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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 32, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422080

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020. METHODS: The PRISMA-P and PRISMA statements were adopted in the inclusion of studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of P. falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfatp6, Pfcytb and Pfk13). The heterogeneity of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The random effects model was used as standard in the determination of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Out of the 902 records screened, 48 studies were included in this aggregated meta-analysis of molecular data. A total of 18,706 SNPs of the anti-malarial drug resistance genes were genotyped from 47,382 samples which yielded a pooled prevalence of 35.4% (95% CI 29.1-42.3%). Between 1998 and 2020, there was significant decline (P < 0.0001 for all) in key mutants including Pfcrt 76 T (79.9%-43.0%), Pfmdr1 86Y (82.7%-30.5%), Pfdhfr 51I (72.2%-66.9%), Pfdhfr 59R (76.5%-67.8%), Pfdhfr 108 N (80.8%-67.6%). The only exception was Pfdhps 437G which increased over time (30.4%-46.9%, P < 0.0001) and Pfdhps 540E that remained largely unchanged (0.0%-0.4%, P = 0.201). Exploring mutant haplotypes, the study observed a significant increase in the prevalence of Pfcrt CVIET mixed quintuple haplotype from 57.1% in 1998 to 57.9% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). In addition, within the same study period, there was no significant change in the triple Pfdhfr IRN mutant haplotype (66.2% to 67.3%, P = 0.427). The Pfk13 amino acid polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This review reported an overall decline in the prevalence of P. falciparum gene mutations conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and amino alcohols for a period over two decades. Resistance to artemisinins measured by the presence of SNPs in the Pfk13 gene does not seem to be a problem in Cameroon. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020162620.

2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 402: 115127, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622917

RESUMEN

Pregnant women are one of the most susceptible and vulnerable groups to malaria, the most important parasitic disease worldwide. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in all population groups including pregnant women. However, due to the embryotoxicity observed in animal studies, ACTs have long been contraindicated during the first trimester in pregnant women. Despite the safety concerns raised in pre-clinical studies, recent findings on ACTs's use in pregnant women appear to be reassuring regarding safety and have prompted a revision of malaria treatment guidelines for first trimester of pregnancy. To contribute to the risk-benefit assessment of ACTs, we conducted a systematic literature review of animal studies published between 2007 and 2019, which evaluated the embryotoxic effects of artemisinin and its derivatives among pregnant mammals. Eighteen experimental studies fitted the inclusion criteria. These studies confirmed and further characterized the severe embryolethal and embryotoxic dose-dependent effects of artemisinin and its derivatives when administered during the organogenesis period in rats, rabbits and monkeys. Timing of administration and dosage of the drug were found to be key factors in the appearance of embryo damage. Overall, the translation of the findings of artemisinin derivatives use in animal studies to pregnant women remains disturbing. Thus, a policy change in the use of ACTs during the first trimester in pregnant women for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria does not seem pertinent and if implemented, it should be accompanied by solid pharmacovigilance systems, which are challenging to establish in malaria endemic countries.

5.
Malar J ; 19(1): 172, 2020 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362282

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effectiveness of improved housing on indoor residual mosquito density and exposure to infected Anophelines in Minkoameyos, a rural community in southern forested Cameroon. METHODS: Following the identification of housing factors affecting malaria prevalence in 2013, 218 houses were improved by screening the doors and windows, installing plywood ceilings on open eaves and closing holes on walls and doors. Monthly entomological surveys were conducted in a sample of 21 improved and 21 non-improved houses from November 2014 to October 2015. Mosquitoes sampled from night collections on human volunteers were identified morphologically and their parity status determined. Mosquito infectivity was verified through Plasmodium falciparum CSP ELISA and the average entomological inoculation rates determined. A Reduction Factor (RF), defined as the ratio of the values for mosquitoes collected outdoor to those collected indoor was calculated in improved houses (RFI) and non-improved houses (RFN). An Intervention Effect (IE = RFI/RFN) measured the true effect of the intervention. Chi square test was used to determine variable significance. The threshold for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 1113 mosquitoes were collected comprising Anopheles sp (58.6%), Culex sp (36.4%), Aedes sp (2.5%), Mansonia sp (2.4%) and Coquillettidia sp (0.2%). Amongst the Anophelines were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (95.2%), Anopheles funestus (2.9%), Anopheles ziemanni (0.2%), Anopheles brohieri (1.2%) and Anopheles paludis (0.5%). Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) was the only An. gambiae sibling species found. The intervention reduced the indoor Anopheles density by 1.8-fold (RFI = 3.99; RFN = 2.21; P = 0.001). The indoor density of parous Anopheles was reduced by 1.7-fold (RFI = 3.99; RFN = 2.21; P = 0.04) and that of infected Anopheles by 1.8-fold (RFI = 3.26; RFN = 1.78; P = 0.04). Indoor peak biting rates were observed between 02 a.m. to 04 a.m. in non-improved houses and from 02 a.m. to 06 a.m. in improved houses. CONCLUSION: Housing improvement contributed to reducing indoor residual anopheline density and malaria transmission. This highlights the need for policy specialists to further evaluate and promote aspects of house design as a complementary control tool that could reduce indoor human-vector contact and malaria transmission in similar epidemiological settings.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9709013, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139663

