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1.
Neurology ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029544

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a devastating and costly disease; however, there is a paucity of information on long-term costs and on how they differ according to 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS) score, which is a primary outcome variable in acute stroke intervention trials. METHODS: We analyzed a prospective multicenter stroke registry (Clinical Research Collaboration for Stroke in Korea) database through linkage with claims data from the National Health Insurance Service with follow-up to December 2016. Healthcare expenditures were converted into daily cost individually, and annual and cumulative costs up to 5 years were estimated and compared according to the 3-month mRS score. RESULTS: Between January 2011 and November 2013, 11,136 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 68 years, and 58% were men. The median follow-up period was 3.9 years (range 0-5 years). Mean cumulative cost over 5 years was $117,576 (US dollars [USD]); the cost in the first year after stroke was the highest ($38,152 USD), which increased markedly from the cost a year before stroke ($8,718 USD). The mean 5-year cumulative costs differed significantly according to the 3-month mRS score (p < 0.001); the costs for a 3-month mRS score of 0 or 5 were $53,578 and $257,486 USD, respectively. Three-month mRS score was an independent determinant of long-term costs after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We show that 3-month mRS score plays an important role in the prediction of long-term costs after stroke. Such estimates relating to 3-month mRS categories may be valuable when undertaking health economic evaluations related to stroke care.

2.
J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc ; : 1078390320905669, 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance misuse remains a public health crisis and contributor to morbidity and mortality. The nursing workforce is not immune to the impacts of substance misuse as rates are thought to mirror those of the general population. Additionally, as substance misuse often begins in adolescence or early adulthood, prevalence of misuse among practicing nurses highlights the fact that students are also at risk. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine rates and patterns of substance use and adverse childhood experience (ACE) exposure among nursing students while also examining associations between substance use and ACE exposure. METHOD: This study utilizes a cross-sectional and descriptive design through the provision of email surveys to nursing students. Email surveys consisting of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Drug Abuse Screening Tool 10-item survey, the ACE Questionnaire, and a demographic inquiry were distributed via Qualtrics survey software. RESULTS: A total of 662 individuals participated in the survey, the majority of whom self-identified as female, were undergraduate students, and were between 18 and 21 years. Moderate- to high-risk alcohol use was identified in 20% of students, while moderate- to high-risk drug use was identified in 3.6% of students. More than half of students endorsed exposure to at least one ACE. Significant associations were found between the Drug Abuse Screening Tool 10-item survey and the ACE Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have significant implications for nursing educators and must inform groundwork for the development of policies and interventions that are evidence based, nonpunitive, and trauma informed.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228997, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059039

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identifying acute ischemic stroke (AIS) among potential stroke cases is crucial for stroke research based on claims data. However, the accuracy of using the diagnostic codes of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision was less than expected. METHODS: From the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) claims data, stroke cases admitted to the hospitals participating in the multicenter stroke registry (Clinical Research Collaboration for Stroke in Korea, CRCS-K) during the study period with principal or additional diagnosis codes of I60-I64 on the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases were extracted. The datasets were randomly divided into development and validation sets with a ratio of 7:3. A stroke identification algorithm using the claims data was developed and validated through the linkage between the extracted datasets and the registry database. RESULTS: Altogether, 40,443 potential cases were extracted from the NHIS claims data, of which 31.7% were certified as AIS through linkage with the CRCS-K database. We selected 17 key identifiers from the claims data and developed 37 conditions through combinations of those key identifiers. The key identifiers comprised brain CT, MRI, use of tissue plasminogen activator, endovascular treatment, carotid endarterectomy or stenting, antithrombotics, anticoagulants, etc. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm were 81.2%, 82.9%, and 82.4% in the development set, and 80.2%, 82.0%, and 81.4% in the validation set, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our stroke identification algorithm may be useful to grasp stroke burden in Korea. However, further efforts to refine the algorithm are necessary.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953338

