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1.
J Surg Res ; 269: 212-217, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement into the reoperative abdomen can be challenging due to intraperitoneal adhesions. Laparoscopic guidance may provide safe abdominal access and identify an area for optimal cerebrospinal fluid drainage. The study aim was to compare laparoscopic-assisted VPS placement to an "open" approach in patients with prior abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of children undergoing VPS placement into a reoperative abdomen from 2009-2019. Clinical data were collected, and patients undergoing laparoscopy (LAP) were compared to those undergoing an open approach (OPEN). RESULTS: A total of 120 children underwent 169 VPS placements at a median age of 8 y (IQR 2-15 y), and a mean number of two prior abdominal operations (IQR 1-2). Laparoscopy was used in 24% of cases. Shunt-related complications within 30 d were lower in the LAP group (0% versus 19%, P = 0.001), as were VPS-related postoperative emergency department visits (0% versus 13%, P = 0.003) and readmissions (0% versus 13%, P = 0.013). Shunt malfunction rates were higher (42% OPEN versus 25% LAP, P = 0.03) and occurred sooner in the OPEN group (median 26 versus 78 wk, P = 0.01). The LAP group demonstrated shorter operative times (63 versus 100 min, P < 0.0001), and the only bowel injury. Time to feeds, length of stay, and mortality were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic guidance during VPS placement into the reoperative abdomen is associated with a decrease in shunt-related complications, longer shunt patency, and shorter operative times. Prospective study may clarify the potential benefits of laparoscopy in this setting.

2.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000001025, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641735

RESUMEN

The introduction of Mission: Lifeline significantly increased timely access to percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In the years since, morbidity and mortality rates have declined, and research has led to significant developments that have broadened our concept of the STEMI system of care. However, significant barriers and opportunities remain. From community education to 9-1-1 activation and emergency medical services triage and from emergency department and interfacility transfer protocols to postacute care, each critical juncture presents unique challenges for the optimal care of patients with STEMI. This policy statement sets forth recommendations for how the ideal STEMI system of care should be designed and implemented to ensure that patients with STEMI receive the best evidence-based care at each stage in their illness.

5.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558848

RESUMEN

The benefit of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains controversial. To identify predictors of jaundice resolution after ERCP and whether resolution is associated with improved patient outcomes, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 124 patients with jaundice and PSC. These patients underwent endoscopic biliary balloon dilation and/or stent placement at an American tertiary center, with validation in a separate cohort of 102 patients from European centers. Jaundice resolved after ERCP in 52% of patients. Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Independent predictors of jaundice resolution included older age (P = 0.048; odds ratio [OR], 1.03 for every 1-year increase), shorter duration of jaundice (P = 0.059; OR, 0.59 for every 1-year increase), lower Mayo Risk Score (MRS) (P = 0.025; OR, 0.58 for every 1-point increase), and extrahepatic location of the most advanced biliary stricture (P = 0.011; OR, 3.13). A logistic regression model predicted jaundice resolution with area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.79) in the validation set. Independent predictors of death or transplant during follow-up included higher MRS at the time of ERCP (P < 0.0001; hazard ratio [HR], 2.33 for every 1-point increase), lower total serum bilirubin before ERCP (P = 0.031; HR, 0.91 for every 1 mg/dL increase), and persistence of jaundice after endoscopic therapy (P = 0.003; HR, 2.30). Conclusion: Resolution of jaundice after endoscopic treatment of biliary strictures is associated with longer transplant-free survival of patients with PSC. The likelihood of resolution is affected by demographic, hepatic, and biliary variables and can be predicted using noninvasive data. These findings may refine the use of ERCP in patients with jaundice with PSC.

6.
J Neuroimmunol ; 360: 577702, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547512

RESUMEN

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) and aquaporin-4 IgG seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD) are generally considered to be relapsing disorders, without clinical progression or subclinical disease activity outside of clinical relapses, in contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS). With advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, prolonged periods of remission without relapses can be achieved, and the question of whether progressive disease courses can occur has re-emerged. In this review, we focus on studies exploring evidence for and against relapse-independent clinical progression and/or subclinical disease activity in patients with MOGAD and AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD.