RESUMEN

Malaria endemicity in Cameroon greatly varies according to ecological environment. In such conditions, parasitaemia, which is associated with fever, may not always suffice to define an episode of clinical malaria. The evaluation of malaria control intervention strategies mostly consists of identifying cases of clinical malaria and is crucial to promote better diagnosis for accurate measurement of the impact of the intervention. We sought out to define and quantify clinical malaria cases in children from three health districts in the Northern region of Cameroon. A cohort study of 6,195 children aged between 6 and 120 months was carried out during the raining season (July to October) between 2013 and 2014. Differential diagnosis of clinical malaria was performed using the parasite density and axillary temperature. At recruitment, patients with malaria-related symptoms (fever [axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C], chills, severe malaise, headache, or vomiting) and a malaria positive blood smear were classified under clinical malaria group. The malaria attributable fraction was calculated using logistic regression models. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for over 91% of infections. Children from Pitoa health district had the highest number of asymptomatic infections (45.60%) compared to those from Garoua and Mayo Oulo. The most suitable cut-off for the association between parasite densities and fever was found among children less than 24 months. Overall, parasite densities that ranged above 3,200 parasites per µl of blood could be used to define the malaria attributable fever cases. In groups of children aged between 24 and 59 months and 60 and 94 months, the optimum cut-off parasite density was 6,400 parasites per µl of blood, while children aged between 95 and 120 months had a cut-off of 800 parasites per µl of blood. In the same ecoepidemiological zone, clinical malaria case definitions are influenced by age and location (health district) and this could be considered when evaluating malaria intervention strategies in endemic areas.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Animales , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Geografía , Humanos , Malaria/parasitología , Parásitos/fisiología , Prevalencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215825, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042729

RESUMEN

Although mother-to-child transmission of HIV has dramatically declined, the number of in utero HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is on the increase. HIV-exposed infants are at an increased risk of mortality, morbidity and slower early growth than their non-HIV exposed counterparts. Maternal HIV increases the risk of having preterm deliveries, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight babies. However, the mechanism underlying dysregulation of fetal growth in HIV-infected pregnant women is unknown. We sought to determine whether maternal HIV is associated with dysregulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, some angiogenic factors or other related biomarkers that regulate fetal growth. A total of 102 normotensive pregnant women were enrolled in a small cross-sectional study. Amongst these were thirty-one HIV-1 positive women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (Mean age: 30.0 ± 5.1 years; % on ART: 83.9%; median plasma viral load: 683 copies/ml; median CD4 count: 350 cells/ul) and 71 HIV uninfected women (mean age: 27.3 ± 5.8) recruited at delivery. A panel of biomarkers including IGF1 and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP1, IGFBP3), angiopoietins (ANG) 1 and 2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9, and galectin 13, was measured in plasma collected from the placental intervillous space. The levels of IGF1, IGFBP1, ANG1, ANG2, MMP2, MMP9 and Gal-13 were not affected by maternal HIV, even when adjusted for maternal factors in linear regression models (all p>0.05). It was observed that HIV-infection in pregnancy did not significantly affect key markers of the IGF axis and angiogenic factors. If anything, it did not affect women. These findings highlight the importance of the use of ART during pregnancy, which maintains factors necessary for fetal development closer to those of healthy women. However, decrease in IGF1 levels might be exacerbated in women con-infected with HIV and malaria.


