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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688303

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The use of nonselective beta blockers in cirrhotic patients experiencing complications is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between propranolol treatment and outcomes for cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 4754 cirrhotic patients newly diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy between 2001 and 2010. Among them, 519 patients received propranolol treatment and the other 519 patients without exposure to propranolol were enrolled into our study, both of which were matched by sex, age, and propensity score. The Kaplan-Meier method and time-dependent-modified Cox proportional hazards models were employed for survival and multivariate-stratified analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in the propranolol-treated cohort than in the untreated cohort (3.46 versus 1.88 years, P < 0.001). A dose-dependent increase in survival was observed (median OS: 4.49, 3.29, and 2.46 years in patients treated with propranolol more than 30 , 20-30 , and less than 20 mg/day, respectively [P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.079 versus the untreated group]). In addition to reduce the risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.58; P < 0.001), propranolol also diminished the risk of sepsis-related death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; P = 0.006) according to the multivariate analysis. However, the risk of circulatory or hepatic failure was nonsignificantly altered by propranolol treatment. CONCLUSION: Low dose of propranolol treatment was associated with a better OS in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy and its effects were dose dependent.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691208

RESUMEN

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. Current treatments for IBS are unsatisfactory due to its multifactorial pathogenesis involving the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) was reported to exhibit neuromodulatory activity which may be beneficial for improving IBS. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PS128 on visceral hypersensitivity (VH) and the gut-brain axis using a 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced VH rat model without colonic inflammation induction, mimicking the characteristics of IBS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with PS128 (109 CFU in 0.2 mL saline/rat/day) or saline (0.2 mL saline/rat/day) for 14 days. Colorectal distension (CRD) with simultaneous electromyography recording was performed 30 min before and 30 min after the 5-HTP injection. Levels of neuropeptides and neurotrophins were analyzed. PS128 significantly reduced VH induced by the 5-HTP injection and CRD. Neurotransmitter protein levels, substance P, CGRP, BDNF, and NGF, were decreased in the dorsal root ganglion but increased in the spinal cord in response to the 5-HTP injection; PS128 reversed these changes. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was modulated by PS128 with decreased corticosterone concentration in serum and the expression of mineralocorticoid receptors in the amygdala. Oral administration of PS128 inhibited 5-HTP-induced VH during CRD. The ameliorative effect on VH suggests the potential application of PS128 for IBS.

3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714442

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressant-related acceleration of fibrosis has been documents in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients who receive organ transplantation (Tx), sustained virological response (SVR) rates for these patients by pegylated interferon (IFN)-based therapy are generally poor and associated with unfavorable safety profiles. In addition IFN treatment varies by patient and poses a high risk of post-renal Tx graft rejection. This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of all oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for CHC patients following organ Tx. METHODS: 32 organ Tx (liver: 17, kidney: 13, kidney then liver: 1, heart: 1) patients with CHC on an oral DAA (paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir: 11, daclatasvir and asunaprevir: 4, sofosbuvir-based: 17) were enrolled in the study. DAAs regimen was based by genotype/subtype, patient characteristics, drug interaction profiles, and health insurance coverage. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 61.4±9.5 years, 50.0%, male, and 15.6% with cirrhosis. 14 (43.7%) experienced unsuccessful IFN treatment. Genotype distribution was as follows: 1a: 6, 1b: 17, 2: 7, 3: 1 and 6: 1. Mean time between Tx and DAAs therapy was 77.3±11.0 months. Baseline HCV RNA before DAAs was 6.20±0.19 log10 IU/mL. After DAAs, the distribution of week 2 HCV RNA was as follows: < 15 IU/mL (53.1%), 15 to 50 IU/mL (15.6%), 50 to 100 IU/mL (6.3%), and > 100 IU/mL (25.0%), respectively. The rates of undetectable HCV RNA (< 15 IU/mL) at week 4 and end-of-treatment were 93.8% and 100%. Subjective adverse events during therapy were generally mild, which no treatment terminations. After post-treatment follow-up, all 32 patients (100%) achieved SVR12. CONCLUSION: Highly responsive treatment and favorable tolerability were achieved by all oral DAAs in this difficult-to-treat patient population.

