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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539720

RESUMEN

A concerning development during the coronavirus disease pandemic has been multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Reports of this condition in East Asia have been limited. In South Korea, 3 cases were reported to the national surveillance system for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. All case-patients were hospitalized and survived with no major disease sequelae.

2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(5): e45, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527787

RESUMEN

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0-18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Atención Domiciliaria de Salud , Aislamiento de Pacientes/métodos , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Cooperación del Paciente , Seúl/epidemiología
3.
Ecol Food Nutr ; : 1-17, 2021 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459056

RESUMEN

In this qualitative study, the focus is on healthy eating in children from low-income families who visit a Community Child Care center (CCC) in South Korea. Barriers for healthy eating were identified using focus group interviews with low-income overweight and obese children and their caregivers and applying a social ecological model as well as the framework analysis for qualitative data. The need for theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions is indicated, at the level of the family, but also at the level of collaboration among all stakeholders, as well as multi-level policy changes.

4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(3): e22, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463096

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a skin disease characterized by blistering and desquamation caused by exfoliative toxins (ETs) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Although many countries show predominance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been reported. METHODS: Twenty-six children aged <15 years diagnosed with SSSS from January 2010 to December 2017 from three hospitals were included. S. aureus isolates from cases were analyzed for multilocus sequence types and ETs. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of S. aureus. RESULTS: Among the 26 cases, mean age was 2.3 years. According to skin manifestations patients were classified as generalized (n = 10, 38.5%), intermediate (n = 11, 42.3%), and abortive (n = 5, 19.2%). Among all cases, 96.2% (25/26) were due to MRSA and the macrolide-resistance rate was 92.3% (24/26). ST89 (n = 21, 80.8%) was the most prevalent clone, followed by single clones of ST1, ST5, ST72, ST121, and ST1507. The eta gene was detected in one (3.8%) isolate which was MSSA. The etb gene was detected in 14 (53.8%) isolates, all of which were ST89. Nafcillin or first-generation cephalosporin was most commonly prescribed (n=20, 76.9%). Vancomycin was administered in four patients (15.4%) and clindamycin in nine patients (34.6%). Among MRSA cases, there was no difference in duration of treatment when comparing the use of antimicrobials to which the causative bacteria were susceptible or non-susceptible (9.75 vs. 8.07 days, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: S. aureus isolated from children with SSSS in Korea demonstrated a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant ST89 clones that harbored the etb gene. The predominance of MRSA suggests that antibiotics to which MRSA are susceptible may be considered for empirical antibiotic treatment in children with SSSS in Korea. Further studies on the role and effectiveness of systemic antibiotics in SSSS are warranted.

5.
Langmuir ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434026

RESUMEN

Defects such as oxygen vacancy in the nanostructures have paramount importance in tuning the optical and electronic properties of a metal oxide. Here we report the growth of oxygen deficit tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanorods modified with ruthenium oxide (RuO2) using a simple and economical hydrothermal approach for energy storage application. In this work, a novel approach of hybridizing the W18O49 nanostructure with RuO2 to control the electrochemical performance for energy storage applications has been proposed. The result displays that the hybridization of the nanostructures plays an important role in yielding high specific capacitance of the electrode material. Due to the augmentation of W18O49 and RuO2 nanostructures, the galvanostatic charging and discharging (GCD) mechanism exhibited the transformation from the battery type characteristics of W18O49 into the typical pseudocapacitor feature of hybrid architect nanostructure due to defect creations. The electrochemical measurement of hybrid nanomaterial shows the doubling of specific capacitance to 1126 F/g and 1050 F/g in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and GCD, respectively, in comparison with W18O49 and RuO2 and earlier reports. The enhancement in the stability performance up to 3000 cycles of hybrid is indebted to the stable nature of W18O49 and the high conductivity of RuO2.

