor biology and potential therapeutic targets. Here, we investigated the role of the SIN3A histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (SIN3A-HDAC1/2) complex in cancer metastasis. Using a mouse model of melanoma metastasis, we found that the SIN3A-HDAC1/2 transcription repressor complex silences BMP6 expression, causing increased metastatic dissemination and tumor growth via suppression of BMP6-activated SMAD5 signaling. We further discovered that FAM83G/PAWS1, a downstream effector of BMP6-SMAD5 signaling, contributes critically to metastatic progression by promoting actin-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SIN3A-HDAC1/2 complex reduced the numbers of melanoma cells in the circulation and inhibited metastatic tumor growth by inducing disseminated cell dormancy, highlighting the SIN3A-HDAC1/2 repressor complex as a potential therapeutic target for blocking cancer metastasis. Implications: This study identifies the novel molecular links in the metastatic progression to target cytoskeletal dynamics in melanoma and identifies the SIN3A-HDAC1/2 complex and FAM83G/PAWS1 as potential targets for melanoma adjuvant therapy.

9.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(10): 2099-2106, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606442

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a multilevel problematic disease. Major septal deviation (SD) can lead to severe nasal congestion, which, in turn, can lead to sleep apnea. Although SD seems to be related to OSA, very few studies have quantitatively examined this relationship. In this study, we investigate this using a 9-year large-scale cohort study. METHODS: The SD group was selected out of 1 million individuals randomly extracted by the National Health Insurance Service. The non-SD group was obtained through propensity score matching considering several variables. The primary end point was OSA diagnosis. RESULTS: The study (SD) group included 11,238 individuals and the non-SD group (control group) included 22,476 persons. The overall hazard ratio for OSA in the SD group was 4.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.56-5.42). In subgroup analysis, the hazard ratio for OSA of male individuals was 3.77 (95% CI: 2.83-5.03), high economic status was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.05-1.56), metropolitan area was 1.31 (95% CI: 1.07-1.62), young age was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64-0.98), hypertension was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.37-2.7), and diabetes mellitus was 2.44 (95% CI: 1.15-5.21). In the SD group, the hazard ratio for OSA after septoplasty was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.54-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: From long-term follow-up, the prevalence of OSA was 4.39 times higher in the SD group compared with the control group. This phenomenon was more pronounced with increasing body mass index and decreased significantly after septoplasty. CITATION: Yeom SW, Chung SK, Lee EJ, et al. Association between septal deviation and OSA diagnoses: a nationwide 9-year follow-up cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(10):2099-2106.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596258

RESUMEN

The aim of this prospective study was to construct a new pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin for target-concentration controlled infusion (TCI). As the first loading dose, 25 mg/kg of vancomycin was administered during 60-90 min. Arterial blood samples were obtained at pre-set intervals to measure the serum concentrations of vancomycin. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the NONMEM software (ICON Development Solutions, Dublin, Ireland). In total, 197 serum concentration measurements from 22 patients were used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin. A three-compartment mammillary model best described the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in critically ill patients. The ideal body weight was a significant covariate for the central and slow peripheral volume of distribution. The weight and age converted to categorical variables at a cut-off of 65 years were a significant covariate for the clearance. Based on the results of stochastic simulation, the TCI method maintained the therapeutic concentration range for the longest duration. In addition, assuming that vancomycin was administered by the TCI method for 7 days, the dose was reduced by about 15% compared with the standard administration methods. The daily area under the curve values were maintained between 500 mg·h/L and 600 mg·h/L. TCI has the potential to become a new infusion method for patient-tailored dosing in critically ill patients. To administer vancomycin via TCI in clinical practice, the newly constructed pharmacokinetic model should undergo proper external validation.

