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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 671-682, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018193

RESUMEN

The functional properties of endogenous Schwann cells (SCs) during nerve repair are dynamic. Optimizing the functional properties of SCs at different stages of nerve repair may have therapeutic benefit in improving the repair of damaged nerves. Previous studies showed that miR-221-3p promotes the proliferation and migration of SCs, and miR-338-3p promotes the myelination of SCs. In this study, we established rat models of sciatic nerve injury by bridging the transected sciatic nerve with a silicone tube. We injected a miR-221 lentiviral vector system together with a doxycycline-inducible Tet-On miR-338 lentiviral vector system into the cavity of nerve conduits of nerve stumps to sequentially regulate the biological function of endogenous SCs at different stages of nerve regeneration. We found that the biological function of SCs was sequentially regulated, the diameter and density of myelinated axons were increased, the expression levels of NF200 and myelin basic protein were increased, and the function of injured peripheral nerve was improved using this system. miRNA Target Prediction Database prediction, Nanopore whole transcriptome sequencing, quantitative PCR, and dual luciferase reporter gene assay results predicted and verified Cdkn1b and Nrp1 as target genes of miR-221-3p and miR-338-3p, respectively, and their regulatory effects on SCs were confirmed in vitro. In conclusion, here we established a new method to enhance nerve regeneration through sequential regulation of biological functions of endogenous SCs, which establishes a new concept and model for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. The findings from this study will provide direct guiding significance for clinical treatment of sciatic nerve injury.

2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133991, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037681

RESUMEN

Fish oil develops particular off-odors, mainly fishy odor, from the oxidation of its characteristic fatty acids, docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA). Anchovy oil (AO) was taken as representative of fish oils. This was compared to three vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions, i.e. camellia, sunflower and linseed oil, and differential volatile compounds were identified by static-headspace gas-chromatography ion-mobility-spectrometry (SHS-GC-IMS) and orthogonal partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) during oxidation at 60 °C. Three groups of differential volatile compounds detected at higher concentrations in the AO were screened out and two compounds, identified as 5-methylfurfural and 2-acetylfuran, were characteristic to the AO and not found in the vegetable oils. They were formed from both EPA and DHA, only present in the AO, and their formation mechanisms were proposed. The contents of 5-methylfurfural and 2-acetylfuran increased linearly with the oxidation time and consequently they could be used as oxidative markers of fish oils.


Asunto(s)
Quimiometría , Aceites de Pescado , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Aceites de Pescado/química , Furaldehído/análogos & derivados , Furanos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Aceites Vegetales
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(5): 1067-1075, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254995

RESUMEN

Although many therapeutic interventions have shown promise in treating spinal cord injury, focusing on a single aspect of repair cannot achieve successful and functional regeneration in patients following spinal cord injury . In this study, we applied a combinatorial approach for treating spinal cord injury involving neuroprotection and rehabilitation, exploiting cell transplantation and functional sensorimotor training to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Here, we used a mouse model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury to investigate whether the combination of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and exercise training has a synergistic effect on functional restoration. Locomotor function was evaluated by the Basso Mouse Scale, horizontal ladder test, and footprint analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging, histological examination, transmission electron microscopy observation, immunofluorescence staining, and western blotting were performed 8 weeks after spinal cord injury to further explore the potential mechanism behind the synergistic repair effect. In vivo, the combination of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and exercise showed a better therapeutic effect on motor function than the single treatments. Further investigations revealed that the combination of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and exercise markedly reduced fibrotic scar tissue, protected neurons, and promoted axon and myelin protection. Additionally, the synergistic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and exercise on spinal cord injury recovery occurred via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In vitro, experimental evidence from the PC12 cell line and primary cortical neuron culture also demonstrated that blocking of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway would aggravate neuronal damage. Thus, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with exercise training can effectively restore motor function after spinal cord injury by activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 284: 121790, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081190

RESUMEN

Recently, there has been an increasing demand for developing a reliable method to assess the quality of liquor in the baijiu industry quickly and accurately. The present study sought to establish a strategy for rapid quantitative analysis of the primary flavor components in Nongxiangxing baijiu. Under the experimental conditions, 7 of the 10 major flavor components in Nongxiangxing baijiu could be quantified effectively, such as ethyl butyrate (R2p = 0.9942), ethyl lactate (R2p = 0.9438), n-butanol (R2p = 0.9048), isobutanol (R2p = 0.9696), acetic acid (R2p = 0.9600), butyric acid (R2p = 0.8448), caproic acid (R2p = 0.9971). This result indicates that FT-IR combined with quantitative chemometric modeling could be a potential approach for rapid quality assessment of Nongxiangxing baijiu. Overall, this study provides a theoretical basis for subsequent related studies on Nongxiangxing baijiu.