4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567652

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapamycin is a type of immunosuppressive agent that acts through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a lethal complication in cirrhotic patients. It is characterized by hypoxia and increased intrapulmonary shunts, in which pulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis play important roles. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of rapamycin on HPS using the experimental model of common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced cirrhosis in rats. METHODS: The rats received low-dose (0.5 mg/kg), high dose (2 mg/kg) rapamycin or vehicle from the 15 to the 28 day post CBDL. Then the mortality rate, hemodynamics, biochemistry parameters, arterial blood gas and plasma levels of vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated on the 28 day post CBDL. Pulmonary histopathological stains were performed and protein expression was examined. In parallel groups, the intrapulmonary shunts of CBDL rats were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the control, a high-dose rapamycin treatment decreased portal pressure and improved hypoxia in CBDL rats. It also reduced the plasma level of VEGF and TNF-α and decreased intrapulmonary shunts. Meanwhile, it ameliorated pulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis and down-regulated the protein expression of mTOR, P70S6K, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), VEGF and VEGF receptor 2. In contrast, low-dose rapamycin did not attenuate intrapulmonary shunts despite ameliorating portal hypertension. CONCLUSION: High-dose rapamycin ameliorates HPS in cirrhotic rats as evidenced by the alleviated hypoxia and decreased intrapulmonary shunts. Down-regulation of the mTOR/P70S6K, NFκB and VEGF signaling pathways might play a key role.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505759

RESUMEN

Malnutrition is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis. Relevant data about nutrition risk in critically ill cirrhotic patients are lacking. The modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score is a novel nutrition risk assessment tool specific for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of nutrition risk in cirrhotic patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB) using mNUTRIC scores computed on admission to the intensive care unit. The major outcome was 6-week mortality. One-hundred-and-thirty-one admissions in 120 patients were analyzed. Thirty-eight percent of cirrhotic patients with acute GEVB were categorized as being at high nutrition risk (a mNUTRIC score of ≥5). There was a significantly progressive increase in mortality associated with the mNUTRIC score (χ2 for trend, p < 0.001). By using the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the mNUTRIC demonstrated good discriminative power to predict 6-week mortality (AUROC 0.859). In multivariate analysis, the mNUTRIC score was an independent factor associated with 6-week mortality. In conclusion, the mNUTRIC score can serve as a tool to assess nutrition risk in cirrhotic patients with acute GEVB.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454890

RESUMEN

Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis are often complicated with the formation of portosystemic collateral vessels, which is associated with the progression of a splanchnic hyperdynamic circulatory state. Alleviating pathological angiogenesis has thus been proposed to be a feasible treatment strategy. Indole-3-carbinol (C9H9NO, I3C) and 3,3'-diindolymethane (DIM), formed by the breakdown of glucosinolate glucobrassicin, are prevalent in cruciferous vegetables and have anti-angiogenesis properties. We aimed to evaluate their influences on portal hypertension, the severity of mesenteric angiogenesis, and portosystemic collaterals in cirrhosis. Sprague-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced liver cirrhosis or sham operation (surgical control) were randomly allocated to receive I3C (20 mg/kg/3 day), DIM (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 28 days. The systemic and portal hemodynamics, severity of portosystemic shunting, mesenteric angiogenesis, and mesenteric proangiogenic factors protein expressions were evaluated. Compared to vehicle, both DIM and I3C significantly reduced portal pressure, ameliorated liver fibrosis, and down-regulated mesenteric protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and phosphorylated Akt. DIM significantly down-regulated pErk, and I3C down-regulated NFκB, pIκBα protein expressions, and reduced portosystemic shunting degree. The cruciferous vegetable byproducts I3C and DIM not only exerted a portal hypotensive effect but also ameliorated abnormal angiogenesis and portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic rats.

