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1.
J Phycol ; 59(5): 1107-1111, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37578989

RESUMEN

A cryptogenic, invasive-like red macroalga, Chondria tumulosa, was first observed in 2016 forming thick mats on the forereef of Manawai Atoll within Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. Subsequent expeditions revealed an increased abundance of this alga. In 2021, unattached C. tumulosa was observed forming a network of dark, meandering accumulations throughout the atoll's inner lagoon. High-resolution satellite imagery revealed that these accumulations became visible in 2015 (length: ~0.74 km; area: ~0.88 km2 ) and increased 56-fold in length and 115-fold in area by 2021 (length: 41.32 km; area: 101.34 km2 ). An exponential expansion rate of ~16.02 km · y-1 (length), ~44.75 km2 · y-1 (area). This study presents the comprehensive temporal and spatial expansion of C. tumulosa accumulations for Manawai Atoll since its discovery, providing ecologist and resource managers with a proxy to gauge the overall abundance trend of this invasive-like alga.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral
2.
Clin Transplant ; 36(8): e14770, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the primary cause of death in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) despite improvements in immunosuppression management. Despite advances in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of CLAD, treatments that are currently available are usuallyineffective and delay progression of disease at best.There are currently no evidence-based guidelines and minimal publications regarding the optimal treatment ofCLAD. OBJECTIVE: To complete a comprehensive review of the literature for the prevention and medical management of CLAD. METHODS: We identified the major domains of the medical management of CLAD and conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases to identify articles published from inception to December 2021 related to CLAD in LTRs. Studies published in English pertaining to the pharmacologic prevention and treatment of CLAD were included; highest priority was given to prospective, randomized, controlled trials if available. Prospective observational and retrospective controlled trials were prioritized next, followed by retrospective uncontrolled studies, case series, and finally case reports if the information was deemed to be pertinent. Reference lists of qualified publications were also reviewed to find any other publications of interest that were not found on initial search.In the absence of literature published in the aforementioned databases, additional articles were identified by reviewing abstracts presented at the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and American Transplant Congress annual meetings between 2010-2021. CONCLUSION: CLAD should be identified as early as possible along with prompt intervention to optimize the possibility of stabilizing or improving lung function. More robust clinical data is needed to validate the use of all currently available and investigational treatment options for CLAD to identify the optimal pharmacotherapy management for this patient population.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis Obliterante , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped , Trasplante de Pulmón , Aloinjertos , Bronquiolitis Obliterante/etiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos , Pulmón , Trasplante de Pulmón/efectos adversos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
Earth Space Sci ; 7(8): e2019EA000938, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999897

RESUMEN

OSIRIS-REx began observing particle ejection events shortly after entering orbit around near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in January 2019. For some of these events, the only observations of the ejected particles come from the first two images taken immediately after the event by OSIRIS-REx's NavCam 1 imager. Without three or more observations of each particle, traditional orbit determination is not possible. However, by assuming that the particles all ejected at the same time and location for a given event, and approximating that their velocities remained constant after ejection (a reasonable approximation for fast-moving particles, i.e., with velocities on the order of 10 cm/s or greater, given Bennu's weak gravity), we show that it is possible to estimate the particles' states from only two observations each. We applied this newly developed technique to reconstruct the particle ejection events observed by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft during orbit about Bennu. Particles were estimated to have ejected with inertial velocities ranging from 7 cm/s to 3.3 m/s, leading to a variety of trajectory types. Most (>80%) of the analyzed events were estimated to have originated from midlatitude regions and to have occurred after noon (local solar time), between 12:44 and 18:52. Comparison with higher-fidelity orbit determination solutions for the events with sufficient observations demonstrates the validity of our approach and also sheds light on its biases. Our technique offers the capacity to meaningfully constrain the properties of particle ejection events from limited data.

4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E74, 2020 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730199

RESUMEN

Medically underserved patients in rural areas are more vulnerable to poor health outcomes, including the risks associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals are working together to implement new, innovative ways to deliver the same standard of care during the COVID-19 pandemic to these vulnerable patients. These services include telehealth with virtual and telephone medication therapy management sessions led by ambulatory care pharmacists and student pharmacists. Pharmacists, student pharmacists, and other health care professionals should continue to adapt to these new technologies to improve health outcomes for their patients during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Área sin Atención Médica , Pandemias/prevención & control , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Población Rural , COVID-19 , Enfermedad Crónica , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia , Florida , Humanos , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico/organización & administración , Rol Profesional , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226370, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851720