Asunto(s)
1-Butanol , Quimiometría , Acetatos , Ácido Butírico , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(1): 4-32, 2023 01 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285724

RESUMEN

Saliva is a complex biological fluid with a variety of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites and microbiota, which can be used for the screening and diagnosis of many diseases. In addition, saliva has the characteristics of simple collection, non-invasive and convenient storage, which gives it the potential to replace blood as a new main body of fluid biopsy, and it is an excellent biological diagnostic fluid. This review integrates recent studies and summarizes the research contents of salivaomics and the research progress of saliva in early diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. This review aims to explore the value and prospect of saliva diagnosis in clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Saliva , Humanos , Saliva/química , Biomarcadores/análisis , Diagnóstico Precoz , Biopsia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 151-161, 2023 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913753

RESUMEN

Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the main subtypes of esophageal cancer (EC), but nationwide survival of both EC subtypes has never been reported in China. Our study aimed to estimate the survival trends of EC by subtype in China and compare them with those in the United States for the same period. We used data from 64 Chinese cancer registries, which included EC patients diagnosed during 2008 and 2015 and followed up until 31st December 2017. The 5-year age-standardized relative survival by subtype, sex, age group and urban or rural area between 2008 and 2017 were analyzed. We stratified survival estimates by calendar period (2008-2009, 2010-2011, 2012-2014 and 2015-2017). Data from the SEER 18 program were calculated to estimate the survival of EC in the United States. A further comparison between the survivals in areas covered and not covered by population-based endoscopic screening programs in China was conducted. A total of 129 962 records were included in the survival analyses. Results revealed that age-standardized 5-year relative survivals for AC and SCC increased in both China and the United States from 2008 to 2017. In 2015 to 2017, 5-year survival from both subtypes in China was better than the United States (SCC: 36.9% vs 18.5%, AC: 34.8% vs 22.3%). The survival for both subtypes was significantly higher in screening areas than in nonscreening areas in China (SCC: 40.6% vs 32.8%; AC: 43.0% vs 31.3%). A survival gap in EC by subtype exists between China and the United States. Our results may support the beneficial effect of population-based endoscopic screening for survival, and may be poised to inform national policy-making in both countries.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Programa de VERF , Adenocarcinoma/patología , China/epidemiología
7.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116535, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279820

RESUMEN

China put forward that it would strive to achieve the carbon peaking in 2030 and carbon neutrality goals in 2060, which needed realizing the synergistic effect of pollution reduction and CO2 reduction. CO2 and PM2.5 from coal consumption were "homogenous and synchronous" and they had significant synergistic effect. The synergistic reduction of PM2.5 from coal consumption could have impacts on public health. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) was adopted to decompose the PM2.5 from coal consumption in China from 2012 to 2017 based on data availability and quantified the synergy. PM2.5 emissions from coal consumption were forecasted in 2030, 2035, 2050 and 2060, and its health effects of PM2.5 were estimated. The main conclusions were: (1) the synergy of CO2 and PM2.5 was the largest contribution factor of PM2.5 from coal consumption. (2) PM2.5 from coal consumption in 2060 would achieve the WHO air quality guidelines. (3) The most health effects economic loss from PM2.5 generated by coal consumption in China was in 2014. The health effects economic loss would have been decreased to negative by 2050. We should reinforce the synergistic effect of CO2 and PM2.5, improve energy efficiency and optimize energy structure to achieve PM2.5 pollution control and reduce health effects economic loss.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Carbón Mineral , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Carbono , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 823-830, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375964