6.
J Immunother ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512855

RESUMEN

The promising immunotherapy effects of a multiple antigenic peptide on glioblastoma (GBM) in a previous study encourage the use of adjuvants to enhance its therapeutic efficacy. Among adjuvants, pan HLA-DR-binding epitope (PADRE) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD1) have potentially been tested for cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, here we evaluated the ability of PADRE and anti-PD1 to enhance the function of the branched multipeptide against GBM. The potential utility of tumor-associated antigens (ErbB-2 and WT-1) targeting GBM with HLA-A24 was confirmed and a branched multipeptide was constructed from these antigens. The effects of the branched multipeptide and PADRE on immunophenotyping and polarized Th cytokine production in dendritic cells were clarified. The expression of PD1 on T cells and PDL1 on GBM cells was also investigated. The interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and lactate dehydrogenase release assays were performed to determine the function of GBM peptide antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells against GBM cells. Overall, this study showed that both ErbB-2 and WT-1 are potential candidates for branched multipeptide construction. The branched multipeptide and PADRE enhanced the expression of major histocompatibility complex and co-stimulatory molecules and the production of polarized Th1 cytokines in dendritic cells. The increase in the number of interferon-γ+ effector T cells was consistent with the increase in the percentage specific lysis of GBM target cells by GBM peptide antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells in the presence of the branched multipeptide, PADRE, and anti-PD1. Our study suggests the combination of branched multipeptide and adjuvants such as PADRE and anti-PD1 can potentially enhance the effects of immunotherapy for GBM treatment.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256891

RESUMEN

We explored transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among 12 children and their uninfected guardians in hospital isolation rooms in South Korea. We found that, even with close frequent contact, guardians who used appropriate personal protective equipment were not infected by children with diagnosed coronavirus disease.

8.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275442

RESUMEN

To develop thermoelectric devices, it is of the utmost importance to design organic building blocks to have efficient thermopower. Whereas conjugated and aromatic molecules with intrinsic narrow band gaps are attractive candidates to achieve efficient thermoelectric properties, saturated molecules are usually avoided owing to intrinsically poor thermopower. Here we demonstrate that thermopower of saturated molecules can be enhanced by superexchange coupling. Specifically, thermoelectric properties of large-area junctions that contain self-assembled monolayers of oligo(ethylene glycol) thiolates and alkanethiolates are compared. Through large-area thermopower measurements using a liquid metal top electrode, we show that the superexchange coupling enhances the Seebeck coefficient and counterintuitively leads to an increase in the Seebeck coefficient with increasing the length in a certain conformation. The improved thermoelectric performance is attributed to the superexchange-induced enhanced ability to mediate metal wave function in junctions. Our work offers new insights for improving the thermoelectric performance of nonconjugated, saturated molecules.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287343

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus that quickly spread worldwide, resulting in a global pandemic. Healthcare professionals coming into close contact with COVID-19 patients experience mental health issues, including stress, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. This study aimed to explore the experiences of COVID-19-designated hospital nurses in South Korea who provided care for patients based on their lived experiences. Eighteen nurses working in a COVID-19-designated hospital completed in-depth individual telephone interviews between July and September 2020, and the data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological methodology. The essential structure of the phenomenon was growth after the frontline battle against an infectious disease pandemic. Nine themes were identified: Pushed onto the Battlefield Without Any Preparation, Struggling on the Frontline, Altered Daily Life, Low Morale, Unexpectedly Long War, Ambivalence Toward Patients, Forces that Keep Me Going, Giving Meaning to My Work, and Taking Another Step in One's Growth. The nurses who cared for patients with COVID-19 had both negative and positive experiences, including post-traumatic growth. These findings could be used as basic data for establishing hospital systems and policies to support frontline nurses coping with infectious disease control to increase their adaption and positive experiences.

10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(47): e402, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289369

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Korea is one of the countries with the highest rate of suicide, while suicidality is known to be closely related to mental illnesses. The study aimed to evaluate the suicide rates in psychiatric patients, to compare it to that of the general population, and to investigate the differences among psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidities. METHODS: Medical records and mortality statistics of psychiatric patients at Seoul National University Hospital from 2003 to 2017 were reviewed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide was calculated to compare the psychiatric patients with the general population. The diagnosis-specific standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were adjusted by age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidity (i.e., personality disorder and/or pain disorder). RESULTS: A total of 40,692 survivors or non-suicidal deaths and 597 suicidal death were included. The suicide rate among psychiatric patients was 5.13-fold higher than that of the general population. Psychotic disorder had the highest SMR (13.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.23-15.03), followed by bipolar disorder (10.26; 95% CI, 7.97-13.00) and substance-related disorder (6.78; 95% CI, 4.14-10.47). In survival analysis, psychotic disorder had the highest HR (4.16; 95% CI, 2.86-6.05), which was further increased with younger age, male sex, and comorbidity of personality disorder. CONCLUSION: All psychiatric patients are at a higher risk of suicide compared to the general population, and the risk is highest for those diagnosed with psychotic disorder.