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila on fatty liver disease. Five-week-old C57BL/6N mice were administered either phosphate buffer saline (PBS, control) or A. muciniphila at 108-109 CFU/mL, and were fed either a 45% fat diet (HFD, high-fat diet) or a 10% fat diet (ND) for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, the mice were euthanized, and the blood and tissue samples, including adipose tissue, caecum, liver, and brain, were immediately collected. Biochemical and histological analyses were conducted and the expression levels of related factors were compared to determine the anti-obesity effects of Akkermansia muciniphila The gut microbiome was analyzed in fecal samples. Oral administration of A. muciniphila significantly (p < 0.05) lowered serum triglyceride (TG), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in obese mice. Compared to the non-A. muciniphila-treated group, the expression of SREBP (regulator of TG synthesis in liver tissue) was decreased in the A. muciniphila-treated group. The expression of IL-6 in the liver of obese mice was decreased following the administration of A. muciniphila Furthermore, alterations in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and decrease in bacterial diversity caused by the HFD were restored upon the administration of A. muciniphila These results indicate that A. muciniphila prevents fatty liver disease in obese mice by regulating TG synthesis in the liver and maintaining gut homeostasis.Importance This study investigated the effect of Akkermansia muciniphila on fatty liver disease. Though some researches about effects of A. muciniphila on host health were published, the study on relation between A. muciniphila administration and fatty liver as well as changes of gut microbiota have not been conducted. In this study we specifically focused on composition of gut microbiota, and also demonstrate gene expression levels, regulating fat synthesis and inflammation in the liver.

5.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(1): 52-65, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928429

RESUMEN

Clostridium perfringens (CP) is a foodborne pathogen. The bacterium can also inhabit human gut without symptoms of foodborne illness. However, the clinical symptoms of long-term inhabitation have not been known yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between intestinal CP and other internal organs. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and CP were orally injected into 5-week-old (YOUNG) and 12-month-old C57BL6/J (ADULT) mice. Gene expression levels related to inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1ß, and IL-6) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, SOD3, glutathione reductase [GSR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]3, and catalase [CAT]) responses were evaluated in the brain, small intestine, and liver. In addition, apoptosis-related (BCL2-associated X [BAX]1 and high-mobility group box-1 [HMGB1]) and brain disorder-related genes (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein [C/EBP]-ß, C/EBPδ, C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP], and amyloid precursor protein [APP]) as brain damage markers were examined. The protein expressions in the brain were also measured. Gene expression levels of inflammation and oxidative stress responses were higher (p < 0.05) in brains of CP-YOUNG and CP-ADULT mice, compared with PBS-YOUNG and PBS-ADULT, and the gene expression levels were higher (p < 0.05) in brains of CP-ADULT mice than CP-YOUNG mice. Apoptosis-related (BAX1 and HMGB1) and brain disorder-related genes (C/EBPß, C/EBPδ, CHOP, and APP) were higher (p < 0.05) in brains of CP-challenged mice, compared with PBS-challenged mice. Even oxidative stress response (GPx and SOD2), cell damage-related (HMGB1), and ß-amyloid proteins were higher (p < 0.05) in brains of CP- than in PBS-challenged mice. C/EBP protein was higher (p < 0.05) in CP-YOUNG, compared with PBS-YOUNG mice. However, these clinical symptoms were not observed in small intestine and liver. These results indicate that although asymptomatic intestinal CP do not cause foodborne illness, their inhabitation may cause brain inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell damage, which may induce disorders, especially for the aged group.

6.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 56(1): 14-19, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746711

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to evaluate a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics program regarding the quality of care and outcomes of individuals with schizophrenia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Observational design with retrospective chart review and survey was utilized in an outpatient clinic. FINDINGS: Individuals on LAIs receive the quality of care by exhibiting favorable knowledge about LAIs, positive attitude toward medications, and satisfaction with care. They take higher dosages of medications than those who take oral antipsychotics and report decreases in hospitalizations/emergency room visits after LAIs. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Reducing reservations about LAIs may provide awareness of the positive effects of treatment leading to viable management options and patient satisfaction.

7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(46): e302, 2019 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lymphadenitis is an under-recognized entity, and data of the true burden in children are limited. Without a high index of suspicion, diagnosis may be delayed and microbiological detection is challenging. Here, we report a cluster of NTM lymphadenitis experienced in Korean children. METHODS: Subjects under 19 years of age diagnosed with NTM lymphadenitis during November 2016-April 2017 and April 2018 were included. Electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical, laboratory and pathological findings. Information regarding underlying health conditions and environmental exposure factors was obtained through interview and questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of ten subjects were diagnosed during 18 months. All subjects were 8-15 years of age, previously healthy, male and had unilateral, nontender, cervicofacial lymphadenitis for more than 3 weeks with no significant systemic symptoms and no response to empirical antibiotics. Lymph nodes involved were submandibular (n = 8), preauricular (n = 6) and submental (n = 1). Five patients had two infected nodes and violaceous discoloration was seen in seven subjects. Biopsy specimens revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria culture identified Mycobacterium haemophilum in two cases and NTM polymerase chain reaction was positive in two cases. Survey revealed various common exposure sources. CONCLUSION: NTM lymphadenitis is rare but increasing in detection and it may occur in children and adolescents. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and communication between clinicians and the laboratory is essential for identification of NTM.