RESUMEN

Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is a commonly used organophosphate-based flame retardant and can bio-accumulate in human tissues and organs. As its structure is similar to that of neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, the neurotoxicity of TDCIPP has raised widespread concerns. TDCIPP can increase neuronal apoptosis and induce autophagy. However, its regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression upregulation of the DNA Damage-Inducible Transcript 4 (DDIT4) protein, which might play essential roles in TDCIPP-induced neuronal autophagy and apoptosis, was observed in TDCIPP-treated differentiated rat PC12 cells. Furthermore, we determined the protective effect of the DDIT4 suppression on the autophagy and apoptosis induced by TDCIPP using Western blot (WB) and Flow cytometry (FACS) analysis. We observed that TDCIPP treatment increased the DDIT4, the autophagy marker Beclin-1, and the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3II) expressions and decreased the mTOR phosphorylation levels. Conversely, the suppression of DDIT4 expression increased the p-mTOR expression and decreased cell autophagy and apoptosis. Collectively, our results revealed the function of DDIT4 in cell death mechanisms triggered by TDCIPP through the mTOR signaling axis in differentiated PC12 cells. Thus, this study provided vital evidence necessary to explain the mechanism of TDCIPP-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis , Autofagia , Organofosfatos , Factores de Transcripción , Animales , Ratas , Organofosfatos/efectos adversos , Compuestos Organofosforados , Células PC12 , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
9.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 144: 108927, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372055

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Harm reduction services, including methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), have been decentralized to Vietnam's community health care settings. This study aims to pilot test an intervention to facilitate decentralized harm reduction service delivery in Vietnam. METHODS: The research team conducted an intervention pilot between August 2020 and May 2021 with six community MMT distribution sites in Thai Nguyen Province of Vietnam. We recruited five commune health workers (CHW) from each center (N = 30). In-person intervention training included content to correct misconceptions about harm reduction and reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward patients who use drugs and teach CHWs to self-examine and improve their service provision process. The study team developed a web-based platform to streamline CHW's patient monitoring and referral efforts. The team assessed intervention outcomes at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. CHWs in the intervention group provided acceptability ratings and feedback on the intervention at 6-months. RESULTS: CHWs in both intervention and control groups had similar background characteristics and outcome measures at baseline. CHWs in the intervention group, compared to those in the control group, showed a significantly higher level of improvement in adherence to service delivery protocol at 3-months. CHW in the intervention group had a significantly lower level of management-related stress compared to the control group at 6-months, although the intervention effect measured by the difference in change from baseline was not statistically significant. CHWs who participated in the final focus group reported high acceptability of the intervention. CONCLUSION: This intervention pilot demonstrated acceptability and promising outcomes on community-based harm reduction service delivery. Similar intervention strategies can be applied to enhance the decentralization of other chronic disease treatment services.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/educación , Vietnam , Metadona/uso terapéutico , Política
10.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134724, 2023 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332587

RESUMEN

The aim of the present research was to explore the development of off-odors in fish oil from the perspective of fatty acid oxidation. It was found that the off-odors elicited by the two major ω-3 PUFAs in fish oil, i.e. DHA and EPA, were different from those by fish oil. Results showed that simultaneous oxidation of fatty acids other than DHA and EPA can be involved. The off-odors of fish oil was successfully simulated by combining oxidized samples of DHA, EPA and sunflower oil. Therefore, oxidation of oleic and linoleic acids also contributed to the off-odors in fish oil. A novel analytical approach that consisted in the combination of gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to identify differences in the volatile components between the recombinant oil and the fish oil.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Aceites de Pescado , Aceites de Pescado/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análisis , Odorantes/análisis , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115867, 2023 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341818

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan (WZYZW) is a classic Chinese herbal preparation, which has a significant clinical efficacy in tonifying the kidney and benefiting the sperm, and is widely used in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia with a long history. TAp73 inhibition results in the decrease of sperm quality, but the therapeutic mechanism of WZYZW on oligoasthenospermia caused by TAp73 gene inhibition remains elusive. AIMS OF STUDY: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether TAp73 suppression leads to oligoasthenospermia and the application of WZYZW treatment in condition of TAp73 suppression. METHODOLOGY: C57BL/6 male mice were injected with Pifithrin-α (2.5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 30 days to induce TAp73 suppression model, with WZYZW at 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg were administrated in parallel. The blood, testis and epididymis were collected, with organ coefficient calculated. Makler sperm counter was used to analyze the density, motility, survival and malformation rate of sperm. Apoptosis of sperm was analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum hormone levels were determined using ELISA. HE staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe histopathological changes of testis in blood-testis barrier (BTB), ectoplasmic specialization (ES) and other cell junctions. Expressions of cell adhesion factors including TAp73, Integrin-α6, N-cadherin, Nectin-2 and Occludin were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to control mice, TAp73 inhibition dramatically decreased the epididymal coefficient, sperm quality, and serum testosterone (T) level, while increasing apoptosis in sperm in mice. HE staining and TEM showed that the tight junction (TJ) and apical ES structure were seriously abnormal in the testis in mice with TAp73 inhibition. Additionally, the expression of Occludin protein was elevated, while that of TAp73, Integrin-α6, N-cadherin, and Nectin-2 reduced in model mice. WZYZW treatment ameliorated testicular spermatogenic dysfunctions in TAp73 suppressed mice, restoring the decreased sperm quality, serum T level and testicular histopathological changes of TJ and ES, as well as decreasing sperm malformation rate and apoptosis. Moreover, WZYZW reversed the expressions of Occludin, TAp73, Integrin-α6, N-cadherin and Nectin-2 in TAp73 suppressed mice. CONCLUSIONS: By impairing spermatogenesis and maturation, TAp73 inhibition led to oligoasthenospermia in mice. WZYZW could rescue the oligoasthenospermia associated with TAp73 inhibition via affecting the dynamic remodeling of cellular junctions in testicular tissues in mice.