11.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263358

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate ultrasound (US) features of enlarged cervical lymph nodes (LNs) to differentiate between Kikuchi disease (KD) and other common types of infectious lymphadenitis in an East Asian pediatric patient population. METHODS: A total of 142 pediatric patients with KD and 45 patients with infectious lymphadenitis (suppurative lymphadenitis [n = 29], nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis [n = 9], and tuberculous lymphadenitis [n = 7]) were included. The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and US features of LNs were reviewed. The area under the curve (AUC) from a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used as a diagnostic accuracy measure. RESULTS: A multiple clustered adjacent pattern, bilaterality, an even size, posterior neck involvement, no enlargement, an elongated-to-ovoid shape, homogeneous hypoechogenicity, a well-defined margin, presence of an echogenic fatty hilum, no intranodal gross necrosis, increased perinodal fat echogenicity, and no increased echogenicity of the adjacent sternocleidomastoid muscle were significant US features of the affected LNs to discriminate KD from infectious lymphadenitis (P < .05). Homogeneous hypoechogenicity in KD showed the highest AUC (0.930) as a single variable (95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.96). The AUCs were increased in 3 combination models with 2 US features: homogeneous echogenicity and 1 of 3 other US features (increased perinodal fat echogenicity, 0.935; number of affected LNs, 0.947; and LN shape, 0.949). CONCLUSIONS: Homogeneous hypoechogenicity of LNs was a significant US feature with the highest diagnostic accuracy in differentiating KD from common infectious lymphadenitis on a univariate analysis. In the combination model, US features of an elongated-to-ovoid shape and homogeneous hypoechogenicity showed the highest diagnostic accuracy.

12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339282

RESUMEN

Monitoring regional antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens are important for deciding suitable empirical antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This study aimed to investigate regional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in children below 24 months old, diagnosed with their first episode of UTI, and to find factors associated with an increased risk for UTI caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogens. This was a retrospective cohort study of children diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in four different hospitals located in four different regions of South Korea; regions A, B, C, and D. The government's big data repository was used to acquire data on regional antibiotic prescriptions. The pooled antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (n = 2044) were as follows: ampicillin-sulbactam (61.0%), 3rd generation cephalosporin (3C) (82.8%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (72.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that children diagnosed at hospital A (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6; P = 0.002) and every year that increased in the study period (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P < 0.001) were factors associated with an increased risk for UTIs with ESBL-producers. Regions A and B had significantly higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed compared to regions C and D (P = 0.009), which correlate with hospitals in the regions that had higher proportions of UTIs with ESBL-producing uropathogens (A and B vs. C and D, P < 0.001). Therefore, children in certain regions are at a higher risk for UTIs caused by ESBL-producers compared to other regions, which correlate with regions that had higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 280(Pt A): 203-210, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have identified the risk factors for suicide, the absence of a statistical model that integrates several risk areas makes it difficult to understand the abnormally high suicide rate in South Korea. Therefore, we aimed to establish a multidimensional structural equation model of suicide incorporating socio-cultural and psychiatric factors. We performed cross-national comparisons to identify the unique factors influencing South Korea's suicide rate. METHODS: We conducted a web survey inviting adults aged 20- to 59-years from South Korea, Japan, and the United States to respond to questionnaires. A total of 2,213 subjects were included. We then developed a structural equation model, exhibiting a good fit in all countries. RESULTS: A permissive attitude was the factor that most strongly predicted the intensity of suicidal ideation in all countries. In South Korea, a low income was directly associated with both permissive attitude and the intensity of suicidal ideation. South Korea's highly fatalistic attitude related to more receptive attitudes toward suicide. Individual's resilience to stress provided significant protection against suicidal ideation in the United States and Japan, but not in South Korea. LIMITATIONS: Since our sample excluded adults over 60 years, thus reducing the generalizability of our results. Furthermore, we employed a cross-sectional design; a longitudinal study is needed to draw causal inferences about suicidal death CONCLUSIONS: This study developed the first multidimensional, integrated statistical model of suicidal ideation. Our findings explain the causes of South Korea's high suicide rate and can be used to develop new interventions.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18951, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144687