8.
Cell Chem Biol ; 26(12): 1652-1663.e4, 2019 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678045

RESUMEN

Actin waves are filamentous actin (F-actin)-rich structures that initiate in the somato-neuritic area and move toward neurite ends. The upstream cues that initiate actin waves are poorly understood. Here, using an optogenetic approach (Opto-cytTrkB), we found that local activation of the TrkB receptor around the neurite end initiates actin waves and triggers neurite elongation. During actin wave generation, locally activated TrkB signaling in the distal neurite was functionally connected with preferentially localized Rac1 and its signaling pathways in the proximal region. Moreover, TrkB activity changed the location of ankyrinG--the master organizer of the axonal initial segment-and initiated the stimulated neurite to acquire axonal characteristics. Taken together, these findings suggest that local Opto-cytTrkB activation switches the fate from minor to major axonal neurite during neuronal polarization by generating actin waves.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 47(12): e1037-e1038, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738262
10.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 39(4): 565-575, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508587

RESUMEN

This study evaluated Campylobacter jejuni risk in ground meat products. The C. jejuni prevalence in ground meat products was investigated. To develop the predictive model, survival data of C. jejuni were collected at 4°C-30°C during storage, and the data were fitted using the Weibull model. In addition, the storage temperature and time of ground meat products were investigated during distribution. The consumption amount and frequency of ground meat products were investigated by interviewing 1,500 adults. The prevalence, temperature, time, and consumption data were analyzed by @RISK to generate probabilistic distributions. In 224 samples of ground meat products, there were no C. jejuni-contaminated samples. A scenario with a series of probabilistic distributions, a predictive model and a dose-response model was prepared to calculate the probability of illness, and it showed that the probability of foodborne illness caused by C. jejuni per person per day from ground meat products was 5.68×10-10, which can be considered low risk.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13296, 2019 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527625

RESUMEN

Glycemic variability (GV) has been an emerging target for preventing complications related to type 2 diabetes. For reducing GV, DPP-IV inhibitors have shown effectiveness compared to other oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs (OADs), but systematic evaluation has yet to be existed. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to evaluate the effect of DPP-IV inhibitors compared with other OADs, on GV as measured by mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). Searches were conducted using Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, from which eligible studies were retrieved; seven RCTs were included in the analysis. DPP-IV inhibitors were found to significantly reduce MAGE compared to other OADs (mean difference = -14.61; 95% CI = -19.00 to -10.21; p < 0.0001) without significant heterogeneity among sulfonylureas (mean difference = -14.93; 95% CI = -21.60 to -8.26; p < 0.0001). Initial combination therapy with DPP-IV inhibitors more effectively reduced MAGE than stepwise add-on therapies (p = 0.006), although no differences in MAGE were found based on HbA1c values. These findings indicate that DPP-IV inhibitors are promising alternatives for reducing GV in type 2 diabetes patients. However, further studies utilizing larger numbers of patients and longer-term follow-ups are needed.

12.
BioDrugs ; 33(5): 469-483, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446557

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rituximab is a biologic medicine widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and lymphoma. Several biosimilars of rituximab have been developed and marketed with the expiration of the originator rituximab's patent; thus, systematic combination and analysis of the latest data on the efficacy and safety of biosimilars and the demonstration of the interchangeability of biosimilar agents are required. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to collate available data from head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar rituximab compared with the reference drug in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify head-to-head RCTs that directly compare the efficacy and safety of biosimilar rituximab and its originator. The efficacy outcome for RA was the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response rates and the outcome for NHL was the response rate. The occurrence of adverse events (AEs) and anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) were evaluated for the safety outcome. Data on the pharmacokinetic profile were also included as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Eleven head-to-head RCTs with 3163 patients were included (1744 patients with RA and 1419 patients with NHL). Biosimilars of rituximab showed similar efficacy in the clinical response in both RA and NHL. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of the ACR 20% response rate (ACR20) response in patients with RA at weeks 24 and 48 was 0.99 (p = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.06) and 1.04 (p = 0.73, 95% CI 0.83-1.31), respectively. The pooled RR of the overall response at week 24 in NHL patients was 1.02 (p = 0.31, 95% CI 0.98-1.07). No significant differences were found in the formation of ADAs (RR 0.86, p = 0.20, 95% CI 0.68-1.08) or AEs (RR 1.04, p = 0.30, 95% CI 0.97-1.12). CONCLUSION: This systematic review and conventional meta-analysis demonstrated the overall similarity of the long-term efficacy and safety of biosimilar rituximab to those of originator rituximab in RA and NHL patients by combining direct evidence from head-to-head trials. PROSPERO registration No. CRD42019125138.

