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1.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218727, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226145

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies exploring adolescents' perception of health are still scarce in the international literature. Through a qualitative analysis, this study aims to explore the core categories or themes evoked when adolescents describe what it means to be healthy and unhealthy. METHODS: A convenience purposive sample of 34 15-year-old students from three different upper secondary schools took part in a 2-hour group discussion session. During the session, two conceptual projective techniques, the collage creation and the think-aloud technique, were used to elicit perceptions and descriptions of the typical healthy and unhealthy adolescent. Perceptions and descriptions voiced by adolescents were analysed through content analysis, and the key concepts that emerged were grouped so that core categories or themes could be identified. RESULTS: The analysis revealed five core categories that adolescents used to describe what being healthy or unhealthy meant to them: physical appearance, personal commitment and goals, possessions and space, use of free time, and social belonging. CONCLUSIONS: Instead of those approaches that focuses solely on the avoidance of risk, the identified core categories or themes might be the basics around which health promotion programmes in adolescence should be built. Engaging students in planning for their future and assisting them in mapping out crucial steps to meet their personal goals, including life, academic, and career goals, is a suitable way to address issues that are meaningful to adolescent health.

2.
Risk Anal ; 39(8): 1771-1782, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859607

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoking is often established during adolescence when other health-related risk behaviors tend to occur. The aim of the study was to further investigate the hypothesis that risky health behaviors tend to cluster together and to identify distinctive profiles of young adolescents based on their smoking habits. To explore the idea that smoking behavior can predict membership in a specific risk profile of adolescents, with heavy smokers being more likely to exhibit other risk behaviors, we reanalyzed the data from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Italian survey of about 60,000 first- and third-grade junior high school (JHS) and second-grade high school (HS) students. A Bayesian approach was adopted for selecting the manifest variables associated with smoking; a latent class regression model was employed to identify smoking behaviors among adolescents. Finally, a health-related risk pattern associated with different types of smoking behaviors was found. Heavy smokers engaged in higher alcohol use and abuse and experienced school failure more often than their peers. Frequent smokers reported below-average academic achievement and self-rated their health as fair/poor more frequently than nonsmokers. Lifetime cannabis use and early sexual intercourse were more frequent among heavy smokers. Our findings provide elements for constructing a profile of frequent adolescent smokers and for identifying behavioral risk patterns during the transition from JHS to HS. This may provide an additional opportunity to devise interventions that could be more effective to improve smoking cessation among occasional smokers and to adequately address other risk behaviors among frequent smokers.

3.
Int J Public Health ; 63(9): 1037-1045, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328476

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to explore whether adolescent immigrants have worse or better perceived well-being, and whether this perception varies by ethnic background or between first- and second-generation immigrants, when compared with adolescents from the host population. METHODS: A representative sample of 47,799 students (13.4% immigrants) aged 11, 13, and 15 years were recruited throughout all Italian regions within the framework of the Italian 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. RESULTS: Adolescent immigrants from Eastern European and non-Western/non-European countries had a higher occurrence of health complaints and the highest risk of reporting low life satisfaction, which increased among the second generation. The risk of reporting bullying behaviours and physical fights was higher in first-generation immigrants and decreased in the second generation, independent of ethnic background. CONCLUSIONS: Italian welfare immigration policies do not seem to offer the same opportunities to all adolescent immigrant groups, which leads to differing effects on their well-being. To tackle these inequalities, Italy should increase its investment in education through early prevention initiatives, e.g. providing support in intercultural education and proper training to school teachers and staff.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Aculturación , Adolescente , Agresión/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Bienestar del Niño/etnología , Comparación Transcultural , Estudios Transversales , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 18(1): 168, 2018 10 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340576