11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 119: 182-192, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607010

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteria isolated from rockfish intestines and to investigate the effects of feed supplementation in rockfish aquaculture. Bacillus sp. KRF-7 isolated from the intestine of rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) was demonstrated to be safe based on in vitro tests confirming the absence of hemolysis, cytotoxicity, and genes with toxigenic potential. In a feeding trial, providing a supplemental diet of 1 × 108 CFU g-1Bacillus sp. KRF-7 was observed to positively alter the weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of juvenile rockfish. KRF-7 supplementation showed positive regulation of nonspecific immune parameters, such as superoxide dismutase, lysozyme activity, and myeloperoxidase activity. This analysis also revealed a change in the composition of the intestinal microbiota at the phylum level from Proteobacteria to Firmicutes. In both the kidney and spleen, the expression levels of IL-10, NF-κB, and B cell activating factors in the KRF-7-supplemented group were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. Therefore, this study verified the safety of KRF-7 isolated from the intestine of rockfish and suggests that dietary supplementation with KRF-7 enhances the growth performance of rockfish and has beneficial effects on the regulation of the intestinal microbiota and immune response.

12.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 190, 2021 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dynamically altered microglia play an important role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we found a close association of the metabolic reconfiguration of microglia with increased hippocampal glucose uptake on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. METHODS: We used an AD animal model, 5xFAD, to analyze hippocampal glucose metabolism using both animal FDG PET and ex vivo FDG uptake test. Cells of the hippocampus were isolated to perform single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). The molecular features of cells associated with glucose metabolism were analyzed at a single-cell level. In order to apply our findings to human brain imaging study, brain FDG PET data obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were analyzed. FDG uptake in the hippocampus was compared according to the diagnosis, AD, mild cognitive impairment, and controls. The correlation analysis between hippocampal FDG uptake and soluble TREM2 in cerebrospinal fluid was performed. RESULTS: In the animal study, 8- and 12-month-old 5xFAD mice showed higher FDG uptake in the hippocampus than wild-type mice. Cellular FDG uptake tests showed that FDG activity in hippocampal microglia was increased in the AD model, while FDG activity in non-microglial cells of the hippocampus was not different between the AD model and wild-type. scRNA-seq data showed that changes in glucose metabolism signatures including glucose transporters, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, mainly occurred in microglia. A subset of microglia with higher glucose transporters with defective glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was increased according to disease progression. In the human imaging study, we found a positive association between soluble TREM2 and hippocampal FDG uptake. FDG uptake in the hippocampus at the baseline scan predicted mild cognitive impairment conversion to AD. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the reconfiguration of microglial glucose metabolism in the hippocampus of AD, which could be evaluated by FDG PET as a feasible surrogate imaging biomarker for microglia-mediated inflammation.

13.
Rehabil Psychol ; 66(3): 265-272, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472925

RESUMEN

Objective: The current study assessed self-reported self-compassion, courtesy stigma, life satisfaction, and depression among parents of transition-age youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). This study tests the hypothesis that self-compassion is a mediator between courtesy stigma and parents' psychosocial adjustment. Method: One hundred parents of transition-age youth with IDDs completed a cross-sectional survey assessing courtesy stigma, self-compassion, life satisfaction, and depression. Study information was disseminated via community organizations, and participants self-selected to participate. "PROCESS" macro with 5,000 bootstrapped samples was used to test self-compassion as a mediator between courtesy stigma and parents' life satisfaction (Satisfaction With Life Scale) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale). Results: Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between courtesy stigma and caregiver depressive symptoms (effect = .28, CI [.16, .45]). Self-compassion did not mediate the relationship between courtesy stigma and satisfaction with life. Implications: Findings suggest self-compassion could be leveraged to help counter the effects of courtesy stigma on parents. Future research should seek to explore potential differences in these relationships according to cultural factors or by diagnostic group. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

