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1.
Parasitol Res ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792812

RESUMEN

Paragonimus proliferus, a lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus, was first reported in Yunnan province, China. P. proliferus can infect Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and cause lung damage, but there is still no direct evidence of human infection. Until now, there has been a lack of studies on P. proliferus parasitism and development in mammalian lung tissue. The aim of this study was to perform transcriptomic profiling of P. proliferus at different developmental stages. SD rats were infected with P. proliferus metacercariae obtained from crabs; worms isolated from the lungs at different time points as well as metacercariae were subjected to whole transcriptome sequencing. Overall, 34,403 transcripts with the total length of 33,223,828 bp, average length of 965 bp, and N50 of 1833 bp were assembled. Comparative analysis indicated that P. proliferus, similar to other Paragonimus spp., expressed genes related to catabolism, whereas P. proliferus-specific transcripts were related to the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis, sensitivity to bacteria, and immune response. Transcriptional dynamics analysis revealed that genes involved in the regulation of catabolism and apoptosis had stable expression over the P. proliferus life cycle, whereas those involved in development and immune response showed time-dependent changes. High expression of genes associated with immune response corresponded to that of genes regulating the sensitivity to bacteria and immune protection. We constructed a P. proliferus developmental model, including the development of the body, suckers, blood cells, reproductive and tracheal systems, lymph, skin, cartilage, and other tissues and organs, and an immune response model, which mainly involved T cells and macrophages. Our study provides a foundation for further research into the molecular biology and infection mechanism of P. proliferus.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 110502, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798351

RESUMEN

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely applied but rather time-consuming tool in machine learning techniques. In 2014, Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost proposed a quantum PCA (qPCA) algorithm [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, Nat. Phys. 10, 631 (2014)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys3029] that still lacks experimental demonstration due to the experimental challenges in preparing multiple quantum state copies and implementing quantum phase estimations. Here, we propose a new qPCA algorithm using the hybrid classical-quantum control, where parameterized quantum circuits are optimized with simple measurement observables, which significantly reduces the experimental complexity. As one important PCA application, we implement a human face recognition process using the images from the Yale Face Dataset. By training our quantum processor, the eigenface information in the training dataset is encoded into the parameterized quantum circuit, and the quantum processor learns to recognize new face images from the test dataset with high fidelities. Our work paves a new avenue toward the study of qPCA applications in theory and experiment.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 113401, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798369

RESUMEN

We study a bulk fermionic dipolar molecular gas in the quantum degenerate regime confined in a two-dimensional geometry. Using two rotational states of the molecules, we encode a spin 1/2 degree of freedom. To describe the many-body spin dynamics of the molecules, we derive a long-range interacting XXZ model valid in the regime where motional degrees of freedom are frozen. Because of the spatially extended nature of the harmonic oscillator modes, the interactions in the spin model are very long ranged, and the system behaves close to the collective limit, resulting in robust dynamics and generation of entanglement in the form of spin squeezing even at finite temperature and in the presence of dephasing and chemical reactions. We discuss how the internal state structure can be exploited to realize time reversal and enhanced metrological sensing protocols.

4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802139

RESUMEN

It is usually a tedious task to profile the chemical composition of a given herbal medicine (HM) using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) due to the time-consuming sample preparation and laborious post-acquisition data processing procedures. Even worse, some labile compounds may face degradation risks when exposed to organic solvents for a relatively long period. As one of the most popular HMs, the promising therapeutic benefits of Epimedii Herba (Chinese name: Yinyanghuo) are well defined; however, the chemical profile, and in particular those flavonoids that have been claimed to be responsible for the efficacy, remains largely unknown. Attempts are devoted here to achieve direct LC-MS measurement and efficient post-acquisition data processing, and chemome comparison among three original sources of Epimedii Herba, such as Epimedium sagittatum (Esa), E. pubescens (Epu), and E. koreanum (Eko) was employed to illustrate the strategy utility. A home-made online liquid extraction (OLE) module was introduced at the front of the analytical column to comprehensively transfer the compounds from raw materials onto the LC-MS instrument. A mass defect filtering approach was programmed to efficiently mine the massive LC-MS dataset after which a miniature database was built involving all chemical information of flavonoids from the genus Epimedium to draw a pentagonal frame to rapidly capture potential quasi-molecular ions (mainly [M-H]-). A total of 99 flavonoids (66 in Esa, 84 in Eko, and 66 in Epu) were captured, and structurally annotated by summarizing the mass fragmentation pathways from the mass spectrometric data of authentic compounds and an in-house data library as well. Noteworthily, neutral loss of 144 Da was firstly assigned to the neutral cleavage of rhamnosyl residues. Significant species-differences didn't occur among their chemical patterns. The current study proposed a robust strategy enabling rapid chemical profiling of, but not limited to, HMs.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803725

