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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 919-927, 2019 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633675


CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical partners are investigating a multistate outbreak of lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, products. In late August, CDC released recommendations for health care providers regarding e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) based on limited data from the first reported cases (1,2). This report summarizes national surveillance data describing clinical features of more recently reported cases and interim recommendations based on these data for U.S. health care providers caring for patients with suspected or known EVALI. It provides interim guidance for 1) initial clinical evaluation; 2) suggested criteria for hospital admission and treatment; 3) patient follow-up; 4) special considerations for groups at high risk; and 5) clinical and public health recommendations. Health care providers evaluating patients suspected to have EVALI should ask about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products in a nonjudgmental and thorough manner. Patients suspected to have EVALI should have a chest radiograph (CXR), and hospital admission is recommended for patients who have decreased blood oxygen (O2) saturation (<95%) on room air or who are in respiratory distress. Health care providers should consider empiric use of a combination of antibiotics, antivirals, or steroids based upon clinical context. Evidence-based tobacco product cessation strategies, including behavioral counseling, are recommended to help patients discontinue use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products. To reduce the risk of recurrence, patients who have been treated for EVALI should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products. CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). At present, CDC recommends persons consider refraining from using e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain nicotine. Irrespective of the ongoing investigation, e-cigarette, or vaping, products should never be used by youths, young adults, or women who are pregnant. Persons who do not currently use tobacco products should not start using e-cigarette, or vaping, products.

Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Lesión Pulmonar/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
Am J Public Health ; 109(S4): S322-S324, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505153


Objectives. To show how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pandemic Vaccine Campaign Planning Tool (PanVax Tool) can help state and local public health emergency planners demonstrate and quantify how partnerships with community vaccine providers can improve their overall pandemic vaccination program readiness.Methods. The PanVax Tool helps planners compare different strategies to vaccinate their jurisdiction's population in a severe pandemic by allowing users to customize the underlying model inputs in real time, including their jurisdiction's size, community vaccine provider types, and how they allocate vaccine to these providers. In this report, we used a case study with hypothetical data to illustrate how jurisdictions can utilize the PanVax Tool for preparedness planning.Results. By using the tool, planners are able to understand the impact of engaging with different vaccine providers in a vaccination campaign.Conclusions. The PanVax Tool is a useful tool to help demonstrate the impact of community vaccine provider partnerships on pandemic vaccination readiness and identify areas for improved partnerships for pandemic response.

Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(7): 1647-1653, 2018 07 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451833


In an influenza pandemic, two vaccine doses administered 21 days apart may be needed for individuals of all ages to achieve seroprotection. Achieving dose-series completion can be challenging even for routinely recommended vaccines. To prepare for a two-dose influenza pandemic vaccine campaign and promote dose-series completion and correct dosing intervals, CDC and its partners developed a text message-based vaccine reminder system to remind persons who receive a first dose of pandemic influenza vaccine to receive the second dose. Taking advantage of the high prevalence of cell phones in the United States, the system sent second-dose text message reminders and hyperlinks to educational information. The system was pilot tested from November 2015 to April 2016 among graduate public health students enrolled at four United States universities. Universities were selected based on convenience, and each university used a different recruitment method. Among 59 volunteers who pilot tested the system and completed a survey, 57 (92%) felt the system would be helpful during a pandemic. Forty (68%) respondents felt the information included in the messages was informative. Volunteers recommended including actionable ways to stay healthy during a pandemic, though specific suggestions varied. With further development, text reminder systems could be used to promote adherence to a two-dose regimen in a future pandemic, although audience-specific messaging and other complementary systems will likely be needed. Public and private partners can adapt and implement this tool in conjunction with their routine patient information systems to improve dose-series completion and ensure optimal protection during an influenza pandemic.

Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Sistemas Recordatorios/instrumentación , Mensaje de Texto , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Teléfono Celular , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Proyectos Piloto , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 23(6): 608-613, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28125540


OBJECTIVE: To describe the current use of obstetric practice Web sites to disseminate Zika virus information to patients. DESIGN: Review of 913 randomly selected practice Web sites and associated social media accounts in January and August 2016. SETTING: Obstetric practice Web sites and associated social media accounts, United States of America. PARTICIPANTS: N/A. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of obstetric practice Web sites and linked social media accounts providing Zika virus information. RESULTS: Twenty-five percent and 35% of obstetric practice Web sites had information posted about Zika virus in January 2016 and August 2016, respectively. Between the 2 time points, the proportion of practices posting Zika virus content on Facebook and Twitter declined (Facebook: 15% in January, 9% in August; Twitter: 12% in January, 8% in August). In August, the most frequently observed Zika virus-related content themes were the use of insect repellent (14%) and travel advisories (14%). At both time points, practices affiliated with large university hospitals were more likely to have posted information on Zika virus than independent OB/GYN-only practices: January: odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 5.68 (3.50-9.20); August: OR (95% CI) = 8.37 (5.31-13.17). Similarly, practices associated with nonuniversity hospitals were more likely to have posted information than independent OB/GYN-only practices: January: OR (95% CI) = 2.71 (1.88-3.92); August: OR (95% CI) = 6.75 (4.75-9.60). CONCLUSION: Obstetric care practices are not fully utilizing their practice Web sites to relay Zika virus information to their patients. Since practitioner-sponsored Web sites have the capacity to directly reach the populations at greatest risk for Zika virus complications, public health professionals should consider adapting their materials and provider outreach campaigns to more easily accommodate Web site-based information dissemination during this type of public health emergency. There must be greater recognition of the value information gains in the eyes of the patient when it is validated by their own provider, especially when that patient is part of the highest-risk population for a given emergency. Public health organizations should strive to minimize the burden it takes for providers to relay useful resources to patients in order to maximize the impact that those resources can have.

Obstetricia/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Virus Zika/patogenicidad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Obstetricia/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/normas , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(16): 5049-56, 2016 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342555


UNLABELLED: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC, and food or water contaminated with cattle feces is the most common source of infections in humans. Consequently, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,096 cattle in six dairy herds (n = 718 animals) and five beef herds (n = 378 animals) in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to identify epidemiological factors associated with shedding. Fecal samples were obtained from each animal and cultured for STEC. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with STEC positivity. The prevalence of STEC was higher in beef cattle (21%) than dairy cattle (13%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 2.47), with considerable variation occurring across herds (range, 6% to 54%). Dairy cattle were significantly more likely to shed STEC when the average temperature was >28.9°C 1 to 5 days prior to sampling (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.25, 4.91), during their first lactation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), and when they were <30 days in milk (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.2). These data suggest that the stress or the negative energy balance associated with lactation may result in increased STEC shedding frequencies in Michigan during the warm summer months. Future prevention strategies aimed at reducing stress during lactation or isolating high-risk animals could be implemented to reduce herd-level shedding levels and avoid transmission of STEC to susceptible animals and people. IMPORTANCE: STEC shedding frequencies vary considerably across cattle herds in Michigan, and the shedding frequency of strains belonging to non-O157 serotypes far exceeds the shedding frequency of O157 strains, which is congruent with human infections in the state. Dairy cattle sampled at higher temperatures, in their first lactation, and early in the milk production stage were significantly more likely to shed STEC, which could be due to stress or a negative energy balance. Future studies should focus on the isolation of high-risk animals to decrease herd shedding levels and the potential for contamination of the food supply.

Derrame de Bacterias , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Industria Lechera , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Michigan/epidemiología , Prevalencia