7.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585211038291, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498507

RESUMEN

During PREVENT (a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, time-to-event study) and its open-label extension (interim analysis), 33 adults with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG + NMOSD) received eculizumab monotherapy for a median of 2.8 years (range, 14 weeks-5.2 years). At 192 weeks (~4 years), 96% of these patients were free from adjudicated relapses (Kaplan-Meier analysis; 95% confidence interval, 75.7-99.4). During PREVENT, 95% (20/21) of patients receiving eculizumab monotherapy had no disability worsening. Eculizumab monotherapy provides effective long-term relapse prevention, relieving the chronic immunosuppression burden in patients with AQP4-IgG + NMOSD. ClinicalTrials.gov; PREVENT: NCT01892345; open-label extension: NCT02003144.

8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534955

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The middle fossa transpetrosal approach to the petroclival and posterior cavernous sinus regions includes removal of the anterior petrous apex (APA), an area well studied in adults but not in children. To this end, the authors performed a morphometric analysis of the APA region during pediatric maturation. METHODS: Measurements of the distance from the clivus to the internal auditory canal (IAC; C-IAC), the distance of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery (petrous carotid; PC) to the mesial petrous bone (MPB; PC-MPB), the distance of the PC to the mesial petrous apex (MPA; PC-MPA), and the IAC depth from the middle fossa floor (IAC-D) were made on thin-cut CT scans from 60 patients (distributed across ages 0-3, 4-7, 8-11, 12-15, 16-18, and > 18 years). The APA volume was calculated as a cylinder using C-IAC (length) and PC-MPB (diameter). APA pneumatization was noted. Data were analyzed by laterality, sex, and age. RESULTS: APA parameters did not differ by laterality or sex. APA pneumatization was seen on 20 of 60 scans (33.3%) in patients ≥ 4 years. The majority of the APA region growth occurred by ages 8-11 years, with PC-MPA and PC-MPB increasing 15.9% (from 9.4 to 10.9 mm, p = 0.08) and 23.5% (from 8.9 to 11.0 mm, p < 0.01) between ages 0-3 and 8-11 years, and C-IAC increasing 20.7% (from 13.0 to 15.7 mm, p < 0.01) between ages 0-3 and 4-7 years. APA volume increased 79.6% from ages 0-3 to 8-11 years (from 834.3 to 1499.2 mm3, p < 0.01). None of these parameters displayed further significant growth. Finally, IAC-D increased 51.1% (from 4.3 to 6.5 mm, p < 0.01) between ages 0-3 and adult, without significant differences between successive age groups. CONCLUSIONS: APA development is largely complete by the ages of 8-11 years. Knowledge of APA growth patterns may aid approach selection and APA removal in pediatric patients.

9.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507900

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increased intrapancreatic fat is associated with pancreatic diseases; however, there are no established objective diagnostic criteria for fatty pancreas. On non-contrast computed tomography (CT), adipose tissue shows negative Hounsfield Unit (HU) attenuations (-150 to -30 HU). Using whole organ segmentation on non-contrast CT, we aimed to describe whole gland pancreatic attenuation and establish 5th and 10th percentile thresholds across a spectrum of age and sex. Subsequently, we aimed to evaluate the association between low pancreatic HU and risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: The whole pancreas was segmented in 19,456 images from 469 non-contrast CT scans. A convolutional neural network was trained to assist pancreas segmentation. Mean pancreatic HU, volume, and body composition metrics were calculated. The lower 5th and 10th percentile for mean pancreatic HU were identified, examining the association with age and sex. Pre-diagnostic CT scans from patients who later developed PDAC were compared to cancer-free controls. RESULTS: Less than 5th percentile mean pancreatic HU was significantly associated with increase in BMI (OR 1.07; 1.03-1.11), visceral fat (OR 1.37; 1.15-1.64), total abdominal fat (OR 1.12; 1.03-1.22), and diabetes mellitus type 1 (OR 6.76; 1.68-27.28). Compared to controls, pre-diagnostic scans in PDAC cases had lower mean whole gland pancreatic HU (-0.2 vs 7.8, p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: In this study, we report age and sex-specific distribution of pancreatic whole-gland CT attenuation. Compared to controls, mean whole gland pancreatic HU is significantly lower in the pre-diagnostic phase of PDAC.