7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(7): 546-553, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is importance to train the interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team-efficiency (TE) of medical trainees. This prospective study evaluates whether implementation of scenario/video-created workshops in integrated IPC and TE (IIT) program provides additional benefits for IPC-TE skills of nursing trainees. METHODS: Mock simulation with two IIT scenarios was held as preintervention IPC-TE assessment. Basic and advanced workshops were arranged for teams of intervention groups for creation of discipline-specific scenario and video. Thirty-six nursing trainees were randomized into teams of five members (three nursing students, one standardized medical student, and one standardized trainees of other profession) in either intervention (scenario plus video and scenario) or control groups. After intervention, all groups received the formal simulation-based assessment using another two IIT scenario. In addition to instructors-based assessment of team' performance in mock and formal IIT simulation using interprofessional team collaboration scale (AITCS), self-assessment of attitudes and program-value score were completed by each trainee, using attitudes toward interprofessional health care teams scale (ATIHCTS) at all stages. RESULTS: Nursing trainees in intervention group gave high satisfaction score to this IIT intervention. In comparison with control group, greater increase in instructor-assessed team performance in the "partnership," "cooperation," and "shared decision making" domains of AITCS and the self-assessed "quality of care delivery" and TE domains of ATIHCTS were noted in the intervention groups. The overall improvement was greater in the scenario plus video group than those in the scenario group. Further, these improvements among nursing trainees persisted until follow-up stage at 4-weeks later. CONCLUSION: For nursing trainees, our study suggested that implementation of a scenario creation-based training resulted in additional improvement in trainee' IPC and TE behaviors and attitudes. Additionally, making video of newly created nurse-specific scenario enhances partnership and cooperation among nursing trainees and their interprofessional team members.

8.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(9): 693-698, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356562

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Based on the previously published results, 12 weeks of sofosbuvir (SOF) 400 mg/day plus ribavirin (RBV), the current direct antiviral agent regimen reimbursed by Bureau-of National-Health-Insurance (BNHI) of Taiwan for genotype-2 chronic hepatitis C (CHC), is suboptimal in efficacy, especially for difficult-to-treat subpopulations such as liver cirrhosis, previous interferon (IFN) treatment failure, and high viral-load. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SOF plus daclatasvir (DCV) for Taiwanese genotype-2 CHC patients. METHODS: Between March 2017 and December 2018, a total of 50 consecutive genotype-2 CHC patients who completed 12 weeks combination of SOF (400 mg/day) plus DCV (60 mg/day) with or without RBV by investigators were enrolled for analyses. When RBV was added, weight-based (800-1200 mg/day) approach was applied. Sustained virological response (SVR12) was defined by undetectable HCV RNA (<15 IU/mL) at the end and 12 weeks after completion of therapy. RESULTS: The mean age was 62.0 ± 11.4 years, 16 (32.0%) of them were males and 20 (40.0%) of them failed to previous IFN. Severity of liver diseases was as follows: ≤F2 fibrosis: 24.0%; F3 fibrosis: 40.0%, Child-Pugh A cirrhosis: 30.0%; and Child-Pugh B-C cirrhosis: 6.0%. The mean baseline HCV RNA level was 6.19 ± 0.91 log10 IU/mL and 30 (60.0%) had baseline HCV RNA ≥ 2 million IU/mL. The rates of undetectable HCV RNA (<15 IU/mL) at weeks 2, 4, and end-of-treatment were 40%, 94%, and 100%, respectively. Majority (66.7%) of patients with detectable HCV RNA at week 2 belonged to low-level viremia (<50 IU/mL). Subjective adverse events (AEs) and laboratory abnormalities were more common for patients combining RBV. Grades of AEs were generally mild and all patients finished therapy without interruption. After post-treatment follow-up, all 50 patients (100%) achieved SVR12. CONCLUSION: Our real-world cohort of Taiwan showed that a 12-week SOF/DCV-based treatment was well-tolerated and highly effective for genotype-2 CHC patients with or without liver cirrhosis.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 82(10): 762-766, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are a widely accepted biliary endoprosthesis for patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. Here, we identified predictors for the occlusion of SEMS in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients with biliary tract obstruction. METHODS: Patients with a distal malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable pancreatic cancer who received partially covered SEMS (PC-SEMS) placement for the first time between January 2003 and January 2016 were retrospectively enrolled for analysis. The rates of PC-SEMS occlusion were evaluated. The possible predictors of PC-SEMS occlusion were analyzed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 120 patients who received PC-SEMS for unresectable pancreatic cancer were identified. The rate of PC-SEMS occlusion was 37%. The median time to occlusion of PC-SEMS was 359 days. The major causes of occlusion included biliary sludge (61%) and tumor ingrowth (30%). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that inadequate alkaline phosphatase/gamma-glutamyl transferase decline (defined by a decrease of <50% within 2 wk after PC-SEMS placement) was the only independent predictor of stent occlusion (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.28-6.25; p = 0.01) CONCLUSION:: Inadequate alkaline phosphatase/gamma-glutamyl transferase decline is a predictor of occlusion of first-time PC-SEMS placement in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients with biliary tract obstruction.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218436, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199857