13.
J Food Prot ; 82(8): 1278-1282, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298570

RESUMEN

Proper membrane fluidity is maintained by adjusting the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and the control of membrane fluidity plays an important role in bacterial adaptation to stress. Adaptability to these stresses involves survival and colonization of bacteria, thus contributing to bacterial contamination in food. UFAs are synthesized by FabAB- and Des-mediated pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Therefore, in this study, the roles of UFA-synthesizing proteins of P. aeruginosa in resistance to stresses were examined. The growth and transcription levels of wild-type (WT) P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its mutants were compared. The growth of all strains was inhibited by exposure to 0.5 or 1.0 M sodium chloride, but it was not affected by oxidative or pH stress. In particular, growth was impaired more substantially in the desB mutant than in the WT strain and other mutants, suggesting that DesB has a role in response to salt stress. A comparative transcriptional analysis showed that genes involved in the synthesis of osmoprotectants (trehalose, N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide, and hydrophilin) were highly expressed in WT P. aeruginosa in response to high salt, but they were rarely expressed in the desB mutant. Furthermore, decreases in osmoprotectant production by the desB mutant were partially complemented by the addition of betaine. These results indicate that P. aeruginosa DesB contributes to adaptation to high salinity by positively regulating the synthesis of osmoprotectants.

15.
J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc ; : 1078390319858658, 2019 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253067

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use among adolescents remains a major public health concern, which is correlated with mortality. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to (1) examine risk factors predisposing adolescents to substance use and (2) identify patterns of simultaneous drug exploration among adolescents. METHOD: Data (N = 15,624; collected in 2015) were drawn from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which is a national school-based survey of 9th- to 12th-grade students to monitor health risk behaviors. Substance use was assessed using self-reported questionnaires, and latent class analysis and logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Five latent patterns of substance use were identified: (1) abstinent (64%); (2) 1st-step social experimenter (25%) (i.e., used alcohol, e-cigarettes, and/or marijuana); (3) 2nd-step social experimenter (6%) (i.e., used alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, marijuana, synthetic marijuana, and/or prescription pills); (4) pill experimenter (4%), (i.e., used prescription pills); (5) full experimenter (2%) (i.e., likely to use all assessed substances). Gender, race, grade, and depressive mood were strong predictors of membership in a particular substance use class. CONCLUSION: Adolescents presenting for care may possess symptoms associated with various substances beyond those being managed. Mental health nurses can leverage these results in reducing adolescent substance use through primary and secondary prevention. A longitudinal study of not only substance use patterns but also the progression to substance use disorders among adolescents is warranted.

16.
Crit Care Med ; 47(9): 1243-1250, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135496

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of including critical care pharmacists in multidisciplinary ICU teams on clinical outcomes including mortality, ICU length of stay, and adverse drug events. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and references from previous relevant systematic studies. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies that reported clinical outcomes such as mortality, ICU length of stay, and adverse drug events in groups with and without critical care pharmacist interventions. DATA EXTRACTION: We extracted study details, patient characteristics, and clinical outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: From the 4,725 articles identified as potentially eligible, 14 were included in the analysis. Intervention of critical care pharmacists as part of the multidisciplinary ICU team care was significantly associated with the reduced likelihood of mortality (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73-0.83; p < 0.00001) compared with no intervention. The mean difference in ICU length of stay was -1.33 days (95% CI, -1.75 to -0.90 d; p < 0.00001) for mixed ICUs. The reduction of adverse drug event prevalence was also significantly associated with multidisciplinary team care involving pharmacist intervention (odds ratio for preventable and nonpreventable adverse drug events, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44; p < 0.00001 and odds ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.77; p = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Including critical care pharmacists in the multidisciplinary ICU team improved patient outcomes including mortality, ICU length of stay in mixed ICUs, and preventable/nonpreventable adverse drug events.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(28): 9470-9474, 2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069937

RESUMEN

The ruthenium(II)-catalyzed C-H functionalization of (hetero)aryl azomethine imines with allylic acetals is described. The initial formation of allylidene(methyl)oxoniums from allylic acetals could trigger C(sp2 )-H allylation, and subsequent endo-type [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition of polar azomethine fragments to deliver valuable indenopyrazolopyrazolones. The utility of this method is showcased by the late-stage functionalization of bioactive molecules such as estrone and celecoxib. Combined experimental and computational investigations elucidate a plausible mechanism of this new tandem reaction. Notably, the reductive transformation of synthesized compounds into biologically relevant diazocine frameworks highlights the importance of the developed methodology.