14.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(9): e30827, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide has emerged as a serious concern for public health; however, only few studies have revealed the differences between major psychiatric disorders and suicide. Recent studies have attempted to quantify research domain criteria (RDoC) into numeric scores to systematically use them in computerized methods. The RDoC scores were used to reveal the characteristics of suicide and its association with major psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: We intended to investigate the differences in the dimensional psychopathology among hospitalized suicidal patients and the association between the dimensional psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and length of hospital stay. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled hospitalized suicidal patients diagnosed with major psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder) between January 2010 and December 2020 at a tertiary hospital in South Korea. The RDoC scores were calculated using the patients' admission notes. To measure the differences between psychiatric disorder cohorts, analysis of variance and the Cochran Q test were conducted and post hoc analysis for RDoC domains was performed with the independent two-sample t test. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association between the RDoC scores and sociodemographic features and comorbidity index. To estimate the association between the RDoC scores and length of hospital stay, multiple logistic regression models were applied to each psychiatric disorder group. RESULTS: We retrieved 732 admissions for 571 patients (465 with depression, 73 with schizophrenia, and 33 with bipolar disorder). We found significant differences in the dimensional psychopathology according to the psychiatric disorders. The patient group with depression showed the highest negative RDoC domain scores. In the cognitive and social RDoC domains, the groups with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scored higher than the group with depression. In the arousal RDoC domain, the depression and bipolar disorder groups scored higher than the group with schizophrenia. We identified significant associations between the RDoC scores and length of stay for the depression and bipolar disorder groups. The odds ratios (ORs) of the length of stay were increased because of the higher negative RDoC domain scores in the group with depression (OR 1.058, 95% CI 1.006-1.114) and decreased by higher arousal RDoC domain scores in the group with bipolar disorder (OR 0.537, 95% CI 0.285-0.815). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the association between the dimensional psychopathology of major psychiatric disorders related to suicide and the length of hospital stay and identified differences in the dimensional psychopathology of major psychiatric disorders. This may provide new perspectives for understanding suicidal patients.

15.
Health Care Women Int ; : 1-14, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506719

RESUMEN

The authors aimed to investigate the effects of a laughter therapy (LT) program on the acculturative stress, anxiety, depression, salivary cortisol, and salivary IgA of married immigrant women in South Korea. A randomized waiting-list control design was utilized. The 19 experimental group participants were given LT twice a week for 2 weeks, whereas the 22 participants in the waiting-list control group received no treatment during the same period but received it afterward. Outcomes were measured right after the completion of the intervention and 2 weeks later. The experimental group showed significantly decreased levels of acculturative stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol compared to the control group. As for salivary IgA, however, the experimental group showed no statistically significant decrease compared to the control group. An LT program can be a good option for married immigrant women undergoing acculturation experiences in consideration of its effectiveness.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501780

RESUMEN

Mothers play a key role in ensuring their children's healthy life. This study aimed to identify the maternal factors affecting problematic smartphone use in children. We adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design using structured questionnaires. Participants were fourth to sixth grade elementary school students in Korea (n = 184). The following maternal factors were evaluated: maternal mediation, children's perception of mothers' smartphone use, mother-child communication, and parenting style. Data regarding maternal factors' effect on problematic smartphone use were analyzed by computing descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis using SPSS Win 27.0. The results show that the maternal factors that influenced problematic smartphone use in children were maternal control over smartphone usage (odds ratio (OR) = 5.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-19.60), smartphone usage time for social network service (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.01), and problematic mother-child communication (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.14). Therefore, to promote appropriate smartphone use among school children, it is necessary to develop an intervention comprising maternal supervision of their children's smartphones, guidance provision for social network service usage, and strategies for the reinforcement of positive mother-child communication.

17.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(5): 851-856, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507660

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the impact of care and change in the consultation process given by a gynecologic hospitalist on patient waiting time in the emergency department (ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a pre-post study that compared patients' length of stay at the ED ten months before and after intervention by the gynecologic hospitalist in 2018. The consultation process changed from ED staff contacting the gynecologic resident (pre-intervention group) to directly contacting the gynecologic hospitalist (post-intervention group). Times elapsed from gynecologic consultation to final disposition, from gynecologic consultation to discharge, and from arrival at ED to discharge were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Among 945 referrals at the ED during the study period, the number of daytime weekday gynecologic consultations were 68 and 187 cases in the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups, respectively. The time elapsed from gynecologic consultation to the final disposition, the time elapsed from gynecologic consultation to discharge and the time elapsed from arrival at ED to discharge were shorter in the post-intervention group than in the pre-intervention group (median values, 98 vs. 167.5 min, 205 vs. 311.5 min, and 419 vs. 497 min; P < 0.05), and extended length of stay more than 12 h at the ED was less common in the post-intervention group than in the pre-intervention group (9.6 vs. 19.1%; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The waiting time of gynecologic patients upon admission and prolonged length of stay at ED significantly decreased after the establishment of the gynecologic hospitalist system.