Asunto(s)
Angiopoyetinas/sangre , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Camerún , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 1 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/análisis , Proteína 1 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/sangre , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/análisis , Malaria/complicaciones , Malaria/diagnóstico , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/sangre , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patología , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
8.
Malar J ; 18(1): 73, 2019 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866947

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of malaria is important for effective disease management and control. In Cameroon, presumptive clinical diagnosis, thick-film microscopy (TFM), and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are commonly used to diagnose cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, these methods lack sensitivity to detect low parasitaemia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), on the other hand, enhances the detection of sub-microscopic parasitaemia making it a much-needed tool for epidemiological surveys, mass screening, and the assessment of interventions for malaria elimination. Therefore, this study sought to determine the frequency of cases missed by traditional methods that are detected by PCR. METHODS: Blood samples, collected from 551 febrile Cameroonian patients between February 2014 and February 2015, were tested for P. falciparum by microscopy, RDT and PCR. The hospital records of participants were reviewed to obtain data on the clinical diagnosis made by the health care worker. RESULTS: The prevalence of malaria by microscopy, RDT and PCR was 31%, 45%, and 54%, respectively. However, of the 92% of participants diagnosed as having clinical cases of malaria by the health care worker, 38% were malaria-negative by PCR. PCR detected 23% and 12% more malaria infections than microscopy and RDT, respectively. A total of 128 (23%) individuals had sub-microscopic infections in the study population. The sensitivity of microscopy, RDT, and clinical diagnosis was 57%, 78% and 100%; the specificity was 99%, 94%, and 17%; the positive predictive values were 99%, 94%, and 59%; the negative predictive values were 66%, 78%, and 100%, respectively. Thus, 41% of the participants clinically diagnosed as having malaria had fever caused by other pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria diagnostic methods, such as TFM and RDT missed 12-23% of malaria cases detected by PCR. Therefore, traditional diagnostic approaches (TFM, RDT and clinical diagnosis) are not adequate when accurate epidemiological data are needed for monitoring malaria control and elimination interventions.


Asunto(s)
Sangre/parasitología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Malaria Falciparum/diagnóstico , Microscopía/métodos , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plasmodium falciparum/citología , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(6): 360-364, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956235

RESUMEN

Characterization of microbial communities in the skin in healthy individuals and diseased patients holds valuable information for understanding pathogenesis of skin diseases and as a source for developing novel therapies. Notably, resources regarding skin microbiome are limited in developing countries where skin disorders from infectious diseases are extremely common. A simple method for sample collection and processing for skin microbiome studies in such countries is crucial. The aim of this study is to confirm the feasibility of collecting skin microbiota from individuals in Yaoundé, a capital city of Cameroon, and subsequent extraction of bacterial DNA in a resource limited setting. Skin swabs from several individuals in Yaoundé were successfully obtained, and sufficient amount of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA-coding DNA was collected, which was confirmed by quantitative PCR. The median copy number of 16S ribosomal RNA gene varied across participants and collection sites, with significantly more copies in samples collected from the forehead compared to the left and right forearm, or back. This study demonstrated that collecting surface skin microbes using our swabbing method is feasible in a developing country. We further showed that even with limited resources, we could collect sufficient amount of skin microbiota from the inhabitants in Yaoundé where no studies of skin microbiome were reported, which can be passed to further metagenomic analysis such as next generation sequencing.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Piel/microbiología , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , Camerún , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Manejo de Especímenes/instrumentación , Adulto Joven
10.
Trop Med Health ; 46: 22, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977122