12.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 28(4): 387-394, 2021 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359046

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Children with nonoperative brain tumors, such as diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), often have life-threatening hydrocephalus. Palliative shunting is common in such cases but can be complicated by hardware infection and mechanical failure. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a minimally invasive alternative to treat hydrocephalus without implanted hardware. Herein, the authors report their institutional experience with palliative ETV for primary pediatric brain tumors. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of consecutive patients who had undergone palliative ETV for hydrocephalus secondary to nonresectable primary brain tumors over a 10-year period at Rady Children's Hospital. Collected variables included age, sex, tumor type, tumor location, presence of leptomeningeal spread, use of a robot for ETV, complications, ETV Success Score (ETVSS), functional status, length of survival, and follow-up time. A successful outcome was defined as an ETV performed without clinically significant perioperative complications or secondary requirement for a new shunt. RESULTS: Fifteen patients met the study inclusion criteria (11 males, 4 females; average age 7.9 years, range 0.8-21 years). Thirteen patients underwent manual ETV, and 2 patients underwent robotic ETV. Preoperative symptoms included gaze palsy, nausea/vomiting, headache, lethargy, hemiparesis, and seizures. Tumor types included DIPG (3), intraventricular/thalamic glioblastoma (2), and leptomeningeal spread of medulloblastoma (2), anaplastic oligo-/astrocytoma (2), rhabdoid tumor (2), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), ganglioglioma (1), pineoblastoma (1), and embryonal carcinoma (1). The mean preoperative ETVSS was 79 ± 8.8. There was 1 perioperative complication, a wound breakdown consistent with refractory hydrocephalus. The mean follow-up was 4.9 ± 5.5 months overall, and mean survival for the patients who died was 3.2 ± 3.6 months. Two patients remained alive at a mean follow-up of 15.7 months. Palliative ETV was successful in 7 patients (47%) and unsuccessful in 8 (53%). While patients with successful ETV were significantly older (11.9 ± 5.6 vs 4.4 ± 4.1 years, p = 0.010), there were no significant differences in preoperative ETVSS (p = 0.796) or postoperative survival (p = 0.476) between the successful and unsuccessful groups. Overall, functional outcomes were similar between the two groups; there was no significant difference in posttreatment Karnofsky Performance Status scores (68.6 ± 19.5 vs 61.3 ± 16.3, p = 0.454), suggesting that including ETV in the treatment algorithm did not worsen outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative ETV is a safe and potentially efficacious treatment option in selected pediatric patients with hydrocephalus from nonoperative brain tumors. Close follow-up, especially in younger children, is required to ensure that patients with refractory symptoms receive appropriate secondary CSF diversion.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445317