Asunto(s)
Semen , Testículo , Masculino , Ratones , Animales , Nectinas/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Testículo/metabolismo , Espermatogénesis , Uniones Intercelulares , Cadherinas/genética , Cadherinas/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo
12.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114516, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220442

RESUMEN

Previous researches have reported the association between air pollution and various diseases. However, few researches have investigated whether air pollutants are associated with the economic loss resulting from patients' hospitalization, especially the economic loss of hospitalization due to acute cardiovascular events. The purpose of our research was to explore the association between the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), taken as an index of pollution, and the hospitalization costs of myocardial infarction (MI), and the potential effect modification by the ABO blood group. A total of 3237 MI inpatients were included in this study. A multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between ambient CO levels and hospitalization costs of MI patients. Moreover, we performed stratified analyses by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), season, hypertension, and ABO blood types. There was a positive association between the levels of CO in the air and the costs of hospitalization caused by MI. Furthermore, such association was stronger in males, BMI ≥25, <65 years, with hypertension, and non-O blood group. Interestingly, we found the association was particularly significant in patients with blood group B. Overall, our study first found that ambient CO levels could have an impact on the hospitalization costs for MI patients, and those with blood group B can be more sensitive.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Hipertensión , Infarto del Miocardio , Masculino , Humanos , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Sistema del Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Hospitalización , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/inducido químicamente , Hipertensión/inducido químicamente
13.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114585, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252835

RESUMEN

Climate change, represented by rising and fluctuating temperature, induces systematic changes in marine organisms and in their bacterial symbionts. However, the role of host-microbiota interactions in the host's response to rising temperature and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood in marine organisms. Here, the symbiotic intestinal microbiota and transcriptional responses between diploid and triploid oysters that displayed susceptible and resistant performance under the stress of rising temperature during a summer mortality event were compared to investigate the host-microbiota interactions. The rising and fluctuating temperatures triggered an earlier onset and higher mortality in susceptible oysters (46.7%) than in resistant oysters (17.3%). Correlation analysis between microbial properties and environmental factors showed temperature was strongly correlated with indices of α-diversity and the abundance of top 10 phyla, indicating that temperature significantly shaped the intestinal microbiota of oysters. The microbiota structure of resistant oysters exhibited more rapid changes in composition and diversity compared to susceptible oysters before peak mortality, indicating that resistant oysters possessed a stronger ability to regulate their symbiotic microbiota. Meanwhile, linear discriminant analysis effect size (LefSe) analysis found that the probiotics Verrucomicrobiales and Clostridiales were highly enriched in resistant oysters, and that potential pathogens Betaproteobacteriales and Acidobacteriales were enriched in susceptible oysters. These results implied that the symbiotic microbiota played a significant role in the oysters' adaptation to rising temperature. Accompanying the decrease in unfavorable bacteria before peak mortality, genes related to phagocytosis and lysozymes were upregulated and the xenobiotics elimination pathway was exclusively expressed in resistant oysters, demonstrating the validity of these immunological functions in controlling proliferation of pathogens driven by rising temperature. Compromised immunological functions might lead to proliferation of pathogens in susceptible oysters. This study might uncover a conserved mechanism of adaptation to rising temperature in marine invertebrates from the perspective of interactions between host and symbiotic microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Crassostrea , Microbiota , Animales , Temperatura , Crassostrea/microbiología , Agua de Mar/química , Estaciones del Año , Bacterias/genética
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130235, 2023 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368064