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A unique standardized national dataset on adolescent girls (21 regions) participating in the Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) was used to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and age at menarche. METHODS: Two independent nationally representative survey datasets: one on 15-year-olds (n = 6907, in 21 regions, year 2013/2014) and one on 11-year-olds (n = 10,128, in 20 regions, year 2009/2010) were analysed. The survey instrument was a self-report questionnaire. Median age at menarche and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by means of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Hierarchical models were used to assess the relationship between BMI and age at menarche (months). "Region-level obesity" was measured as the prevalence of overweight/obesity (%) in each region. RESULTS: Region-level median age at menarche ranged between 12 years/3 months and 13 years/4 months. Region-level prevalence of overweight among 15-year-old girls ranged between 4 and 19%. Age at menarche was inversely associated with individual BMI (unstandardized regression coefficient beta = - 0.70; 95% CI, - 0.84 to - 0.56). Individual- and class-level measures of BMI accounted for 50% of the region-level variance in age at menarche. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that overweight in childhood is in relation with the early puberty in girls. Future surveys may take into account this report to clarify if overweight is the cause or consequence of early menarche.


Asunto(s)
Menarquia/fisiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Pubertad/fisiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
5.
J Infus Nurs ; 41(5): 319-325, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188454

RESUMEN

Since 2009, the Department of Continuing Education at the Orthopedic and Trauma Center Hospital in Turin, Italy, has provided a training course for nurses in the management of central vascular access devices (CVADs). The course focuses on dressing and flushing procedures, as well as compliance with other CVAD guidelines. An observational study was conducted among nurses to determine the level of best practices in areas with a high prevalence of nurses trained in the management of CVADs. A correlation was observed between best practices and having attended the course, but other variables also influenced best practices.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentación , Catéteres Venosos Centrales/normas , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Enseñanza , Adulto , Vendajes , Estudios Transversales , Educación Continua en Enfermería , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Prevalencia
6.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 20(5): 1044-1052, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143158

RESUMEN

Parental and peer support seems to be a favourable determining factor in the acculturation process among young immigrants. We aimed to assess the level of perceived support among first- and second-generation adolescent immigrants and compare it to that perceived by the adolescents from the host population. Using Italian HBSC survey data collected in 2013-2014, first- and second-generation immigrants aged 11, 13 and 15 years were classified according to their ethnic background as being from Western countries, Eastern European countries, or from non-Western/non-European countries. The domains of teacher, classmate, family, and peer support was measured through multidimensional, standardised, validated scales. Analyses were run on a 47,399 valid responses (2195 from Western countries, 2424 from Eastern European countries, and 2556 from non-Western/non-European countries). Adolescent immigrants from Eastern European countries and non-Western/non-European countries reported significantly lower support than their peers from the host population in all explored domains. Girls perceived a lower level of classmate and family support compared to boys across all ethnic backgrounds. We observed two different immigration patterns: the Western pattern, from more affluent countries, and the Eastern pattern. Among the latter, second-generation immigrants showed the lowest level of support in all domains. Increasing family connections and developing peer networks should favour the acculturation process among adolescent immigrants.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Apoyo Social , Aculturación , Adolescente , Niño , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Maestros/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Confianza
7.
Eur Addict Res ; 23(4): 171-176, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797002

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey was used for cross-sectional analyses (a sample of 20,791 15-year-old students). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of high-school students. Respondents' ARPG, use of medicine for nervousness and potential confounding factors were assessed. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between medicine use to treat nervousness and ARPG. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of adolescents reporting medicine use for nervousness in the last month was 6.3%. The odds of ARPG were 3 times higher among adolescents who used medicine for nervousness compared to that among adolescents who did not take such medicine (OR 2.96, 95% CI 2.07-4.25). Importantly, the association between medicine used to treat nervousness and ARPG did not vary significantly when viewed in light of psychological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Juego de Azar/complicaciones , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Juego de Azar/psicología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1318, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28824499