RESUMEN

Whether there are subsequent changes of metabolic profiles and microbiota status after partial colectomy remains unknown. We evaluated and compared long-term effects of microbiota status and metabolic profiles in early colorectal cancer (CRC) patients after curative colectomy to the controls. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed metabolic syndrome occurrence in 165 patients after curative partial colectomy with right hemicolectomy (RH) or low anterior resection (LAR) and 333 age-sex matched controls. Fecal samples from some of those with RH, LAR, and controls were analyzed by next-generation sequencing method. The occurrences of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in patients after RH, but not LAR, when compared with the controls over the long term (> 5 years) follow-up (P = 0.020). Compared with control group, RH group showed lower bacterial diversity (P = 0.007), whereas LAR group showed significantly higher bacterial diversity at the genera level (P = 0.016). Compared with the control group, the principal component analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial genera abundance after RH and LAR (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly lower in the RH group than the control group (22.0% versus 49.4%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, early CRC patients after RH but not LAR were associated with a higher occurrence of metabolic syndrome than the controls during long-term follow-up. In parallel with metabolic change, patients with RH showed dysbiosis with a tendency to decreased richness and a significant decrease in the diversity of gut microbiota.

11.
Ann Hepatol ; 18(4): 633-639, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078441

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Liver cirrhosis is characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance, splanchnic vasodilation/angiogenesis, and formation of portosystemic collateral vessels. Collaterals can cause lethal complications such as gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage. Homocysteine is linked to vascular dysfunction and angiogenesis and higher levels have been reported in cirrhotic patients. It is also known that folic acid supplementation reverses the effects of homocysteine. However, the treatment effect in cirrhosis has yet to be investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver cirrhosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation (CBDL). The CBDL rats randomly received (1) vehicle; (2) dl-homocysteine thiolactone (1g/kg/day); (3) dl-homocysteine thiolactone plus folic acid (100mg/kg/day); or (4) folic acid. On the 29th day, hemodynamic parameters, liver and renal biochemistry, protein expressions of proangiogenic factors, mesenteric vascular density and portosystemic shunting were evaluated. RESULTS: In the cirrhotic rats, homocysteine increased mesenteric vascular density and the severity of shunting. It also up-regulated the protein expressions of mesenteric vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylated-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). These effects were reversed by folic acid treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Folic acid ameliorated the adverse effects of homocysteine in the cirrhotic rats, which may be related to down-regulation of the VEGF-NO signaling pathway.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6580, 2019 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036843

RESUMEN

The cognitive control network (CCN) is a network responsible for multiple executive functions, which are impaired in covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE). We aimed to use functional connectivity (FC) magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that CHE manifested with disconnection within the CCN, which is associated with impaired neuropsychiatric and biochemical profiles. CHE was detected with abnormally low psychometric hepatic encephalopathy scores (PHES) (total cut-off score <-4). Two seeds in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were used to calculate the FC map within the CCN. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the CCN and psychometric, biochemical profiles including ammonia, Interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Eighteen CHE, 36 non-HE (NHE) cirrhotic patients and 36 controls were studied. Significant differences in FC were noted among groups, which revealed CHE patients had a lower FC in the bilateral lateral occipital cortex (seed in the bilateral dACC) and in the right lateral occipital and precuneus cortices (seed in the left DLPFC) (P < 0.05, corrected) compared with NHE. Progressively decreased FC in the left precentral gyrus within the CCN was noted from control, NHE to CHE. PHES positively and biochemistry negatively correlated with FC in the CCN. In conclusion, CHE patients showed aberrant FC within the CCN which is correlated with both cognitive dysfunction and biochemical profiles. Ammonia and pro-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the occurrence of aberrant connectivity. Impaired FC within the CCN may serve as a complementary biomarker for CHE.

