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Nature ; 601(7893): 380-387, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046607


Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important contributor to air pollution and can adversely affect human health1-9. A decrease in NO2 concentrations has been reported as a result of lockdown measures to reduce the spread of COVID-1910-20. Questions remain, however, regarding the relationship of satellite-derived atmospheric column NO2 data with health-relevant ambient ground-level concentrations, and the representativeness of limited ground-based monitoring data for global assessment. Here we derive spatially resolved, global ground-level NO2 concentrations from NO2 column densities observed by the TROPOMI satellite instrument at sufficiently fine resolution (approximately one kilometre) to allow assessment of individual cities during COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 compared to 2019. We apply these estimates to quantify NO2 changes in more than 200 cities, including 65 cities without available ground monitoring, largely in lower-income regions. Mean country-level population-weighted NO2 concentrations are 29% ± 3% lower in countries with strict lockdown conditions than in those without. Relative to long-term trends, NO2 decreases during COVID-19 lockdowns exceed recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)-derived year-to-year decreases from emission controls, comparable to 15 ± 4 years of reductions globally. Our case studies indicate that the sensitivity of NO2 to lockdowns varies by country and emissions sector, demonstrating the critical need for spatially resolved observational information provided by these satellite-derived surface concentration estimates.

Sci Adv ; 6(28): eabc2992, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923601


China's policy interventions to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 have environmental and economic impacts. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide indicates economic activities, as nitrogen dioxide is primarily emitted from fossil fuel consumption. Satellite measurements show a 48% drop in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide vertical column densities from the 20 days averaged before the 2020 Lunar New Year to the 20 days averaged after. This decline is 21 ± 5% larger than that from 2015 to 2019. We relate this reduction to two of the government's actions: the announcement of the first report in each province and the date of a province's lockdown. Both actions are associated with nearly the same magnitude of reductions. Our analysis offers insights into the unintended environmental and economic consequences through reduced economic activities.

Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1379, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992727


Production of oil and natural gas in North America is at an all-time high due to the development and use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Methane emissions associated with this industrial activity are a concern because of the contribution to climate radiative forcing. We present new measurements from the space-based TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) launched in 2017 that show methane enhancements over production regions in the United States. In the Uintah Basin in Utah, TROPOMI methane columns correlated with in-situ measurements, and the highest columns were observed over the deepest parts of the basin, consistent with the accumulation of emissions underneath inversions. In the Permian Basin in Texas and New Mexico, methane columns showed maxima over regions with the highest natural gas production and were correlated with nitrogen-dioxide columns at a ratio that is consistent with results from in-situ airborne measurements. The improved detail provided by TROPOMI will likely enable the timely monitoring from space of methane emissions associated with oil and natural gas production.

Atmos Meas Tech ; 10(5): 1957-1986, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657582


The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an imaging spectrograph flying on NASA's EOS Aura satellite since July 15, 2004. OMI is primarily used to map trace gas concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, obtaining mid-resolution (0.4-0.6 nm) UV-VIS (264-504 nm) spectra at multiple (30-60) simultaneous fields of view. Assessed via various approaches that include monitoring of radiances from selected ocean, land, ice and cloud areas, as well as measurements of line profiles in the Solar spectra, the instrument shows low optical degradation and high wavelength stability over the mission lifetime. In the regions relatively free from the slowly unraveling 'row anomaly' the OMI irradiances have degraded by 3-8%, while radiances have changed by 1-2%. The long-term wavelength calibration of the instrument remains stable to 0.005-0.020 nm.

Nature ; 478(7370): 469-75, 2011 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21964337


Chemical ozone destruction occurs over both polar regions in local winter-spring. In the Antarctic, essentially complete removal of lower-stratospheric ozone currently results in an ozone hole every year, whereas in the Arctic, ozone loss is highly variable and has until now been much more limited. Here we demonstrate that chemical ozone destruction over the Arctic in early 2011 was--for the first time in the observational record--comparable to that in the Antarctic ozone hole. Unusually long-lasting cold conditions in the Arctic lower stratosphere led to persistent enhancement in ozone-destroying forms of chlorine and to unprecedented ozone loss, which exceeded 80 per cent over 18-20 kilometres altitude. Our results show that Arctic ozone holes are possible even with temperatures much milder than those in the Antarctic. We cannot at present predict when such severe Arctic ozone depletion may be matched or exceeded.

Atmósfera/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ozono/análisis , Regiones Antárticas , Regiones Árticas , Cloro/química , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Ozono/química , Ozono/historia , Estaciones del Año , Factores de Tiempo