18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(35): e248, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prediction of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a key to improving the clinical outcomes, considering that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the collapse of healthcare systems in many regions worldwide. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 mortality and to develop a nomogram for predicting mortality using clinical parameters and underlying diseases. METHODS: This study was performed in 5,626 patients with confirmed COVID-19 between February 1 and April 30, 2020 in South Korea. A Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression model were used to construct a nomogram for predicting 30-day and 60-day survival probabilities and overall mortality, respectively in the train set. Calibration and discrimination were performed to validate the nomograms in the test set. RESULTS: Age ≥ 70 years, male, presence of fever and dyspnea at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, and diabetes mellitus, cancer, or dementia as underling diseases were significantly related to 30-day and 60-day survival and mortality in COVID-19 patients. The nomogram showed good calibration for survival probabilities and mortality. In the train set, the areas under the curve (AUCs) for 30-day and 60-day survival was 0.914 and 0.954, respectively; the AUC for mortality of 0.959. In the test set, AUCs for 30-day and 60-day survival was 0.876 and 0.660, respectively, and that for mortality was 0.926. The online calculators can be found at https://koreastat.shinyapps.io/RiskofCOVID19/. CONCLUSION: The prediction model could accurately predict COVID-19-related mortality; thus, it would be helpful for identifying the risk of mortality and establishing medical policies during the pandemic to improve the clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Nomogramas , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Probabilidad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
19.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 810-822, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and hypertension. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THU) on intrarenal RAS expression, kidney injury, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old male mice were fed a regular diet (RD) or HFD for 12 weeks, and THU (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intragastrically administered with HFD. Physiological and metabolic changes were monitored and the expression of RAS components and markers of kidney injury were assessed. RESULTS: HFD-fed mice exhibited hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia compared to those in the RD group (P<0.05). Kidney injury in these mice was indicated by an increase in the ratio of albumin to creatinine, glomerular hypertrophy, and the effacement of podocyte foot processes. Expression of intrarenal angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type I receptor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was also markedly increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice exhibited elevated SBP that was accompanied by an increase in the wall thickness and vascular cross-sectional area (P<0.05), 12 weeks post-HFD consumption. Treatment with THU (100 mg/kg/day) suppressed intrarenal RAS activation, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced SBP, thus, attenuating kidney injury in these mice. CONCLUSION: THU alleviated kidney injury in mice with HFD-induced type 2 diabetes, possibly by blunting the activation of the intrarenal RAS/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase IV (NOX4)/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) axis and by lowering the high SBP.

20.
Nanotoxicology ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469701

RESUMEN

In our previous study, 20 nm-sized amorphous silica nanoparticles (20-SiNPs), but not 50 nm-sized amorphous silica nanoparticles (50-SiNPs), induced pulmonary inflammatory response in rats exposed repeatedly for 14 days (12.5, 25, and 50 µg/time, total six times). In this study, we tried to clarify the causes of different responses induced by both SiNPs using mice (12.5, 25, and 50 µg/lung) and mouse alveolar macrophage cells. When exposed to alveolar macrophage cells for 24 h, both SiNPs decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation compared to controls. The 20- and 50-SiNPs also formed giant and autophagosome-like vacuoles in the cytoplasm, respectively. Structural damage of organelles was more pronounced in 20-SiNPs-treated cells than in 50-SiNPs-treated cells, and an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium accumulation were observed only in the 20-SiNPs-treated cells. Additionally, a single intratracheal instillation of both sizes of SiNPs to mice clearly elevated the relative proportion of neutrophils and inhibited differentiation of macrophages and expression of an adhesion molecule. Meanwhile, interestingly, the total number of pulmonary cells and the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators more notably increased in the lungs of mice exposed to 20-SiNPs compared to 50-SiNPs. Given that accumulation of giant vacuoles and dilation of the ER and mitochondria are key indicators of paraptosis, we suggest that 20-SiNPs-induced pulmonary inflammation may be associated with paraptosis of alveolar macrophages.

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