RESUMEN

Background: Sampling of saliva for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum infections is a safe, non-invasive alternative to sampling of blood. However, the use of saliva presents a challenge because lower concentrations of parasite DNA are present in saliva compared to peripheral blood. Therefore, a sensitive method is needed for detection of parasite DNA in saliva. This study utilized two recently reported "ultra-sensitive" PCR assays based on detection of the P. falciparum mitochondrial cox3 gene and the multi-copy nuclear varATS gene. The ultra-sensitive assays have an advantage over standard 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay as they target genes with higher copy numbers per parasite genome. Stored saliva DNA samples from 60 Cameroonian individuals with infections previously confirmed by 18S rRNA gene PCR in peripheral blood were tested with assays targeting the cox3 and varATS genes. Results: Overall, the standard 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay detected P. falciparum DNA in 62% of the stored saliva DNA samples, whereas 77 and 68% of the samples were positive with assays that target the cox3 and varATS genes, respectively. Interestingly, the ultra-sensitive assays detected more P. falciparum infections in stored saliva samples than were originally detected by thick-film microscopy (41/60 = 68%). When stratified by number of parasites in the blood, the cox3 assay successfully detected more than 90% of infections using saliva when individuals had > 1000 parasites/µl of peripheral blood, but sensitivity was reduced at submicroscopic parasitemia levels. Bands on electrophoresis gels were distinct for the cox3 assay, whereas faint or non-specific bands were sometimes observed for varATS and 18S rRNA that made interpretation of results difficult. Assays could be completed in 3.5 and 3 h for the cox3 and varATS assays, respectively, whereas the 18S rRNA gene assays required at least 7 h. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a PCR assay targeting the cox3 gene detected P. falciparum DNA in more saliva samples than primers for the 18S rRNA gene. Non-invasive collection of saliva in combination with the proposed cox3 primer-based PCR assay could potentially enhance routine testing of P. falciparum during disease surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation of interventions for malaria elimination.

11.
Infect Immun ; 86(9)2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986889

RESUMEN

Plasmodium falciparum infections are serious in pregnant women, because VAR2CSA allows parasitized erythrocytes to sequester in the placenta, causing placental malaria (PM). In areas of endemicity, women have substantial malarial immunity prior to pregnancy, including antibodies to merozoite antigens, but produce antibodies to VAR2CSA only during pregnancy. The current study sought to determine the importance of antibodies to VAR2CSA and merozoite antigens in pregnant women in Yaoundé, Cameroon, where malaria transmission was relatively low. A total of 1,377 archival plasma samples collected at delivery were selected (at a 1:3 ratio of PM-positive [PM+] to PM-negative [PM-] women) and screened for antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA and 7 merozoite antigens. Results showed that many PM+ women and most PM- women lacked antibodies to VAR2CSA at delivery. Among PM+ women, antibodies to VAR2CSA were associated with a reduced risk of having high placental parasitemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.432; confidence interval [CI], 0.272, 0.687; P = 0.0004) and low-birth-weight (LBW) babies (OR = 0.444; CI, 0.247, 0.799; P = 0.0068), even during first pregnancies. Among antibodies to the 7 merozoite antigens, i.e., AMA1, EBA-175, MSP142, MSP2, MSP3, MSP11, and Pf41, only antibodies to MSP3, EBA-175, and Pf41 were associated with reduced risk for high placental parasitemias (P = 0.0389, 0.0291, and 0.0211, respectively) and antibodies to EBA-175 were associated with reduced risk of premature deliveries (P = 0.0211). However, after adjusting for multiple comparisons significance declined. Thus, in PM+ women, antibodies to VAR2CSA were associated with lower placental parasitemias and reduced prevalence of LBW babies in this low-transmission setting.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/inmunología , Resultado del Embarazo , Adulto , Camerún/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Proteína 1 de Superficie de Merozoito/inmunología , Merozoítos/inmunología , Parasitemia/inmunología , Placenta/parasitología , Embarazo , Proteínas Protozoarias/inmunología , Adulto Joven
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 169, 2018 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317740

RESUMEN

Risk of malaria in infants can be influenced by prenatal factors. In this study, the potential for placental parasitemia at delivery in predicting susceptibility of infants to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections was evaluated. Seventy-two newborns of mothers who were placental malaria negative (PM-) and of mothers who were PM+ with below (PM+ Lo) and above (PM + Hi) median placental parasitemia, were actively monitored during their first year of life. Median time to first PCR-detected Pf infection was shorter in PM + Lo infants (2.8 months) than in both PM- infants (4.0 months, p = 0.002) and PM + Hi infants (4.1 months, p = 0.01). Total number of new infections was also highest in the PM + Lo group. Only 24% of infants experienced clinical malaria episodes but these episodes occurred earlier in PM + Lo infants than in PM + Hi infants (p = 0.05). The adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of having Pf infection was 3.9 (1.8-8.4) and 1.5 (0.7-3.4) for infants in the PM + Lo and PM + Hi groups, respectively. Collectively, low placental parasitemia was associated with increased susceptibility to malaria during infancy. Therefore, malaria in pregnancy preventive regimens, such as sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, that reduce but do not eliminate placental Pf in areas of drug resistance may increase the risk of malaria in infants.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Parasitemia/parasitología , Placenta/parasitología , Plasmodium falciparum , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Malaria Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malaria Falciparum/mortalidad , Carga de Parásitos , Embarazo , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14705, 2017 10 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089635