RESUMEN

Predicting the prognosis of pancreatic cancer is important because of the very low survival rates of patients with this particular cancer. Although several studies have used microRNA and gene expression profiles and clinical data, as well as images of tissues and cells, to predict cancer survival and recurrence, the accuracies of these approaches in the prediction of high-risk pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) still need to be improved. Accordingly, in this study, we proposed two biological features based on multi-omics datasets to predict survival and recurrence among patients with PAAD. First, the clonal expansion of cancer cells with somatic mutations was used to predict prognosis. Using whole-exome sequencing data from 134 patients with PAAD from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found five candidate genes that were mutated in the early stages of tumorigenesis with high cellular prevalence (CP). CDKN2A, TP53, TTN, KCNJ18, and KRAS had the highest CP values among the patients with PAAD, and survival and recurrence rates were significantly different between the patients harboring mutations in these candidate genes and those harboring mutations in other genes (p = 2.39E-03, p = 8.47E-04, respectively). Second, we generated an autoencoder to integrate the RNA sequencing, microRNA sequencing, and DNA methylation data from 134 patients with PAAD from TCGA. The autoencoder robustly reduced the dimensions of these multi-omics data, and the K-means clustering method was then used to cluster the patients into two subgroups. The subgroups of patients had significant differences in survival and recurrence (p = 1.41E-03, p = 4.43E-04, respectively). Finally, we developed a prediction model for prognosis using these two biological features and clinical data. When support vector machines, random forest, logistic regression, and L2 regularized logistic regression were used as prediction models, logistic regression analysis generally revealed the best performance for both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (accuracy [ACC] = 0.762 and area under the curve [AUC] = 0.795 for DFS; ACC = 0.776 and AUC = 0.769 for OS). Thus, we could classify patients with a high probability of recurrence and at a high risk of poor outcomes. Our study provides insights into new personalized therapies on the basis of mutation status and multi-omics data.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2588-2596, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138739

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT As another wave of COVID-19 outbreak has approached in July 2020, a larger scale COVID-19 pediatric Asian cohort summarizing the clinical observations is warranted. Children confirmed with COVID-19 infection from the Republic of Korea, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and Wuhan, China, during their first waves of local outbreaks were included. Their clinical characteristics and the temporal sequences of the first waves of local paediatric outbreaks were compared. Four hundred and twenty three children with COVID-19 were analyzed. Wuhan had the earliest peak, followed by Korea and HKSAR. Compared with Korea and Wuhan, patients in HKSAR were significantly older (mean age: 12.9 vs. 10.8 vs. 6.6 years, p < 0.001, respectively) and had more imported cases (87.5% vs. 16.5% vs. 0%, p < 0.001, respectively). The imported cases were also older (13.4 vs. 7.6 years, p < 0.001). More cases in HKSAR were asymptomatic compared to Korea and Wuhan (45.5% vs. 22.0% vs. 20.9%, p < 0.001, respectively), and significantly more patients from Wuhan developed fever (40.6% vs. 29.7% vs. 21.6%, p=0.003, respectively). There were significantly less imported cases than domestic cases developing fever after adjusting for age and region of origin (p = 0.046). 5.4% to 10.8% of patients reported anosmia and ageusia. None developed pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PMIS-TS). In general, adolescents were more likely to be asymptomatic and less likely to develop fever, but required longer hospital stays. In conclusion, majority patients in this pediatric Asian cohort had a mild disease. None developed PIMS-TS. Their clinical characteristics were influenced by travel history and age.

16.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872335

RESUMEN

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been implicated in neuroinflammation, and therapies targeting MAO are of interest for neurodegenerative diseases. The small-molecule drug tranylcypromine, an inhibitor of MAO, is currently used as an antidepressant and in the treatment of cancer. However, whether tranylcypromine can regulate LPS- and/or Aß-induced neuroinflammation in the brain has not been well-studied. In the present study, we found that tranylcypromine selectively altered LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine levels in BV2 microglial cells but not primary astrocytes. In addition, tranylcypromine modulated LPS-mediated TLR4/ERK/STAT3 signaling to alter neuroinflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells. Importantly, tranylcypromine significantly reduced microglial activation as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in LPS-injected wild-type mice. Moreover, injection of tranylcypromine in 5xFAD mice (a mouse model of AD) significantly decreased microglial activation but had smaller effects on astrocyte activation. Taken together, our results suggest that tranylcypromine can suppress LPS- and Aß-induced neuroinflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo.