RESUMEN

The proteins with lysin motif (LysM) are carbohydrate-binding protein modules that play a critical role in the host-pathogen interactions. The plant LysM proteins mostly function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense chitin to induce the plant's immunity. In contrast, fungal LysM blocks chitin sensing or signaling to inhibit chitin-induced host immunity. In this review, we provide historical perspectives on plant and fungal LysMs to demonstrate how these proteins are involved in the regulation of plant's immune response by microbes. Plants employ LysM proteins to recognize fungal chitins that are then degraded by plant chitinases to induce immunity. In contrast, fungal pathogens recruit LysM proteins to protect their cell wall from hydrolysis by plant chitinase to prevent activation of chitin-induced immunity. Uncovering this coevolutionary arms race in which LysM plays a pivotal role in manipulating facilitates a greater understanding of the mechanisms governing plant-fungus interactions.

6.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(2): 227-235, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825402

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang formula ( LWDHF) on endothelial cells, and to study the mechanism behind the action of modulating expression of estrogen receptors. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was applied to induce the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The concentration of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) were measured by assay kits. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of iNOS, eNOS, b-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERß. Also, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was involved to confirm whether the protective effects of LWDHF was medicated by ERs. In vivo, the female rats were ovariectomized to establish postmenopausal vascular injury model. Then the model rats were divided into three groups and treated with saline, estradiol and LWDHF respectively. The concentration of NO and NOS in serum were measured by assay kits, and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, ERα and ERß were detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro study, LWDHF significantly protected HUVECs from H2O2-induced apoptosis, with the increase of Bcl-2 and the decrease of Bax. The treatment with LWDHF inhibited concentration of NO and iNOS, and upregulated the expression of eNOS, ERα and ERß. In addition, ERα siRNA could block the protective effects of LWDHF, while ERß siRNA showed little influence. In vivo, the treatment with LWDHF suppressed the vascular injury and reduced the level of NO and NOS. LWDHF increased the expression of Bcl-2, ERα and ERß, as well as inhibiting the Bax expression. CONCLUSION: LWDHF could improve endothelial function and protect HUVECs from apoptosis via increasing the expression of ERα.

7.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 591-595, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812436

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To test the anticoagulation functions, perform the genetic diagnosis and analyze the clinical characteristics in a family with combined heterozygous genetic variants of PROC and PROS1. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from all the family members. Hematological phenotypes and activity of anticoagulant factors were analyzed. Target genes were amplified by PCR from DNA isolated from peripheral blood, and then were analyzed by Sanger DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Many members in the family displayed the combined genetic variants in protein C and protein S, and six family members accompanied by deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The influences of genetic and secondary factors on the incidence of venous thrombosis in the family members were analyzed. The results showed that in this family, carriers of combined protein C and protein S gene defects had a higher incidence of VTE, but acquired factors still played a key role in the eventual thrombotic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease, the combined genetic heterozygous mutations of protein C and S is an important genetic factor, and the clinical phenotype show a high heterogenicity, the secondary factors contribute to the VTE incidence.


Asunto(s)
Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombosis de la Vena , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Mutación , Proteína C/genética , Proteína S/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Trombosis de la Vena/genética
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822614

RESUMEN

The chemical composition of hazelnut kernels (Corylus avellana L.) and their COX-2 inhibitory, antimicrobial, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities were investigated. Six previously undescribed indoleacetic acid glycosides, hazelnutins A-F (1-6), and five known compounds (7-11) were isolated from the hazelnut kernels. The structures of compounds 1-6 were successfully identified by high-resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and NMR data, and their absolute configurations were established by electron-capture detector spectroscopy analyses in corporation with quantum chemical calculations. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of compounds 7 and 8 were unambiguously confirmed for the first time. Compounds 8-11 were discovered in hazelnut kernels for the first time. Compounds 1-5 inhibited COX-2 expression with inhibition rates ranging from 36.10 to 64.08%. Compounds 3, 4, and 8 could inhibit the proliferation of Candida albicans. Compound 11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH with IC50 values of 11.22 and 13.21 µmol/L, respectively. Compounds 8 and 10 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity against ABTS.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822977