RESUMEN

Antibody-mediated phagocytosis is an important immune effector mechanism against Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE); however, current phagocytosis assays use IE collected from infected individuals or from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum, making them prone to high variation. A simple, high-throughput flow cytometric assay was developed that uses THP-1 cells and fluorescent beads covalently-coupled with the malarial antigen VAR2CSA. The assay is highly repeatable, provides both the overall percent phagocytosis and semi-quantitates the number of antigen-coupled beads internalized.


Asunto(s)
Eritrocitos/fisiología , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Malaria Falciparum/diagnóstico , Monocitos/fisiología , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/metabolismo , Antígenos de Protozoos/metabolismo , Eritrocitos/parasitología , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Masculino , Microesferas , Monocitos/parasitología , Fagocitosis , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Células THP-1
14.
Malar J ; 16(1): 391, 2017 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962616

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infections are especially severe in pregnant women because infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA, a ligand that binds to placental trophoblasts, causing IE to accumulate in the placenta. Resulting inflammation and pathology increases a woman's risk of anemia, miscarriage, premature deliveries, and having low birthweight (LBW) babies. Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA reduce placental parasitaemia and improve pregnancy outcomes. Currently, no single assay is able to predict if a woman has adequate immunity to prevent placental malaria (PM). This study measured Ab levels to 28 malarial antigens and used the data to develop statistical models for predicting if a woman has sufficient immunity to prevent PM. METHODS: Archival plasma samples from 1377 women were screened in a bead-based multiplex assay for Ab to 17 VAR2CSA-associated antigens (full length VAR2CSA (FV2), DBL 1-6 of the FCR3, 3D7 and 7G8 lines, ID1-ID2a (FCR3 and 3D7) and 11 antigens that have been reported to be associated with immunity to P. falciparum (AMA-1, CSP, EBA-175, LSA1, MSP1, MSP2, MSP3, MSP11, Pf41, Pf70 and RESA)). Ab levels along with clinical variables (age, gravidity) were used in the following seven statistical approaches: logistic regression full model, logistic regression reduced model, recursive partitioning, random forests, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, and support vector machine. RESULTS: The best and simplest model proved to be the logistic regression reduced model. AMA-1, MSP2, EBA-175, Pf41, and MSP11 were found to be the top five most important predictors for the PM status based on overall prediction performance. CONCLUSIONS: Not surprising, significant differences were observed between PM positive (PM+) and PM negative (PM-) groups for Ab levels to the majority of malaria antigens. Individually though, these malarial antigens did not achieve reasonably high performances in terms of predicting the PM status. Utilizing multiple antigens in predictive models considerably improved discrimination power compared to individual assays. Among seven different classifiers considered, the reduced logistic regression model produces the best overall predictive performance.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Placenta/inmunología , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Camerún , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Plasmodium falciparum/parasitología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/parasitología , Adulto Joven
15.
Malar J ; 16(1): 434, 2017 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current malaria diagnostic methods require blood collection, that may be associated with pain and the risk of transmitting blood-borne pathogens, and often create poor compliance when repeated sampling is needed. On the other hand, the collection of saliva is minimally invasive; but saliva has not been widely used for the diagnosis of malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of saliva collected and stored at room temperature using the OMNIgene®â€¢ORAL kit for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS: Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 222 febrile patients in Cameroon. Saliva samples were collected using the OMNIgene®â€¢ORAL (OM-501) kit and stored at room temperature for up to 13 months. Thick blood film microscopy (TFM) was used to detect P. falciparum blood-stage parasites in blood. Detection of P. falciparum DNA in blood and saliva was based on amplification of the multi-copy 18 s rRNA gene using the nested-polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). RESULTS: Prevalence of malaria detected by TFM, nPCR-saliva and nPCR-blood was 22, 29, and 35%, respectively. Using TFM as the gold standard, the sensitivity of nPCR-saliva and nPCR-blood in detecting P. falciparum was 95 and 100%, respectively; with corresponding specificities of 93 and 87%. When nPCR-blood was used as gold standard, the sensitivity of nPCR-saliva and microscopy was 82 and 68%, respectively; whereas, the specificity was 99 and 100%, respectively. Nested PCR-saliva had a very good agreement with both TFM (kappa value 0.8) and blood PCR (kappa value 0.8). At parasitaemia > 10,000 parasites/µl of blood, the sensitivity of nPCR-saliva was 100%. Nested PCR-saliva detected 16 sub-microscopic malaria infections. One year after sample collection, P. falciparum DNA was detected in 80% of saliva samples stored at room temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva can potentially be used as an alternative non-invasive sample for the diagnosis of malaria and the OMNIgene®â€¢ORAL kit is effective at transporting and preserving malaria parasite DNA in saliva at room temperature. The technology described in this study for diagnosis of malaria in resource-limited countries adds on to the armamentarium needed for elimination of malaria.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Malaria Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Saliva/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/instrumentación , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Masculino , Microscopía/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Prevalencia , Temperatura , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184571, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950009