RESUMEN

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common genomic disorder in humans and is the result of a recurrent 1.5 to 2.5 Mb deletion, encompassing approximately 20-40 genes, respectively. The clinical presentation of the typical deletion includes: Velocardiofacial, Di George, Opitz G/BBB and Conotruncalanomaly face syndromes. Atypical deletions (proximal, distal or nested) are rare and characterized mainly by normal phenotype or mild intellectual disability and variable clinical features. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disorder are not completely understood. Because the 22q11.2 region harbours genes coding for transcriptional factors and chromatin remodelers, in this study, we performed analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation of peripheral blood from 49 patients with 22q11.2DS using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC bead chip arrays. This cohort comprises 43 typical, 2 proximal and 4 distal deletions. We demonstrated the evidence of a unique and highly specific episignature in all typical and proximal 22q11.2DS. The sensitivity and specificity of this signature was further confirmed by comparing it to over 1500 patients with other neurodevelopmental disorders with known episignatures. Mapping the 22q11.2DS DNA methylation episignature provides both novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder and an effective tool in the molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Epigenoma , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
14.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103189, 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 vaccines are currently recommended for people with rare neuroimmunological diseases such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), MOG-antibody disease (MOGAD), and transverse myelitis. However, the safety profile of the vaccines in this population is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To report real-world safety data of the COVID-19 vaccines in persons with rare neuroimmunological diseases. METHODS: An anonymous survey was distributed to patients recruited on social media. Participants answered general demographic and disease-related questions, and specific questions about their experiences with the COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: 438 participants completed the questionnaire. The median age was 51 (range 18-82 years); 366 were female (83.6%); 102 (23.3%) had associated comorbidities, and 354 (80.1%) were treated with immunotherapies. 242 participants (55.3%) reported a diagnosis of NMOSD; 99 (22.6%) had MOGAD; 79 (18%) had transverse myelitis. 239 participants (66.2%) were younger than 55 years of age. 138 participants (31.5%) reported earlyadverse events. Of these, 93 (67.4%) were < 55 years old, and 45 (32.6%) were > 55 years old (p=0.0086). The most common adverse events were local reactions, including pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site, reported by 155 participants (35.4%). 73 participants (16.7%) reported new or worsening neurological symptoms following the vaccination. Most symptoms occurred within the first week after vaccination and resolved within three days. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates an overall favorable safety and tolerability profile of the COVID-19 vaccines among persons with rare neuroimmunological diseases. Longer-term studies are warranted to confirm these data.

15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(10): 3083-3087, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427745

RESUMEN

With respect to the tremendous deficit in surgical care plaguing developing nations, it is critical that medical outreach models be organized in such a fashion that sustainable advancements can be durably imparted beyond the duration of targeted missions. Using a didactic framework focused on empowering host neurosurgeons with an enhanced surgical skillset, a mission was launched in Managua, Nicaragua, after previous success in Kiev, Ukraine, and Lima, Peru. Unfortunately, the failure to critically assess the internal and external state of affairs of the region's medical center compromised the outreach mission. Herein lies the visiting team's lessons from failure and insights on facilitating effective communication with host institutions, circumventing geopolitical instability, and utilizing digital collaboration and video-conferencing tools in the post-COVID-19 era to advance the surgical care of developing regions in a fashion that can be generationally felt.

19.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117546, 2021 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252701

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Relapses of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) result in cumulative neurologic disabilities, are unpredictable, and are interspersed with remissions. Pain in NMOSD is often severe and intractable, with a significant impact on patient quality of life (QoL). We performed a more detailed analysis of previously published survey data on the association of pain and QoL, comparing patients who were seropositive and seronegative for antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from 193 NMOSD patients across North America. The study population was predominantly female (88.6%) and aged 19-76 years. Results were reported for three groups: AQP4-IgG-seropositive (61.1%), AQP4-IgG-seronegative and the total cohort including patients with unknown serostatus. We measured the strength of associations and interactions between pain and variables including QoL, patient satisfaction, frequency of hospital visits, and number of relapses versus other symptoms. RESULTS: Pain severity was the strongest negative predictor of QoL. In the total and AQP4-IgG-seropositive groups, pain was the most common symptom that patients wanted their physician to be concerned about; in the AQP4-IgG-seronegative group, this was fatigue. For all patients, frequent hospital visits and relapses were associated with more severe pain, but not frequency of NMOSD specialist visits. Patients without recent relapse still commonly reported moderate or severe pain (>25%). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the heavy burden of pain on NMOSD patients and its effect on QoL and healthcare utilization. Prevention or early treatment of relapses and more effective pain management may reduce this burden.


Asunto(s)
Neuromielitis Óptica , Calidad de Vida , Acuaporina 4 , Autoanticuerpos , Femenino , Humanos , Neuromielitis Óptica/complicaciones , Neuromielitis Óptica/epidemiología , Dolor/epidemiología , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente
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