RESUMEN

This study examined the effects of SCUBA bubbles on fish counts in underwater visual surveys conducted in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM). Specifically, paired fish surveys were conducted at each survey site, utilizing two different gear types: open-circuit SCUBA (OC) and closed-circuit rebreather (CCR). Bubble exhaust released from the OC equipment is a potential source of bias for in-situ fish observations, as the associated audio and visual disturbances could either attract or repel fishes depending on whether their behavior is more driven by curiosity or caution. The study area, is a large (~1.5 million km2) and extremely remote marine protected area in which the response of coral reef fishes to divers represent natural behavior of naive fishes with little or no previous contact with humans. Historically, surveys conducted on OC in this area have shown an abundance of large roving piscivores and this study set out to determine the extant, if any, the audible and visual disturbances of OC bubbles have. The species typically seen in these prior surveys were Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus, Aprion virescens, and a couple of species of sharks. We found differences in counts for some roving piscivores, including significantly more jacks observed on OC than CCR (Caranx ignobilis 57% more, and Caranx melampygus 113% more). Instance of first encounter, i.e. the time when a fish was first observed during a survey, also varied for some species. Higher numbers of Aprion virescens (p = 0.04), and C. melampygus (p = <0.001) were observed in the first 5-minutes of counts by divers on OC (i.e. when they were using breathing apparatus that produced noises that could be heard over long distances). Although not the focus of the study, we also assessed differences between OC and CCR counts for other groups of fishes. Estimated abundance of benthic damselfish was higher on OC than CCR, and counts of butterflyfish were lower on OC; but there were no significant differences for the other groups considered. This is an important control study that documents the natural responses of coral reef fishes to SCUBA bubbles generated by in-situ surveys.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Buceo , Peces , Animales , Dinámica Poblacional
6.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5373-5379, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265308

RESUMEN

An indirect exciton is a bound state of an electron and a hole in spatially separated layers. Two-dimensional indirect excitons can be created optically in heterostructures containing double quantum wells or atomically thin semiconductors. We study theoretically the transmission of such bosonic quasiparticles through nanoconstrictions. We show that the quantum transport phenomena, for example, conductance quantization, single-slit diffraction, two-slit interference, and the Talbot effect, are experimentally realizable in systems of indirect excitons. We discuss similarities and differences between these phenomena and their counterparts in electronic devices.

7.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167724, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936044

RESUMEN

Visual survey by divers using open-circuit (OC) SCUBA is the most widely used approach to survey coral reef fishes. Therefore, it is important to quantify sources of bias in OC surveys, such as the possibility that avoidance of OC divers by fishes can lead to undercounting in areas where targeted species have come to associate divers with a risk of being speared. One potential way to reduce diver avoidance is to utilize closed circuit rebreathers (CCRs), which do not produce the noise and bubbles that are a major source of disturbance associated with OC diving. For this study, we conducted 66 paired OC and CCR fish surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands at locations with relatively high, moderate, and light fishing pressure. We found no significant differences in biomass estimates between OC and CCR surveys when data were pooled across all sites, however there were differences at the most heavily fished location, Oahu. There, biomass estimates from OC divers were significantly lower for several targeted fish groups, including surgeonfishes, targeted wrasses, and snappers, as well as for all targeted fishes combined, with mean OC biomass between 32 and 68% of mean CCR biomass. There were no clear differences between OC and CCR biomass estimates for these groups at sites with moderate or low fishing pressure, or at any location for other targeted fish groups, including groupers, parrotfishes, and goatfishes. Bias associated with avoidance of OC divers at heavily fished locations could be substantially reduced, or at least calibrated for, by utilization of CCR. In addition to being affected by fishing pressure, the extent to which avoidance of OC divers is problematic for visual surveys varies greatly among taxa, and is likely to be highly influenced by the survey methodology and dimensions used.


Asunto(s)
Arrecifes de Coral , Peces/clasificación , Animales , Biomasa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Buceo , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Hawaii , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Transplantation ; 99(10): 2196-202, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25856407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients undergoing lung transplantation continues to grow, as does the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative rods. However, the posttransplant survival of patients with MDR pathogens, specifically pan-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, is poorly characterized. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of CF patients (n = 186; all age, > 16 years) transplanted at the University of North Carolina from 1990 through 2013. Respiratory cultures before transplantation were reviewed for Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Bacteria were defined as pan-resistant if they were resistant or intermediate to all antibiotics tested; otherwise, organisms were defined as MDR. Patients were divided into 5 groups: pan-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n = 9), MDR Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n = 15), pan-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5), MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 26), and CF patients without Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia or Bulkholderia cenocepacia (n = 131). Survival was compared, and cause of death was described. RESULTS: The survival was similar between all cohorts (P = 0.29). Recurrence of the primary pathogen was the most common with pan-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans (100%) followed by MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (46%), MDR Achromobacter xylosoxidans (33%), and finally, pan-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (20%). Death attributable to the primary pathogen was uncommon, occurring in 2 patients with MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 2 patients with MDR Achromobacter xylosoxidans. CONCLUSIONS: The CF patients with Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia have similar posttransplant survival as compared to other CF patients, irrespective of their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The presence of these organisms should not preclude lung transplantation.