RESUMEN

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-specific T- and B-cell responses may be present at birth; however, when during fetal development antibodies are produced is unknown. Accordingly, cord blood samples from 232 preterm (20-37 weeks of gestation) and 450 term (≥37 weeks) babies were screened for IgM to Pf blood-stage antigens MSP1, MSP2, AMA1, EBA175 and RESA. Overall, 25% [95% CI = 22-28%] of the 682 newborns were positive for IgM to ≥1 Pf antigens with the earliest response occurring at 22 weeks. Interestingly, the odds of being positive for cord blood Pf IgM decreased with gestational age (adjusted OR [95% CI] at 20-31 weeks = 2.55 [1.14-5.85] and at 32-36 weeks = 1.97 [0.92-4.29], with ≥37 weeks as reference); however, preterm and term newborns had similar levels of Pf IgM and recognized a comparable breadth of antigens. Having cord blood Pf IgM was associated with placental malaria (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 2.37 [1.25-4.54]). To determine if in utero exposure occurred via transplacental transfer of Pf-IgG immune complexes (IC), IC containing MSP1 and MSP2 were measured in plasma of 242 mother-newborn pairs. Among newborns of IC-positive mothers (77/242), the proportion of cord samples with Pf IC increased with gestational age but was not associated with Pf IgM, suggesting that fetal B cells early in gestation had not been primed by IC. Finally, when cord mononuclear cells from 64 term newborns were cultured in vitro, only 11% (7/64) of supernatants had Pf IgM; whereas, 95% (61/64) contained secreted Pf IgG. These data suggest fetal B cells are capable of making Pf-specific IgM from early in the second trimester and undergo isotype switching to IgG towards term.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/biosíntesis , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Recién Nacido , Nacimiento Prematuro
17.
Malar J ; 16(1): 58, 2017 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28148260

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum is often based on detection of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) in blood. Most HRP2-based assays have high sensitivity and specificity; however, authors have suggested that antibodies (Ab) to HRP2 could reduce assay sensitivity. This study sought to characterize the antibody response to HRP2 with respect to prevalence, class, subclass, affinity, and age distribution in Cameroonian children and adults residing in an area with high P. falciparum transmission. METHODS: Plasma samples from 181 Cameroonian children and adults who had been repeatedly exposed to P. falciparum and 112 samples from American adults who had never been exposed were tested for IgG Ab to HRP2. For comparison, Ab to the merozoite antigens MSP1, MSP2, MSP3 and the pregnancy-associated antigen VAR2CSA were measured using a multiplex bead-based assay. In addition, 81 plasma samples from slide-positive individuals were screened for IgM Ab to HRP2. RESULTS: As expected, children and adults had IgG Ab to MSP1, MSP2 and MSP3, antibody levels increased with age, and only women of child-bearing age had Ab to VAR2CSA; however, no convincing evidence was found that these individuals had an acquired antibody response to HRP2. That is, using two sources of recombinant HRP2, identical results were obtained when plasma from 110 Cameroonian adults and 112 US adults were screened for IgG Ab. Further studies showed that antibody prevalence and levels did not increase with age in Cameroonians between ages 5 and >80 years. Although a few samples from slide-positive Cameroonians had IgM values slightly above the American cut-off, it was unclear if the individuals had a true IgM response to HRP2 or if the values were due to non-specific binding from elevated immunoglobulin levels associated with infection. Data from prediction models showed a paucity of Class II T cell epitopes in HRP2. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the conclusion that most individuals in malaria-endemic areas do not produce an acquired humoral response to HRP2. The absence of Ab helps explain why HRP2-based assays are able to detect nanogram amounts of HRP2 and why HRP2 continues to circulate for a long time after parasite clearance.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Proteínas Protozoarias/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antígenos de Protozoos/sangre , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Masculino , Proteína 1 de Superficie de Merozoito/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Proteínas Protozoarias/sangre , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 22, 2017 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077167