13.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(5): 407-412, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For patient safety, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of additional objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)-based medical simulation courses to establish the "emergency-stabilization" subcompetency of postgraduate first year (PGY-1) residents. METHODS: In the simulation course, trainees were randomly divided into three groups: intervention, regular, and control group as Trios-OSCE trainees, Single-OSCE trainees, or OSCE observers (feedback-givers) after attending the pre-OSCE common simulation workshop. Three PGY-1 residents rotated through the Trios OSCE long-station together, while single PGY-1 residents rotated through regular OSCE alone and the control group gave feedback after observation of their peers' OSCE performance. Using Queen's simulation assessment tool, either in Trios-OSCE or Single-OSCE, performance levels were rated as either inferior, novice, competent, advanced or superior in the "therapeutic actions" and "communication" domains. The "overall performances" of all trainees were graded by qualified assessors, experienced facilitators, and standardized senior nurse. RESULTS: The proportion of "overall performance" of trainee's, rated by an experienced facilitator as "above competent level," was significantly higher in intervention group A than in regular group B. After training, the degree of increase in self-efficacy scores was higher among the intervention group than the regular and control groups. In the follow-up stage, a trend of increasing self-efficacy scores was noted in both the interventional and regular groups. For all trainees among the three groups, high postcourse value scores confirm that the new Trios-OSCE model meets the needs of trainees and also motivates the self-directed learning and self-reflection of trainees. CONCLUSION: Our results provide initial evidence that the new emergency-stabilization-enhanced Trios-OSCE-based medical simulation course including the additional training capacity offered by adding an observer group had positive effects on PGY-1 residents' self-efficacy and clinical transfer.

14.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2019 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is importance to train the inter-professional collaboration (IPC) and team-efficiency (TE) of medical trainees. This prospective study evaluate whether implementation of scenario/video-created workshops in integrated IPC and TE (IIT) program provides additional benefits for IPC-TE skills of nursing trainees. METHODS: Mock simulation with two IIT scenarios was held as pre-intervention IPC-TE assessment. Basic and advanced workshops were arranged for teams of intervention groups for creation of discipline-specific scenario and video. 36 nursing trainees were randomized into teams of 5 members (3 nursing students, 1 standardized medical student, and 1 standardized trainees of other profession) in either intervention (scenario plus video and scenario) or control groups. After intervention, all groups received the formal simulation-based assessment using another two IIT scenario. In addition to instructors-based assessment of team' performance in mock and formal IIT simulation using inter-professional team collaboration scale (AITCS), self-assessment of attitudes and program-value score were completed by each trainee using attitudes toward inter-professional health care teams scale (ATIHCTS) at all stages. RESULTS: Nursing trainees in intervention group gave high satisfaction score to this IIT intervention. In comparison with control group, greater increase in instructor-assessed team performance in the "partnership", "cooperation", and "shared decision making" domains of AITCS and the self-assessed "quality of care delivery" and "team-efficiency" domains of ATIHCTS were noted in the intervention groups. The overall improvement was greater in scenario plus video group than those in scenario group. Further, these improvements among nursing trainees were persisted until follow-up stage at 4-week later. CONCLUSION: For nursing trainees, our study suggested that implementation of a scenario creation-based training resulted in additional improvement in trainee' IPC and TE behaviors and attitudes. Additionally, making video of newly created nurse-specific scenario enhances partnership and cooperation among nursing trainees and their inter-professional team members.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(3): 169-171, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908410

RESUMEN

One of the ten recommendations of the commission on education of health professionals for the twenty-first century is the "promotion of interprofessional education that breaks down professional silos while enhancing collaborative relationships in effective teams." Continuously, the increasing prevalence of patients with complex chronic health issues challenges the staff's training strategy of healthcare institution. To ensure patient safety, the collaborative involvement of a team of health professional is necessary to delivery care to patients with complex health conditions and social disadvantage. Integrated interprofessional collaboration and team efficiency (IIT) is a competency that can optimize the multiple professional skills to provide well-coordinated, high-quality, and patient-centered care. IIT-based training is a way to improve team-based care through positive shared learning activities in a nonthreatening environment to respond to patient's needs. The describe, analysis, application (DAA) diamond is a debriefing method that provides different health professionals with valuable learning experiences through communication. Using advocacy-inquiry approach, DAA-based IIT simulation offers an effective platform for training IIT. Including all disciplines in the DAA-based IIT simulation process reinforces the unique role/contribution of each team member and provides a mechanism for the team to talk together for system improvements. Actually, good clinical care requires practitioner's ability to effectively resolve stress and conflict, improve job satisfaction/wellbeing, and enhance quality and safety of patient care. In our institution, regular DAA-based IIT simulation courses were held at various divisions and had been proved to improve the safety and quality of healthcare.