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To reconstruct the evolutionary history and genomic epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in China. METHODS: Using WGS analysis, we described the phylogeny of 131 S. aureus ST9 isolates collected between 2002 and 2016 from 11 provinces in China, including six clinical samples from Taiwan. We also investigated the complex structure and distribution of the lsa(E)-carrying multiresistance gene cluster, and genotyped prophages in the genomes of the ST9 isolates. RESULTS: ST9 was subdivided into one major (n = 122) and one minor (n = 9) clade. Bayesian phylogeny predicted the divergence of ST9 isolates in pig farming in China as early as 1987, which then evolved rapidly in the following three decades. ST9 isolates shared similar multiresistance properties, which were likely acquired before the ST9 emergence in China. The accessory genome is highly conserved, and ST9 harboured similar sets of phages, but lacked certain virulence genes. CONCLUSIONS: Host exchange and regional transmission of ST9 have occurred between pigs and humans. Pig rearing and trading might have favoured gene exchanges between ST9 isolates. Resistance genes, obtained from the environment and other isolates, were stably integrated into the chromosomal DNA. The abundance of resistance genes among ST9 is likely attributed to the extensive use of antimicrobial agents in livestock. Phages are present in the genomes of ST9 and may play a role in the rapid evolution of this ST. Although human ST9 infections are rare, ST9 isolates may constitute a potential risk to public health as a repository of antimicrobial resistance genes.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823587

RESUMEN

Polyketide synthase-terpenoid synthase (PKS-TPS) hybrid pathways for biosynthesis of unique sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) have been found to be widely distributed in plant pathogenic fungi. However, the natural and ecological functions of these pathways and their metabolites still remain cryptic. In this study, the whole PKS-TPS hybrid pathway in the predominant nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was first proposed according to all the intermediates and their derivatives from all the A. oligospora mutants with a deficiency in each gene involved in SEC biosynthesis. Most mutants displayed significantly increased trap formation which was correlated with alteration of the ammonia level. Further analysis revealed that the main metabolites involved in ammonia metabolism were largely increased in most mutants. However, significantly retarded colonization in soil were observed in most mutants compared to the wild-type strain due to significantly decreased antibacterial activities. Our results suggested that A. oligospora used the PKS-TPS hybrid pathway for fungal soil colonization via decreasing fungal nematode-capturing ability. This also provided solid evidence that boosting fungal colonization in soil was the secondary metabolite whose biosynthesis depended on a PKS-TPS hybrid pathway.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2056, 2021 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824341

RESUMEN

Biotin is an essential micro-nutrient across the three domains of life. The paradigm earlier step of biotin synthesis denotes "BioC-BioH" pathway in Escherichia coli. Here we report that BioZ bypasses the canonical route to begin biotin synthesis. In addition to its origin of Rhizobiales, protein phylogeny infers that BioZ is domesticated to gain an atypical role of ß-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III. Genetic and biochemical characterization demonstrates that BioZ catalyzes the condensation of glutaryl-CoA (or ACP) with malonyl-ACP to give 5'-keto-pimeloyl ACP. This intermediate proceeds via type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway, to initiate the formation of pimeloyl-ACP, a precursor of biotin synthesis. To further explore molecular basis of BioZ activity, we determine the crystal structure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens BioZ at 1.99 Å, of which the catalytic triad and the substrate-loading tunnel are functionally defined. In particular, we localize that three residues (S84, R147, and S287) at the distant bottom of the tunnel might neutralize the charge of free C-carboxyl group of the primer glutaryl-CoA. Taken together, this study provides molecular insights into the BioZ biotin synthesis pathway.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5521503, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815654

RESUMEN

Background: Bu Shen Yi Sui capsule (BSYS) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription that has shown antineuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Microglia play an important role in neuroinflammation. The M1 phenotype of microglia is involved in the proinflammatory process of the disease, while the M2 phenotype plays an anti-inflammatory role. Promoting the polarization of microglia to M2 in MS/EAE is a promising therapeutic strategy. This study is aimed at exploring the effects of BSYS on microglial polarization in mice with EAE. Methods: The EAE model was established by the intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin and subcutaneous injection of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were treated with BSYS (3.02 g/kg), FTY720 (0.3 mg/kg), or distilled water by intragastric administration. H&E and LFB staining, transmission electron microscopy, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, ELISA, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and western blotting were used to detect the histological changes in myelin, microglial M1/M2 polarization markers, and the expression of key genes involved in EAE. Results and Conclusions. BSYS treatment of EAE mice increased the body weight, decreased the clinical score, and reduced demyelination induced by inflammatory infiltration. BSYS also inhibited the mRNA expression of M1 microglial markers while increasing the mRNA level of M2 markers. Additionally, BSYS led to a marked decrease in the ratio of M1 microglia (iNOS+/Iba1+) and an obvious increase in the number of M2 microglia (Arg1+/Iba1+). In the EAE mouse model, miR-124 expression was decreased, and miR-155 expression was increased, while BSYS treatment significantly reversed this effect and modulated the levels of C/EBP α, PU.1, and SOCS1 (target genes of miR-124 and miR-155). Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of BSYS against MS/EAE was related to promoting microglia toward M2 polarization, which may be correlated with changes in miR-124 and miR-155 in vivo.