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission. METHODS: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified, their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Infection with P. falciparum and blood meal source in residual fauna of indoor resting anopheline mosquitoes were determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) (s.l.) comprised 18.4% of mosquitoes collected with An. arabiensis representing 66.27% of the sibling species. The proportion of An. rufipes (2.7%) collected was high with a human-biting rate ranging between 0.441 and 11.083 bites/person/night (b/p/n) and an anthropophagic rate of 15.36%. Although overall the members of An. gambiae complex were responsible for most of the transmission with entomological inoculation rates (EIR) reaching 1.221 infective bites/person/night (ib/p/n), An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii were the most implicated. The roles of An. funestus, An. pharoensis and An. paludis were minor. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein rate in Anopheles rufipes varied from 0.6 to 5.7% with EIR values between 0.010 and 0.481 ib/p/n. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the epidemiological role of An. rufipes alongside the members of the An. gambiae complex, and several other sympatric species in human malaria transmission during the wet season in northern Cameroon. For the first time in Cameroon, An. rufipes has been shown to be an important local malaria vector, emphasising the need to review the malaria entomological profile across the country as pre-requisite to effective vector management strategies.


Asunto(s)
Anopheles/parasitología , Insectos Vectores/parasitología , Malaria Falciparum/transmisión , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiología , Animales , Anopheles/clasificación , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/fisiología , Camerún/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Mordeduras y Picaduras de Insectos/epidemiología , Mordeduras y Picaduras de Insectos/parasitología , Insectos Vectores/clasificación , Insectos Vectores/genética , Insectos Vectores/fisiología , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Control de Mosquitos , Estaciones del Año
19.
Malar J ; 15(1): 532, 2016 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27814765

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is a key parasite mechanism for immune evasion and parasite survival. It is assumed that the number of parasites expressing the same var gene must reach high enough numbers before the host can produce detectable levels of antibodies (Ab) to the variant. VAR2CSA is a protein coded for by one of 60 var genes that is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IE) and mediates IE binding to the placenta. The idea that Ab to VAR2CSA are pregnancy-associated was challenged when VAR2CSA-specific Ab were reported in children and men. However, the frequency and conditions under which Ab to VAR2CSA are produced outside pregnancy is unclear. This study sought to determine frequency, specificity and level of Ab to VAR2CSA produced in children and whether children with hyperparasitaemia and severe malaria are more likely to produce Ab to VAR2CSA compared to healthy children. METHODS: Antibody responses to a panel of recombinant proteins consisting of multiple VAR2CSA Duffy-binding-like domains (DBL) and full-length VAR2CSA (FV2) were characterized in 193 1-15 year old children from rural Cameroonian villages and 160 children with severe malaria from the city. RESULTS: Low Ab levels to VAR2CSA were detected in children; however, Ab levels to FV2 in teenagers were rare. Children preferentially recognized DBL2 (56-70%) and DBL4 (50-60%), while multigravidae produced high levels of IgG to DBL3, DBL5 and FV2. Sixty-seven percent of teenage girls (n = 16/24) recognized ID1-ID2a region of VAR2CSA. Children with severe forms of malaria had significantly higher IgG to merozoite antigens (all p < 0.05), but not to VAR2CSA (all p > 0.05) when compared to the healthy children. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that children, including teenage girls acquire Ab to VAR2CSA domains and FV2, but Ab levels are much lower than those needed to protect women from placental infections and repertoire of Ab responses to DBL domains is different from those in pregnant women. Interestingly, children with severe malaria did not have higher Ab levels to VAR2CSA compared to healthy children.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Formación de Anticuerpos , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Adolescente , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
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