16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(3): 186-190, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908411

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) evolved rapidly due to the invention of interferon-free direct antiviral agents. Previous clinical trials showed combination therapy with paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir (PrOD) with or without ribavirin (RBV) can cure over 95% of genotype 1 CHC patients, regardless with cirrhosis or not. However, real-world data regarding the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in Asian HCV genotype 1 CHC patients are limited, especially for advanced-fibrotic patients who failed previous therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus RBV. METHODS: Between January and October 2017, 60 advanced fibrotic (≥F3) genotype 1 CHC patients who failed previous therapy with PEG-IFN and received PrOD-based therapy for 12 weeks were retrospectively enrolled. Weight-based RBV 800 to 1200 mg/d was added for genotype 1b patients with cirrhosis and all genotype 1a patients. Sustained virological response (SVR) was defined by undetectable HCV RNA at the end and 12 weeks after the completion of therapy. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.2 ± 9.3 years, 26 (43.3%) of them were males and 20 (33.3%) were diagnosed to have liver cirrhosis. The mean baseline HCV RNA level was 6.19 ± 0.88 log10 IU/mL and 86.7% (52/60) of patients were infected by HCV genotype 1b. After PrOD-based therapy, the rates undetectable HCV RNA (<15 IU/mL) at week 2, 4, and 12 were 61.7%, 90.0%, and 100%, respectively; 69.6% (16/23) of patients with detectable HCV RNA at week 2 were < 100 IU/mL. Pruritus, fatigue, headache, insomnia, and dizziness were the most common patient-reported adverse events. Grade 2 hyperbilirubinemia were found in 21.6% (13/60) of patients during study period and all belonged to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. After posttherapy follow up, all 60 patients (100%) achieved SVR. CONCLUSION: Our real-world data in Taiwan revealed that PrOD-based rescue therapy is well-tolerated and highly effective for genotype 1 CHC patients with advanced fibrosis failing previous therapy with PEG-IFN plus RBV.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925782

RESUMEN

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a lethal complication of cirrhosis characterized by hypoxia and overt intrapulmonary shunting. In this study, we investigated the effect of caffeine in rats with common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced liver cirrhosis and HPS. CBDL rats were randomly allocated to receive caffeine or vehicle for 14 days. On the 28th day after CBDL, mortality rate, hemodynamics, liver, and renal biochemistry parameters and arterial blood gas analysis were evaluated. Lung and liver were dissected for the evaluation of inflammation, angiogenesis and protein expressions. In another series with parallel groups, the intrapulmonary shunting was determined. Caffeine significantly reduced portal pressure (caffeine vs. control: 10.0 ± 3.7 vs. 17.0 ± 8.1 mmHg, p < 0.05) in CBDL rats. The mortality rate, mean arterial pressure, biochemistry data and hypoxia were similar between caffeine-treated and control groups. Caffeine alleviated liver fibrosis and intrahepatic angiogenesis but intrapulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis were not ameliorated. The hepatic VEGF/Rho-A protein expressions were down-regulated but the pulmonary inflammation- and angiogenesis-related protein expressions were not significantly altered by caffeine. Caffeine did not reduce the intrapulmonary shunting, either. Caffeine has been shown to significantly improve liver fibrosis, intrahepatic angiogenesis and portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats, however, it does not ameliorate HPS.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Cafeína/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Cirrosis Hepática/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Cafeína/farmacología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/complicaciones , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/patología , Hipertensión Portal/complicaciones , Hipertensión Portal/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión Portal/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/patología , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/patología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
18.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(1): 19-24, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839398