14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 638087, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816340

RESUMEN

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is noted for its intrinsic antibiotic resistance and capacity of acquiring additional resistance genes. In this study, the genomes of nine clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were fully sequenced. An extensive genetic comparison was applied to 18 P. aeruginosa accessory genetic elements (AGEs; 13 of them were sequenced in this study and located within P. aeruginosa chromosomes) that were divided into four groups: five related integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), four related integrative and mobilizable elements (IMEs), five related unit transposons, and two related IMEs and their two derivatives. At least 45 resistance genes, involved in resistance to 10 different categories of antibiotics and heavy metals, were identified from these 18 AGEs. A total of 10 ß-lactamase genes were identified from 10 AGEs sequenced herein, and nine of them were captured within class 1 integrons, which were further integrated into ICEs and IMEs with intercellular mobility, and also unit transposons with intracellular mobility. Through this study, we identified for the first time 20 novel MGEs, including four ICEs Tn6584, Tn6585, Tn6586, and Tn6587; three IMEs Tn6853, Tn6854, and Tn6878; five unit transposons Tn6846, Tn6847, Tn6848, Tn6849, and Tn6883; and eight integrons In1795, In1778, In1820, In1784, In1775, In1774, In1789, and In1799. This was also the first report of two resistance gene variants bla CARB-53 and catB3s, and a novel ST3405 isolate of P. aeruginosa. The data presented here denoted that complex transposition and homologous recombination promoted the assembly and integration of AGEs with mosaic structures into P. aeruginosa chromosomes.

15.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819601

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of the Integrated Liver Inflammatory Score (ILIS) in predicting survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and to compare ILIS to other prognostic scoring systems and inflammatory indices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 192 patients with unresectable HCC who underwent TACE from three medical centers. The potential risk factors of patients' overall survival (OS) were determined by multivariate Cox regression analysis. The predictive performances of ILIS in 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survivals were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The discriminatory power in the OS of ILIS and the other known scoring systems or inflammatory indices were determined by C-statistic. RESULTS: Multivariate regression analysis showed that high ILIS (P=0.047), low lymphocyte count (P=0.034), beyond up-to-seven criteria (P=0.021), and non-responder to the first TACE session (P=0.039) were risk factors for poor prognosis after TACE. The predictive performances of ILIS for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survivals were fairly good, with AUCs of 0.627, 0.631, 0.621, 0.577, and 0.681, respectively. ILIS outperformed other standard scoring systems and inflammatory indices in predicting OS, with a C-statistic of 0.625. CONCLUSION: ILIS is a powerful prognostic index for survival of HCC patients after TACE, suggesting that pretreatment ILIS should be considered during the patient evaluation process.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813517

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Compared to adult studies, studies which involve the treatment of pediatric congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are limited and no universal treatment regimen is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) therapy for treating male adolescents with CHH. METHODS: Male adolescent CHH patients were treated with hCG/hMG (n = 20) or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pump (n = 21). The treatment was divided into a study phase (0-3 months) and a follow-up phase (3-12 months). The testicular volume (TV), penile length (PL), penis diameter (PD), and sex hormone levels were compared between the two groups. The TV and other indicators between the groups were analyzed using a t-test (equal variance) or a rank sum test (unequal variance). RESULTS: Before treatment, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the biochemistry, hormones, and other demographic indicators. After 3 months of treatment, the TV of the hCG/hMG and GnRH groups increased to 5.1 ±â€Š2.3 mL and 4.1 ±â€Š1.8 mL, respectively; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 1.394). The PL reached 6.9 ±â€Š1.8 cm and 5.1 ±â€Š1.6 cm (P < 0.05, t = 3.083), the PD reached 2.4 ±â€Š0.5 cm and 2.0 ±â€Š0.6 cm (P < 0.05, t = 2.224), respectively, in the two groups. At the end of 6 months of treatment, biomarkers were in normal range in the two groups. Compared with the GnRH group, the testosterone (T) level and growth of PL and PD were significantly greater in the hCG/hMG group (all P < 0.05). While the TV of both groups increased, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 0.314). After 9 to 12 months of treatment, the T level was higher in the hCG/hMG group. Other parameters did not exhibit a statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: The hCG/hMG regimen is feasible and effective for treating male adolescents with CHH. The initial 3 months of treatment may be a window to optimally observe the strongest effects of therapy. Furthermore, results from the extended time-period showed positive outcomes at the 1-year mark; however, the long-term effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the hCG/hMG regimen require further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02880280; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02880280.