Asunto(s)
Achromobacter denitrificans/efectos de los fármacos , Fibrosis Quística/microbiología , Fibrosis Quística/cirugía , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Trasplante de Pulmón , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis Quística/mortalidad , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/complicaciones , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/mortalidad , Humanos , Trasplante de Pulmón/efectos adversos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(25): 8199-210, 2006 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16787084

RESUMEN

A cancer candidate, compound 1, is a weak base with two heterocyclic basic nitrogens and five hydrogen-bonding functional groups, and is sparingly soluble in water rendering it unsuitable for pharmaceutical development. The crystalline acid-base pairs of 1, collectively termed solid acid-base complexes, provide significant increases in the solubility and bioavailability compared to the free base, 1. Three dicarboxylic acid-base complexes, sesquisuccinate 2, dimalonate 3, and dimaleate 4, show the most favorable physicochemical profiles and are studied in greater detail. The structural analyses of the three complexes using crystal structure and solid-state NMR reveal that the proton-transfer behavior in these organic acid-base complexes vary successively correlating with Delta pKa. As a result, 2 is a neutral complex, 3 is a mixed ionic and zwitterionic complex and 4 is an ionic salt. The addition of the acidic components leads to maximized hydrogen bond interactions forming extended three-dimensional networks. Although structurally similar, the packing arrangements of the three complexes are considerably different due to the presence of multiple functional groups and the flexible backbone of 1. The findings in this study provide insight into the structural characteristics of complexes involving heterocyclic bases and carboxylic acids, and demonstrate that X-ray crystallography and 15N solid-state NMR are truly complementary in elucidating hydrogen bonding interactions and the degree of proton transfer of these complexes.


Asunto(s)
Aminas/química , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/química , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Diseño de Fármacos , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Sustancias Macromoleculares/química , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Estructura Molecular , Isótopos de Nitrógeno , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inhibidores , Solubilidad
10.
Cancer Cell Int ; 5: 19, 2005 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15972109

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Insensitivity of advanced-stage prostate cancer to androgen ablation therapy is a serious problem in clinical practice because it is associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis. Targeted therapeutic drug discovery efforts are thwarted by lack of adequate knowledge of gene(s) associated with prostate tumorigenesis. Therefore there is the need for studies to provide leads to targeted intervention measures. Here we propose that stable expression of U94, a tumor suppressor gene encoded by human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), could alter gene expression and thereby inhibit the tumorigenicity of PC3 cell line. Microarray gene expression profiling on U94 recombinant PC3 cell line could reveal genes that would elucidate prostate cancer biology, and hopefully identify potential therapeutic targets. RESULTS: We have shown that stable expression of U94 gene in PC3 cell line inhibited its focus formation in culture, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. Moreover gene expression profiling revealed dramatic upregulation of FN 1 (fibronectin, 91 +/- 16-fold), and profound downregulation of ANGPTL 4 (angiopoietin-like-4, 20 +/- 4-fold) in U94 recombinant PC3 cell line. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis showed that the pattern of expression of FN 1 and ANGPTL 4 mRNA were consistent with the microarray data. Based on previous reports, the findings in this study implicate upregulation of FN 1 and downregulation of ANGPTL 4 in the anti tumor activity of U94. Genes with cancer inhibitory activities that were also upregulated include SERPINE 2 (serine/cysteine protease inhibitor 2, 7 +/- 1-fold increase) and ADAMTS 1 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 7 +/- 2-fold increase). Additionally, SPUVE 23 (serine protease 23) that is pro-tumorigenic was significantly downregulated (10 +/- 1-fold). CONCLUSION: The dramatic upregulation of FN 1 and downregulation of ANGPTL 4 genes in PC3 cell line stably expressing U94 implicate up-regulation of FN 1 and downregulation of ANGPTL 4 in anti tumor activity of U94. Further studies are necessary to determine functional roles of differentially expressed genes in U94 recombinant PC3 cell line, and hopefully provide leads to potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

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