RESUMEN

Background: Studies have shown that problems related to adult gambling have a geographical and social gradient. For instance, adults experiencing gambling-related harms live in areas of greater deprivation; are unemployed, and have lower income. However, little is known about the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on adolescent problem gambling. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the contextual influences of income inequality on at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. A secondary aim was to analyze the association between perceived social support (from family, peers, teachers, and classmates) and ARPG. Methods: Data from the 2013-2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Survey (HBSC) Study was used for cross-sectional analyses of ARPG. A total of 20,791 15-year-old students completed self-administered questionnaires. Region-level data on income inequality (GINI index) and overall wealth (GDP per capita) were retrieved from the National Institute of Statistics (Istat). The data were analyzed using the multi-level logistic regression analysis, with students at the first level and regions at the second level. Results: The study demonstrated a North-South gradient for the prevalence of ARPG, with higher prevalence of ARPG in the Southern/Islands/Central Regions (e.g., 11% in Sicily) than in Northern Italy (e.g., 2% in Aosta Valley). Students in regions of high-income inequality were significantly more likely than those in regions of low-income inequality to be at-risk or problem gamblers (following adjustment for sex, family structure, family affluence, perceived social support, and regionale wealth). Additionally, perceived social support from parents and teachers were negatively related to ARPG. Conclusions: Income inequality may have a contextual influence on ARPG. More specifically, living in regions of highest income inequality appeared to be a potential factor that increases the likelihood of becoming an at-risk or problem gambler. Findings of the study suggest that wealth distribution within societies affected by economic policies may indirectly have an influence adolescent gambling behaviors.

9.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 53(4): 283-290, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this research is to update the trend in overweight (including obesity) prevalence among Italian adolescents, evaluating possible differences by age and gender, and analyzing their relationships with socioeconomic status, between 2002 and 2014. METHODS: The present study is based on data from the Italian HBSC study at four time points (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014), which involved 15 035 adolescents, aged 11-13-15 (7540 boys and 7495 girls). RESULTS: Gender and age were associated with the occurrence of overweight. In all surveys, boys had a higher prevalence of excess weight compared to girls (p < 0.001), but only among girls there was a significant increasing trend (from 11.2% in 2002 to 13.3% in 2014). From 2002 to 2014, the risk of being overweight was inversely associated with the economic level of the family, for both genders and all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Data collected between 2002 and 2014 in Italy showed a low overall increase in prevalence of obesity and overweight and an inverse association between SES and obesity in all age groups and in both genders. These findings suggest that concerted, multi-sectorial, efforts are needed in Italy, in combination with a sound political will, focused on reducing social inequality associate.


Asunto(s)
Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Clase Social , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales
10.
Addict Behav ; 66: 125-131, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930902

RESUMEN

AIM: The primary aim of the present study was to examine the association between immigrant generation, family sociodemographic characteristics, and problem gambling severity in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian youth. METHOD: Data from the 2013-2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Survey were used for cross-sectional analyses of adolescent problem gambling. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of 20,791 15-year-old students. Respondents' problem gambling severity, immigrant status, family characteristics (family structure, family affluence, perceived family support) and socio-demographic characteristics were individually assessed. FINDINGS: Rates of adolescent at-risk/problem gambling were twice as high among first generation immigrants than non-immigrant students; the odds of being at-risk/problem gamblers were higher among first-generation immigrants than adolescents of other immigrant generations or non-immigrant. Not living with two biological or adoptive parents appears to be a factor that increases the risk of becoming a problem gambler in first generation immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant status and family characteristics may play a key role in contributing to adolescent problem gambling.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Composición Familiar/etnología , Juego de Azar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Relaciones Familiares , Femenino , Juego de Azar/etnología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Italia/etnología , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Distribución por Sexo , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
11.
Eur J Public Health ; 26(4): 650-6, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085192