RESUMEN

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), particularly short-chain CPs (SCCPs), have been reported in human blood with high detection frequency and often high variation among individuals. However, factors associated with and their contributions to inter-individual variability in SCCP concentrations in human blood have not been assessed. In this study, we first measured SCCP concentrations in 57 human blood samples collected from individuals living in the same vicinity in China. We then used the PROduction-To-Exposure model to investigate the impacts of variations in sociodemographic data, biotransformation rates, dietary patterns, and indoor contamination on inter-individual variability in SCCP concentrations in human blood. Measured ∑SCCP concentrations varied by a factor of 10 among individuals with values ranging from 122 to 1230 ng/g, wet weight. Model results show that age, sex, body weight, and dietary composition played a minor role in causing variability in ∑SCCP concentrations in human blood given that modeled ∑SCCP concentrations ranged over a factor of 2 - 3 correlated to the variations of these factors. In contrast, variations in the modeled ΣSCCP concentrations increased to factors of 6 and 8 when variability in biotransformation rates and indoor contamination were considered, respectively, indicating these two factors could be the most influential on inter-individual variability in SCCP concentrations in human blood.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Clorados , Parafina , Humanos , Parafina/análisis , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , China
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 287(Pt 1): 122069, 2023 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371877

RESUMEN

A novel fluorescent probe L consisting of ß-Cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and thiosemicarbazide moieties was designed for copper ions detection. Apparent fluorescence quenching of probe L in Tris-HCl(pH = 7.4)solution was observed only in the presence of Cu2+, among other interfering ions. The present probe L was 1:1 complexed with Cu2+ and the detection limit of probe L was calculated to be 1.37 µM. The results demonstrate that the probe L may provide a convenient method for visual detection of Cu2+ in the environmental and biological systems.


Asunto(s)
Ciclodextrinas , Colorantes Fluorescentes , Cobre , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/métodos , Iones , Agua
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 794-805, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182184

RESUMEN

Both concentrations and emissions of many air pollutants have been decreasing due to implement of control measures in China, in contrast to the fact that an increase in emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has been reported. This study employed seven years continuous NMHCs measurements and the related activities data of Shanghai, a megacity in China, to explore evolution of emissions and effectiveness of air pollution control measures. The mixing ratio of NMHCs showed no statistical interannual changes, of which their compositions exhibited marked changes. This resulted in a decreasing trend of ozone formation potential by 3.8%/year (p < 0.05, the same below), which should be beneficial to ozone pollution mitigation as its production in Shanghai is in the NMHCs-limited regime. Observed alkanes, aromatics and acetylene changed by +3.7%/year, -5.9%/year and -7.4%/year, respectively, and alkenes showed no apparent trend. NMHCs sources were apportioned by a positive matrix factorization model. Accordingly, vehicular emissions (-5.9%/year) and petrochemical industry emissions (-7.1%/year) decreased significantly, but the decrease slowed down; significant reduction in solvent usage (-9.0%/year) appeared after 2010; however, emissions of natural gas (+12.6%/year) and fuel evaporation (with an increasing fraction) became more important. The inconsistency between observations and inventories was found in interannual trend and speciation as well as source contributions, emphasizing the need for further validation in NMHCs emission inventory. Our study confirms the effectiveness of measures targeting mobile and centralized emissions from industrial sources and reveals a need focusing on fugitive emissions, which provided new insights into future air policies in polluted region.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Alcanos/análisis , Alquenos/análisis , Alquinos , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Metano , Gas Natural , Ozono/química , Solventes , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130160, 2023 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283216

RESUMEN

With the large-scale application of LiFePO4 (LFP) in energy storage and electric vehicles, the recycling of spent lithium LFP batteries has gained more attention. However, recycling spent LFP is less economically feasible owing to the poor economic value of Fe products, which causes a problem for both the efficiency and economy. This work proposes a highly economical acid-free mechanochemical approach for the efficient and selective extraction of lithium (Li) from spent LFP battery cathode materials. The selective release of 98.9 % of Li from the LFP crystal structure is achieved at a reaction time of 5 h, a rotational speed of 500 rpm, and sodium citrate (Na3Cit) to LFP mass ratio of 10. Meanwhile, Fe is reserved in the form of FePO4 in the olivine structure. The use of Na3Cit as a co-milling agent ensures a pollution-free recovery process and efficient extraction of Li+. The chelation of Li+ with organic ligands (Cit3-) is the key to the efficient selective recovery of Li+ from the olivine LFP structure via the mechanochemical process. The economic analysis indicates that the method is feasible and ensures industrial viability. The acid-free mechanochemical (MC) process reported in this work provides a novel route to selectively recover Li from spent LFP efficiently and highly economically.