18.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 2021 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electromyographic biofeedback (EMG BF) training is an effective method of promoting motor learning and control in neurorehabilitation, but its effect on quadriceps femoris muscle in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of EMG BF training on motor function of quadriceps femoris in patients with incomplete SCI. METHODS: Thirty-three incomplete paraplegic patients with quadriceps femoris strength ranging grade 1 to grade 3 less than 6 months post-injury were enrolled. Control group (n = 16) received conventional physical therapy to enhance quadriceps femoris strength, while intervention group (n = 17) was treated with conventional physical therapy and EMG BF training. All received treatment once a day for 30 days. Surface electromyograph (sEMG), muscle strength and thigh circumference size were assessed to evaluate motor function of quadriceps femoris. Activities of daily living (ADL) was evaluated by Modified Barthel Index (MBI). All the measures evaluated three times in total. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, intervention group significantly improved on sEMG values and strength of quadriceps femoris (PsEMG <  0.001, Pstrength <  0.05). sEMG values of quadriceps femoris increased earlier than strength of quadriceps femoris in intervention group (Prest = 0.07, Pactive = 0.031). There were no statistical differences in thigh circumference size and ADL scores between groups (Pthigh >  0.05, PADL = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: EMG BF training appeared to be a useful tool to enhance motor function of quadriceps femoris in patients with incomplete SCI. sEMG could quantify the changes of single muscle myodynamia precisely before visible or touchable changes occur.

19.
Oral Dis ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818901

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of radiation on paracellular pathway of rat submandibular glands (SMGs) and the mechanism of increasing secretion following treatment with pilocarpine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In situ irradiation models of SMGs in Wistar rats were conducted, and the glands were exposed to X-radiation at a single dose of 20 Gy. Pilocarpine was intraperitoneally injected 60 min prior to radiation and continuous 6 d post-irradiation for a total of 7 d. Salivary secretion, histological changes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, alterations in tight junctions (TJs), and functional membrane proteins aquaporin-5 (AQP5) and claudin-4 mediated by the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 subtype receptor were determined at 1 and 12 wk after irradiation. RESULTS: Salivary secretion of the irradiated glands was reduced at 1 and 12 wk. As well, acinar cell numbers, TJ width, and the levels of M3 receptor and AQP5 were decreased. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 1α, and the expression of the TJ protein claudin-4 were significantly increased in irradiated SMGs. Notably, all the alterations were attenuated by pilocarpine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pilocarpine could improve the secretory function of irradiated rat SMGs via reducing inflammation, ameliorating the structural injury of TJs, and attenuating the up-regulation of claudin-4 expression.

20.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803649

RESUMEN

Recent global changes have led to an increase in the spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affecting domestic ruminants and humans, with an annual loss of US $13.9-$18.7 billion. The current study determined the perception and practices of livestock farmers regarding tick infestation. A total of 112 livestock farms were surveyed in Punjab, Pakistan, among which animals from 42 (37.5%) farms were infested with ticks. Only 28.6% (n = 32) of the dairy farmers were consulting veterinarians for ticks control, while 86.7% (n = 97) of the respondents did not consider biosecurity measures in the control of tick transmission. Most of the respondents, 71.4% (n = 80), did not consider manual tick removal from their animals (i.e., by hand, followed by physically crushing) as a risky practice for spreading zoonotic diseases. Improper disposal of bottles of acaricides in the farm drainage was also observed, putting the environment and aquatic life at risk. These wrong practices may contribute to high disease burdens and economic losses, increasing the possibility of transmission of zoonotic TBDs and pollution of the environment. Therefore, an integrated One Health approach is required for the control of TBDs through environmentally friendly approaches.

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