RESUMEN

BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Unhealthy eating behaviours increase with age and have been associated with adverse health consequences in adulthood. We examined the influence of screen-based sedentary behaviours (SBs) on unhealthy food consumption, such as energy-dense foods and sweetened drinks, among a representative sample of nearly 60 000 adolescents and assessed the role of possible modifiers. METHODS: Data come from the Italian 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Data on Eating patterns, SBs, physical activity, peers network, BMI and socio-economic status (SES) were collected following the HBSC study protocol. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Unhealthy food consumption was significantly associated with a lower intake of fruit and vegetables and with the increase of SBs in both sexes and in all ages. The risk was interestingly higher in normal weight adolescents, in those with wider relationships with peers and in low SES children. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds evidence to support the importance of investing more resources in educational initiatives both to increase parents' awareness to support adolescents on dietary choices and on time spent in screen-based behaviours, independently of their adiposity status; and to develop youth's ability to access and appropriately use media and technologies. Policy makers should also increase their attention on introducing regulatory policies on television food advertising to which youth are exposed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Bebidas Gaseosas/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta Alta en Grasa/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Alimentaria , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Juegos de Video/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 37(4): 573-80, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25525193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychosomatic health complaints are significant indicators of adolescent well-being. The aim of this study is to describe the full set of interactions between health complaints and the presence of subjective resources, represented by the quality of relationships with parents and peers and by a positive school perception, in a population of 15-year-old adolescents. Smoking and alcohol consumption were also included in the analyses. METHODS: Bayesian networks were built for males and females separately, in order to understand the interactions among all considered variables in a representative sample of 16 018 Italian adolescents participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey 2009-10. RESULTS: The resulting networks show that school is the crucial node linking adolescents' well-being with parents and peer relationships, as well as with smoking and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' well-being, as well as the prevalence of typical risk behaviours, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, is mediated by the adolescents' academic stress. Therefore, public health interventions, to be effective, should consider addressing the school environment by making it a more inclusive environment promoting critical thinking and sense of belonging rather than just focusing on personal behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Relaciones Interpersonales , Satisfacción Personal , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 287139, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24860815

RESUMEN

Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Escolar/tendencias , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 41(4): 749-56, 2009 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19276860

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between age and gender with physical activity (PA) and how meeting of PA guidelines (PAGL) is related to socioeconomic status (SES) and sedentary behaviors (SB). METHODS: Data were collected from 11-, 13-, and 15-yr-old students in 32 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey 2001/2002. A self-completed questionnaire assessed weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB for the past 7 d and MVPA for a typical week. SES was assessed using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). RESULTS: None of the countries averaged enough MVPA to meet PAGL. The pattern of MVPA across age and gender was consistent among all countries. In all countries, older children were less active when compared with the youngest children; girls were significantly less active than boys were (mean hours per week of MVPA 3.52 +/- 1.88 vs 4.13 +/- 1.95) and were more likely to not meet the PAGL. SES was significantly associated with the amount of reported MVPA. SES and PAGL were not significantly related in seven countries, and a significant decrease in the influence of age was observed in these countries compared with other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of MVPA during adolescence showed consistent patterns across countries in relation to age, gender, and social class. The limited effect of age on PA in countries where the influence of social class was less strong suggests the possibility of a moderating effect of context in the development of habits acquired during childhood.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Guías como Asunto , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Clase Social , Adolescente , Niño , Europa (Continente) , Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , América del Norte , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Prev Med ; 46(5): 385-96, 2008 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18258289

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based interventions in preventing or reducing drug use. METHODS: The search strategy was conducted according to the Cochrane Collaboration method, and applied to MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, PSYCHINFO, Cochrane Library, ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Register. RCTs and CCTs evaluating school-based interventions designed to prevent substance use were reviewed. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Quality was assessed. Interventions were classified as skills, affective, and knowledge focused. RESULTS: 29 RCTs were included; 28 were conducted in the USA; most were focused on 6th-7th grade students. Compared with usual curricula, skills-based interventions significantly reduce marijuana use (RR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92) and hard drug use (RR=0.45; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.85), and improve decision-making skills, self-esteem, peer pressure resistance (RR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.24, 3.42) and drug knowledge. Compared with usual curricula, affective interventions improve decision-making skills and drug knowledge, and knowledge-focused programs improve drug knowledge. Skills-based interventions are better than affective ones in improved self-efficacy. No differences are evident for skills vs. knowledge-focused programs on drug knowledge. Affective interventions improve decision-making skills and drug knowledge to a higher degree than knowledge-focused programs. CONCLUSION: Skills-based programs help to deter drug use. Well designed, long-term randomised trials, and evaluation of intervention components are required.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/métodos , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Adolescente , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
17.
Qual Life Res ; 15(10): 1577-85, 2006 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17033911