18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121834, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116409

RESUMEN

Human alpha-1 acidic glycoprotein (HAG) is one of the proteins widely present in the blood, and the level of HAG in patients with cancer and inflammation is significantly increased. As one of transport proteins in the blood, the ability of HAG to bind with a drug, especially alkaline drugs, affects significantly the drug content at the target site, which in turn affects the efficacy of the drug. In this study, the interaction mechanism between HAG and the first generation Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor namely ibrutinib was explored by a combination of multi-spectroscopic techniques and theoretical calculations. The findings revealed that the quenching and binding constants of the HAG-ibrutinib system both reduced as the temperature rose, demonstrating that ibrutinib quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HAG in a static manner. It was confirmed that HAG and ibrutinib formed a 1:1 complex with moderate affinity due to the binding constant of around 105 M-1 and accompanied by Förster resonance energy transfer. It was verified by thermodynamic parameter analysis and competition assays as well as molecular simulation that the existence of hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic forces in the complexation of HAG and ibrutinib.The findings from theoretical calculations including molecular docking and theoretical calculation simulation confirmed that ibrutinib bound to the barrel hydrophobic pocket of HAG with a binding energy of -41.9 kJ∙mol-1, and the the binding constant of around 105 M-1 and the contribution of each residue in the complexation of ibrutinib and HAG. Additionally, it can be confirmed that metal ions affected the binding interaction of ibrutinib with HAG, among them, some promoted binding while others inhibited it.


Asunto(s)
Orosomucoide , Humanos , Orosomucoide/química , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Unión Proteica , Sitios de Unión , Termodinámica , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 205-212, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866430

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The formulation of phytosterol (PS)-enriched functional foods has attracted increasing interest in the recent years, owing to its potential health effects. However, the poor solubility and bioavailability greatly limit PS application in this regard. This study investigated whether soy protein isolate (SPI) could effectively perform as a nanocarrier for improving the water solubility, bioaccessibility, and cholesterol-lowering activity of PSs. RESULTS: In this work, we fabricated SPI-PS nanocomplexes, which not only can enhance the stability and bioaccessibility of PS, but also improve the cholesterol-lowering ability of SPI. This improvement was mainly due to the formation of protein-active substance complexes, through hydrophobic interactions. The complexation with PSs resulted in formation of nanosized particles with greater sizes, lower ζ-potential, and higher surface hydrophobicity. The encapsulation efficiency, loading amount, and solubility of PS were closely related to the applied PS concentration in the mixed dispersions, and the maximal PS solubility in the aqueous phase reached about 1.63 mg mL-1 at the highest PS concentration (2.0 mg mL-1 ). The PS molecules in the nanocomplexes were mainly present in the amorphous form. The enhanced in vitro cholesterol-lowering activity of PS nanocomplexes relative to free PS seemed to be closely related to its higher bioaccessibility. CONCLUSION: The findings are of relevance for the development of food-grade PS ingredients suitable for the formulations of PS-enriched functional foods. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Fitosteroles , Proteínas de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Fitosteroles/química , Colesterol , Excipientes , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
20.
Food Chem ; 402: 134226, 2023 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126580

RESUMEN

The presence of watercored fruit with translucent mesocarp has attracted immense attention due to its unique morphology and taste, however, the metabolic reconstruction between watercored and non-watercored tissues remain elusive. Herein, the combined proteomic and metabolomic approach was carried out to characterize the protein abundance and metabolic profile in watercored apple. Results demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism was prioritized enriched in watercored apple, including highly accumulated sucrose and sugar alcohols, and the increased level of transcription factor WHIRLY2 (WHY2), which is required in sugar reallocation. More than 50% overlap of differently abundant proteins involved in calcium ion binding, starch and sucrose metabolism implied the involvement of calcium signaling in watercore development. Moreover, significantly lower calcium content was detected in watercored apples. Sucrose synthase (SUSY) protein, which is involved both in calcium ion binding and sugar metabolism, was the potential basis of apple watercore development, which provided a likely candidate in regulation of apparent quality.


Asunto(s)
Malus , Malus/química , Proteómica , Calcio/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sacarosa/análisis , Azúcares/análisis , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Alcoholes del Azúcar/análisis , Almidón/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
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