18.
Microb Pathog ; 134: 103537, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145980

RESUMEN

Poultry meat is a major vector for Campylobacter jejuni foodborne illness. Since C. jejuni is microaerophillic, the cell counts gradually decreased during distribution and display under aerobic condition. However, if the pathogen can resist to aerobic condition, it may cause serious problem in food safety. This study determined the aerotolerance of C. jejuni isolated from poultry and the risk of the aerotolerant C. jejuni strains. Fourteen C. jejuni strains isolated from poultry were subjected to aerobic condition in a shaking incubator at 500 rpm and 37 °C. The cell counts of C. jejuni strains were enumerated on modified CCDA-Preston at 0, 24, 72 and 120 h, and the strains, having reduction less than 2 Log CFU/mL for 120 h were determined as aerotolerant C. jejuni strain. Non-aerotolerant and aerotolerant C. jejuni strains were then incubated at 4 °C under aerobic condition to compare the growth between aerotolerant and non-aerotolerant strains. In addition, transcriptomes for virulence and stress response genes (cadF, cdtB, ciaB, clpP and htrB) were compared between non-aerotolerant and aerotolerant C. jejuni strains. Among 14 C. jejuni strains, seven strains (50%) showed less than 2-Log CFU/mL reduction at 37 °C after 24 h, and five strains of them still showed less than 2-Log CFU/mL reduction after 48 h. Especially, C. jejuni SMFM2015-Du7 and C. jejuni SMFM2014-Du16 were still survived after 120 h under aerobic condition, which were then determined as aerotolerant C. jejuni. However, at 4 °C under aerobic condition, there were no significant differences in the reduction of C. jejuni cell counts and virulence gene expressions between non-aerotolerant (C. jejuni SMFM2014-Du8) and aerotolerant strains (C. jejuni SMFM2015-Du7 and C. jejuni SMFM2014-Du16) except for stress response gene (htrB). These results indicate that there are aerotolerant C. jejuni strains, but their risk is similar to non-aerotolerant C. jejuni strains at 4 °C under aerobic condition, which is distribution and storage condition for poultry meat. Therefore, additional food safety management for the aerotolerant C. jejuni is not necessary.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiología , Manipulación de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Aves de Corral/microbiología , Aerobiosis , Animales , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/aislamiento & purificación , Pollos , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Aditivos Alimentarios , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Carne/microbiología , Oxígeno , Virulencia/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética
19.
Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) ; 13(2): 147-153, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003005

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore psychological distress and examine the relationship between this distress and individual, family, and school factors among adolescents in four low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) in Asia (i.e., Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka). METHODS: A total of 4,098 adolescents attending public schools in the four LAMICs were surveyed as part of the Healthy School Development Project, which aimed to develop school capacity for improving (1) health among all school members and (2) the school environment through tailored school health programs. Psychological distress, family factors (i.e., parental understanding and monitoring, and parental tobacco and alcohol use), and school factors (i.e., having close friends, not bullied, school attendance, and health education) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Data were collected from September to November in 2012 and 2013. Data analysis comprised descriptive statistics, Chi-squared testing, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Over half of the participants were women (53.2%-64.1%), and 33.7% (in Sri Lanka) to 53.8% (in Laos) were aged older than 15 years. Approximately 32.9% reported the presence of psychological distress; moreover, 7.9%-13.2% reported suicidal ideation. Parental monitoring and being bullied were associated with psychological distress in all four countries. CONCLUSION: One-third of adolescents experience psychological distress across these four LAMICs, which poses a substantial public health issue. Adolescents can benefit from family and school-based approaches for screening, ameliorating, and preventing psychological distress.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adolescente , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Laos/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mongolia/epidemiología , Nepal/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Ideación Suicida
20.
Opt Lett ; 44(8): 2097-2100, 2019 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985820

RESUMEN

We develop a new noise suppression technique to perform distributed strain and temperature sensing based on a higher-speed configuration of Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry even when a polymer optical fiber (POF) is used as a sensing fiber. We acquire the spectral difference between with and without reference light, leading to selective observation of the beat signal of Brillouin-scattered light and reference light, which is effective for distributed sensing. After experimentally showing the usefulness of this technique, we demonstrate POF-based distributed temperature sensing and dynamic strain sensing.

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