17.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 160: 575-595, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896600

RESUMEN

Regulating amyloid beta (Aß) pathology and neuroinflammatory responses holds promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative and/or neuroinflammation-related diseases. In this study, the effects of KVN93, an inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase-1A (DYRK1A), on cognitive function and Aß plaque levels and the underlying mechanism of action were evaluated in 5x FAD mice (a mouse model of AD). KVN93 treatment significantly improved long-term memory by enhancing dendritic synaptic function. In addition, KVN93 significantly reduced Aß plaque levels in 5x FAD mice by regulating levels of the Aß degradation enzymes neprilysin (NEP) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). Moreover, Aß-induced microglial and astrocyte activation were significantly suppressed in the KVN-treated 5xFAD mice. KVN93 altered neuroinflammation induced by LPS in microglial cells but not primary astrocytes by regulating TLR4/AKT/STAT3 signaling, and in wild-type mice injected with LPS, KVN93 treatment reduced microglial and astrocyte activation. Overall, these results suggest that the novel DYRK1A inhibitor KVN93 is a potential therapeutic drug for regulating cognitive/synaptic function, Aß plaque load, and neuroinflammatory responses in the brain.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989244

RESUMEN

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) gamma 8 (Gng8) is a subunit of G proteins and expressed in the medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Recent studies have demonstrated that Gng8 is involved in brain development; however, the roles of Gng8 on cognitive function have not yet been addressed. In the present study, we investigated the expression of Gng8 in the brain and found that Gng8 was predominantly expressed in the MHb-IPN circuit of the mouse brain. We generated Gng8 knockout (KO) mice by CRISPR/Cas9 system in order to assess the role of Gng8 on cognitive function. Gng8 KO mice exhibited deficiency in learning and memory in passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. In addition, Gng8 KO mice significantly reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, we observed that levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the MHb and IPN of Gng8 KO mice were significantly decreased, compared to WT mice. The administration of nAChR α4ß2 agonist A85380 rescued memory impairment in the Gng8 KO mice, suggesting that Gng8 regulates cognitive function via modulation of cholinergic activity. Taken together, Gng8 is a potential therapeutic target for memory-related diseases and/or neurodevelopmental diseases.

19.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 131, 2020 09 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977842

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by Aß accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation. Epidemiological evidence for a negative correlation between cancer and AD has led to the proposed use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as dasatinib and masitinib for AD, with reported beneficial effects in the AD brain. The TKI vatalanib inhibits angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Although changes in VEGF and VEGFR have been documented in AD, the effect of vatalanib on AD pathology has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of vatalanib on tau phosphorylation and Aß accumulation in 5xFAD mice, a model of AD, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Vatalanib administration significantly reduced tau phosphorylation at AT8 and AT100 by increasing p-GSK-3ß (Ser9) in 5xFAD mice. In addition, vatalanib reduced the number and area of Aß plaques in the cortex in 5xFAD mice. Our results suggest that vatalanib has potential as a regulator of AD pathology.

20.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 91: 104241, 2020 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882587

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the types of healthcare intervention programs offered to patients with multimorbidity and their effects on key psychosocial factors. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched databases like Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL RISS, KISS, etc. for studies published between January 1, 2009, and April 30, 2019. In total, 8,248 studies in English or Korean were reviewed. We included only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies that applied healthcare interventions and had major effects on the psychosocial factors in adult patients with multimorbidity. Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3 version to estimate the effect size. RESULTS: We identified six randomized controlled trials and 1446 subjects were enrolled. The results reveal that healthcare interventions have an effect on self-rated health (SMD = 0.53 95 % CI: 0.26, 0.79, p < .001), reducing anxiety (SMD = -0.19 95 % CI: -0.36, -0.01, p = .030) and depression (SMD = -0.27 95 % CI: -0.44, -0.10, p = .002), and improving self-efficacy (SMD = 0.21 95 % CI: 0.06, 0.35, p = .005) for patients with multimorbidity. However, there was no significant effect on quality of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare interventions had significant positive effects on self-rated health, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy of patients with multimorbidity. These results are expected to serve as basic data for the development of a community-based integrated healthcare intervention program and health policy, especially for the vulnerable older population with multimorbidity.

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