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ivabradine is a funny current inhibitor which is administered to patients with congestive heart failure to reduce their heart rate (HR) and attenuate oxidative stress. Chronic liver diseases are characterized by portal hypertension and hyperdynamic circulation with tachycardia. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ivabradine on portal hypertension. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received partial portal vein ligation (PVL) to induce portal hypertension. The PVL rats were randomly allocated to receive either vehicle or ivabradine treatment for 10 days. Then the hemodynamic data were collected. The levels of oxidative stress markers and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were measured in the collateral vessel, the superior mesentery artery and the liver. In addition, the collateral vascular responsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in the ivabradine-treated and vehicle-treated PVL rats. RESULTS: Treatment with ivabradine significantly lowered the HR (174 ± 20 vs. 374 ± 9 beats/min; p < 0.001) and the superior mesentery arterial flow (SMAf) (6.6 ± 0.3 vs. 9.1 ± 0.7 mL/min/100 g BW; p = 0.005) of the PVL rats compared with the control group. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, portal pressure and serum levels of oxidative stress markers were not significantly affected by ivabradine treatment. In addition, the NOS expression and collateral vascular responsiveness to AVP were not significantly influenced by ivabradine treatment, either. CONCLUSION: Ivabradine reduced the HR and SMAf in PVL rats, which alleviated the hyperdynamic circulatory state and splanchnic hyperemia of portal hypertension. However, whether these effects would help alleviate portal hypertension-related complications requires further clinical investigations.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Portal/tratamiento farmacológico , Ivabradina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Hemodinámica/efectos de los fármacos , Hipertensión Portal/fisiopatología , Ivabradina/farmacología , Masculino , Arteria Mesentérica Superior/efectos de los fármacos , Arteria Mesentérica Superior/fisiología , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo III/genética , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(11): 2356-2363.e2, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772583

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) frequently recurs after hemostasis by gastric variceal obturation (GVO). We performed a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of carvedilol plus GVO in secondary prophylaxis of GVB. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 121 patients with cirrhosis (ages 20-80 years) with GVB proven by endoscopy within 24 hours of bleeding and stable hemodynamics for at least 3 days after initial GVO. Patients were randomly assigned into a group that underwent repeated GVO (n = 61) or a group received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (n = 60). Recurrent GVB, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), adverse events, and survival were compared between the groups. RESULTS: GVB recurred in 21 patients (34%) in the group that received repeated GVO and 14 patients (23%) in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (P = .18). Ascites (relative risk [RR], 2.69; 95% CI, 1.33-5.48; P = .006) and hepatoma (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.03-4.28; P = .04) were associated with recurrent GVB. Twenty-nine patients (48%) in the group that received repeated GVO and 17 patients (28%) in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol had recurrent UGIB (P = .03). Carvedilol (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.80; P = .007) was associated with reduced risk of UGIB recurrence. Ascites (RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.59-5.73; P = .001) and hepatoma (RR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.88; P = .02) were associated with recurrent UGIB. A higher proportion of patients in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (53%) had adverse events than the group that received repeated GVO (15%) (P < .001). Mean survival times were 21 ± 18 months in the group that received repeated GVO vs 25 ± 20 months in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (P = .30). CONCLUSION: In a randomized controlled trial, we found that addition of carvedilol to GVO did not decrease recurrence of GVB in patients with cirrhosis but was associated with decreased recurrence of UGIB. However, carvedilol plus GVO produced significantly more adverse events. Mean survival times did not differ significantly between groups. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02504723.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206930, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395589

RESUMEN

Long term effects of subtotal gastrectomy on gut microbiota modifications with subsequent metabolic profiles are limited. We aimed to investigate and compare long-term effects of metabolic profiles and microbiota status in early gastric cancer patients post curative subtotal gastrectomy to the controls. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed type II diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome occurrence in two groups: 111 patients after curative subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth II (BII) anastomosis and Roux-en-Y gastrojejuno (RYGJ) anastomosis and 344 age-sex matched controls. Fecal samples from those with BII, RYGJ, and controls were analyzed by next-generation sequencing method. Metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus occurrences were significantly lower in patients after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ than in controls over the long term (> 8 years) follow-up (P < 0.05). The richness and diversity of gut microbiota significantly increased after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the principal component analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial genera abundance after subtotal gastrectomy with BII and RYGJ (P < 0.001). Genera of Oscillospira, Prevotella, Coprococcus, Veillonella, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Anaerosinus, Slackia, Oxalobacter, Victivallis, Butyrivibrio, Sporobacter, and Campylobacter shared more abundant roles both in the RYGJ group and BII groups. Early gastric cancer patients after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ had a lower occurrence of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus than the controls during long term follow-up. In parallel with the metabolic improvements, gut microbial richness and diversity also significantly increased after subtotal gastrectomy with RYGJ.

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