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Self rated health, in adult population, is strongly associated with mortality and life expectancy. In younger people this association is less evident, but it may anticipate a similar risk in adult life. Our research, based on the HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) International collaboration, contributes to deepen the knowledge in this field by monitoring adolescents' health through a multi-national survey involving 29 European countries, plus North America (Canada and USA) and Israel. METHODS: Following an established methodology, the HBSC survey has elaborated a questionnaire on health and health behaviour, filled in by a representative national sample of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls. The sample is constituted of more than 160,000 subjects interviewed during the 2001/2002 survey. Reported symptoms and self-rated health have been analysed by sex and age and through the different countries. RESULTS: Girls resulted to have a poorer perception of their health, with respect to males, at all ages and in all countries (Overall OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.66-1.76). Age increases this risk both for males and females, with an average increase of 32% (95% CI: 29-34%) per year in the age-range 11-15. The situation is similar for reported symptoms, with an overall OR of 1.81 (95% CI: 1.77-1.85) for females of reporting three or more symptoms at least once a week; also this risk increases of 26% (95% CI: 24-27%) per year during the pre-adolescence phase. In both cases it could be shown a significant interaction effect between age and gender: OR = 1.19 (CI: 1.15-1.23) for perceived health and OR = 1.26 (CI: 1.23-1.29) for reported symptoms in females with respect to males. CONCLUSIONS: Even if adolescence is described as the healthiest period of life, a consistent minority of young people perceive and report a poor health and a high number of symptoms. Females are constantly in a worse position than males and older age groups are worse than younger ones.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Estado de Salud , Salud , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
18.
Int J Health Serv ; 36(2): 309-29, 2006.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16878395

RESUMEN

This article examines whether different types of welfare states mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on adolescents' health. The authors' main hypothesis is that countries with stronger redistributive policies will be more effective in weakening the association between socioeconomic position and health, thus reducing health inequalities. Analyses were carried out for Israel and 32 countries of Europe and North America. Data in the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey were collected through self-administered questionnaires distributed in schools to boys and girls 11, 13, and 15 years old. Socioeconomic position was measured with the Family Affluence Scale, based on reported consumption in the family. Health indicators were perceived health, general well-being, symptom load, and health behaviors. Social welfare regimes were classified using an expanded Esping-Andersen classification. The analysis supports the authors' hypothesis, at least partially. Social democratic and conservative welfare regimes rank lowest in the strength of association between low socioeconomic position and poor health, followed by liberal and other regime types, but it is more difficult to interpret data from Mediterranean and post-communist countries.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Bienestar Social , Adolescente , Niño , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , América del Norte
19.
Eur J Public Health ; 16(6): 627-32, 2006 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16684785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The quality of social relations in adolescence is possibly one of the major determinants of habits that can influence the health of young people, and it may also be one of the mediators of the effect of social position on health. In this paper we propose to test these hypotheses for Italian adolescents, in order to suggest interventions aimed at improving their health. METHODS: The Italian data of the HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) survey 2001-02 have been analysed, and the distribution of the perceived quality of social relations has been described, stratified by age, gender, and economic well-being. Logistic models have been fitted using health behaviours as dependent variables and economic well-being and social relations as determinants. RESULTS: The quality of relations with adults seems to decrease consistently from age 11 through age 15, while the relation with peers improves. The relation with the father seems positively correlated with economic well-being. Difficult relations with adults are associated with higher probability of smoking, drinking alcohol and using cannabis; difficult relations with peers are associated with lower physical activity and lower probability of having used cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Even if the relations with adults become less important in adolescence, they are still associated with health behaviours. Our results fit the framework of socialization theories and can be used for planning adequate health education interventions.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estado de Salud , Relaciones Interpersonales , Adolescente , Niño , Ejercicio , Femenino , Amigos/psicología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Grupo Paritario , Teoría Psicológica , Psicología del Adolescente , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Conducta Social , Medio Social , Socialización , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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