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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 381, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753863

RESUMEN

Therapies for lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are an unmet medical need. One mechanism underlying CRPC and resistance to hormonal therapies is the expression of constitutively active splice variant(s) of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) that lack its C-terminus ligand-binding domain. Transcriptional activities of AR-Vs and full-length AR reside in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Ralaniten is the only drug proven to bind AR NTD, and it showed promise of efficacy in Phase 1 trials. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Here we show that Pin1 interacted with AR NTD. The inhibition of Pin1 expression or its activity selectively reduced the transcriptional activities of full-length AR and AR-V7. Combination of Pin1 inhibitor with ralaniten promoted cell cycle arrest and had improved antitumor activity against CRPC xenografts in vivo compared to individual monotherapies. These findings support the rationale for therapy that combines a Pin1 inhibitor with ralaniten for treating CRPC.

2.
Hum Cell ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954481

RESUMEN

The androgen receptor (AR) is a validated therapeutic target for prostate cancer and has been a focus for drug development for more than six decades. Currently approved therapies that inhibit AR signaling, such as enzalutamide, rely solely on targeting the AR ligand-binding domain and, therefore, have limited efficacy on prostate cancer cells that express truncated, constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs). The LNCaP95 cell line is a human prostate cancer cell line that expresses both functional full-length AR and AR-V7. LNCaP95 is a heterogeneous cell population that is resistant to enzalutamide, with its proliferation dependent on transcriptionally active AR-V7. The purpose of this study was to identify a LNCaP95 clone that would be useful for evaluating therapies for their effectiveness against enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells. Seven clones from the LNCaP95 cell line were isolated and characterized using morphology, in vitro growth rate, and response to ralaniten (AR N-terminal domain inhibitor) and enzalutamide (antiandrogen). In vivo growth of the clones as subcutaneous xenografts was evaluated in castrated immunodeficient mice. All of the clones maintained the expression of full-length AR and AR-V7. Cell proliferation of the clones was insensitive to androgen and enzalutamide but importantly was inhibited by ralaniten, which is consistent with AR-Vs driving the proliferation of parental LNCaP95 cells. In castrated immunodeficient animals, the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of the D3 clone was the most reproducible compared to the parental cell line and other clones. These data support that the enzalutamide-resistant LNCaP95-D3 subline may be suitable as a xenograft tumor model for preclinical drug development with improved reproducibility.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708219

RESUMEN

Blocking androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves the response to radiotherapy for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Unfortunately, ADT, antiandrogens, and abiraterone increase expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR (AR-Vs) which regulate DNA damage repair leading to resistance to radiotherapy. Here we investigate whether blocking the transcriptional activities of full-length AR and AR-Vs with ralaniten leads to enhanced sensitivity to radiotherapy. Combination therapies using ralaniten with ionizing radiation were evaluated for effects on proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, DNA damage, and Western blot analyses in human prostate cancer cells that express both full-length AR and AR-Vs. Ralaniten and a potent next-generation analog (EPI-7170) decreased expression of DNA repair genes whereas enzalutamide had no effect. FACS analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease of BrdU incorporation with increased accumulation of γH2AX with a combination of ionizing radiation with ralaniten. An additive inhibitory effect on proliferation of enzalutamide-resistant cells was achieved with a combination of ralaniten compounds with ionizing radiation. Ralaniten and EPI-7170 sensitized prostate cancer cells that express full-length AR and AR-Vs to radiotherapy whereas enzalutamide had no added benefit.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28144231

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) is a validated drug target for prostate cancer based on its role in proliferation, survival, and metastases of prostate cancer cells. Unfortunately, despite recent improvements to androgen deprivation therapy and the advent of better antiandrogens with a superior affinity for the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD), most patients with recurrent disease will eventually develop lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Expression of constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD contribute toward therapeutic resistance by bypassing androgen blockade and antiandrogens. In the canonical pathway, binding of androgen to AR LBD triggers the release of AR from molecular chaperones which enable conformational changes and protein-protein interactions to facilitate its nuclear translocation where it regulates the expression of target genes. However, preceding AR function in the nucleus, initial binding of androgen to AR LBD in the cytoplasm may already initiate signal transduction pathways to modulate cellular proliferation and migration. In this article, we review the significance of signal transduction pathways activated by rapid, non-genomic signaling of the AR during the progression to metastatic CRPC and put into perspective the implications for current and novel therapies that target different domains of AR.

5.
JCI Insight ; 1(11)2016 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525313

RESUMEN

Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD-targeted (AR LBD-targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V-positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD-targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone. Both EPI-506 (NCT02606123) and galeterone (NCT02438007) are in clinical trials and are proposed to have efficacy against lesions that are positive for AR-Vs. AR activation function-1 (AF-1) is common to the N-terminal domains of full-length AR and AR-Vs. Here, we provide proof of concept for developing imaging compounds that directly bind AR AF-1 to detect both AR-Vs and full-length AR. 123I-EPI-002 had specific binding to AR AF-1, which enabled direct visualization of CRPC xenografts that express full-length AR and AR-Vs. Our findings highlight the potential of 123I-EPI-002 as an imaging agent for the detection of full-length AR and AR-Vs in CRPC.

6.
Land use policy ; 58: 1-8, 2016 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287824

RESUMEN

Real estate is an important form of investment in Hong Kong. Recent researches on the analysis of real estate market have revealed that jump points in the housing price time series play an essential role in the Hong Kong economy. Detecting such jump points thus becomes important as they represent vital findings that enable policy-makers and investors to look forward. In this paper, we propose a jump point detection methodology, which makes use of the empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a derivative-based detector, to detect jump points in the time series of some housing price indices in Hong Kong. Experimental results reveal that our proposed method has a superior performance and outperforms the current state-of-the-art wavelet approach.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(11): 2744-54, 2016 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26712685

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is activated in most castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). Transcriptionally active androgen receptor (AR) plays a role in the majority of CRPCs. Therefore, cotargeting full-length (FL) AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has been proposed as a possible, more effective therapeutic approach for CRPC. However, truncated AR-splice variants (AR-V) that are constitutively active and dominant over FL-AR are associated with tumor progression and resistance mechanisms in CRPC. It is currently unknown how blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impacts prostate cancer driven by AR-Vs. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of combination therapy to block mTOR activity together with EPI-002, an AR N-terminal domain (NTD) antagonist that blocks the transcriptional activities of FL-AR and AR-Vs in models of CRPC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To determine the functional roles of FL-AR, AR-Vs, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, we employed EPI-002 or enzalutamide and BEZ235 (low dose) or everolimus in human prostate cancer cells that express FL-AR or FL-AR and AR-Vs (LNCaP95). Gene expression and efficacy were examined in vitro and in vivo RESULTS: EPI-002 had antitumor activity in enzalutamide-resistant LNCaP95 cells that was associated with decreased expression of AR-V target genes (e.g., UBE2C). Inhibition of mTOR provided additional blockade of UBE2C expression. A combination of EPI-002 and BEZ235 decreased the growth of LNCaP95 cells in vitro and in vivo CONCLUSIONS: Cotargeting mTOR and AR-NTD to block transcriptional activities of FL-AR and AR-Vs provided maximum antitumor efficacy in PTEN-null, enzalutamide-resistant CRPC. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2744-54. ©2015 AACR.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacología , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/farmacología , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Empalme Alternativo , Animales , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Everolimus/administración & dosificación , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glicerol/farmacología , Imidazoles/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Feniltiohidantoína/administración & dosificación , Feniltiohidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Quinolinas/administración & dosificación , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
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