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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147343, 2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932668

RESUMEN

Large dams on rivers have substantial impacts on the flow process, sediment transport, and river morphology. The flow-sediment regimes and river morphology in the Yangtze River downstream of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) have undergone significant adjustments owing to the impoundment of the TGD. Different methods have been adopted to assess the spatiotemporal variations in characteristic discharge in the reaches downstream of the TGD, which can quantitatively assess the channel-forming capacity of flow-sediment regimes. However, agreement on the spatiotemporal variations in characteristic discharge in a long-distance reach downstream of the TGD does not exist thus far. Therefore, in this study, the effective discharge, dominant discharge, and bankfull discharge were calculated to assess the spatiotemporal variations in the characteristic discharge from Yichang to Datong. It was found that, after the impoundment of the TGD, the attenuation of the flow process, bedload coarsening, and changes in the water surface slope together led to a decrease in dominant discharge, which was consistent with the adjustment of the main deformation area from the bankfull channel to the medium-flow channel. This indicates that the dominant discharge is most representative of the characteristic discharges in the reaches downstream of the TGD. Results show that the post-dam characteristic discharge at each station from Yichang to Datong was reduced by 700-5700 m3/s. Spatially, owing to the tributaries along the main stem, the characteristic discharge decreased from Yichang to Jianli and then increased from Jianli to Datong in the pre- and post-dam periods. This study serves as a valuable reference for quantitatively assessing the channel-forming capacity of flow-sediment regimes for other rivers worldwide. Moreover, it facilitates the prediction of the evolution of river morphology.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942976

RESUMEN

Myogenesis, the process of skeletal muscle formation, is a highly coordinated multistep biological process. Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as a gatekeeper in myogenesis. Up to now, most studies on muscle development-related lncRNAs are mainly focussed on humans and mice. In this study, a novel muscle highly expressed lncRNA, named lnc23, localized in nucleus, was found differentially expressed in different stages of embryonic development and myogenic differentiation. The knockdown and over-expression experiments showed that lnc23 positively regulated the myogenic differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells. Then, TMT 10-plex labelling quantitative proteomics was performed to screen the potentially regulatory proteins of lnc23. Results indicated that lnc23 was involved in the key processes of myogenic differentiation such as cell fusion, further demonstrated that down-regulation of lnc23 may inhibit myogenic differentiation by reducing signal transduction and cell fusion among cells. Furthermore, RNA pulldown/LC-MS and RIP experiment illustrated that PFN1 was a binding protein of lnc23. Further, we also found that lnc23 positively regulated the protein expression of RhoA and Rac1, and PFN1 may negatively regulate myogenic differentiation and the expression of its interacting proteins RhoA and Rac1. Hence, we support that lnc23 may reduce the inhibiting effect of PFN1 on RhoA and Rac1 by binding to PFN1, thereby promoting myogenic differentiation. In short, the novel identified lnc23 promotes myogenesis of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells via PFN1-RhoA/Rac1.

3.
Vis Neurosci ; 38: E006, 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934736

RESUMEN

Microglia, the main immune cell of the central nervous system (CNS), categorized into M1-like phenotype and M2-like phenotype, play important roles in phagocytosis, cell migration, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. As a part of CNS, retinal microglial cells (RMC) play an important role in retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but also retinal neurodegeneration. RMC was regarded as a central role in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss RMC polarization and its possible regulatory factors in early DR, which will provide new targets and insights for early intervention of DR.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939216

RESUMEN

Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, while the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and virulent subtype in breast cancers. Compared with luminal type breast cancers, which could be well controlled by endocrine treatment, TNBC is worse in prognosis and lack of effective targeted therapy. Thus, it would be interesting and meaningful to identify novel therapeutic targets for TNBC treatments. Recent genomic data showed the activation of Hippo/YAP signaling in TNBC, indicating its critical roles in TNBC carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Hippo/YAP signaling could subject to several kinds of protein modifications, including ubiquitination and phosphorylation. Quite a few studies have demonstrated these modifications, which controlled YAP protein stability and turnover, played critical role in Hippo signaling activation In our current study, we identified ZNF213 as a negative modifier for Hippo/YAP axis. ZNF213 depletion promoted TNBC cell migration and invasion, which could be rescued by further YAP silencing. ZNF213 knocking down facilitated YAP protein stability and Hippo target gene expression, including CTGF and CYR61. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that ZNF213 associated with YAP and facilitated YAP K48-linked poly-ubiquitination at several YAP lysine sites (K252, K254, K321 and K497). Besides, the clinical data showed that ZNF213 negatively correlated with YAP protein level and Hippo target gene expression in TNBC samples. ZNF213 expression correlated with good prognosis in TNBC patients. Our data provided novel insights in YAP proteolytic regulation and TNBC progression.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932418

RESUMEN

Nano-ZnO were in situ prepared and permanently embedded in regenerated cellulose (RC) films by chemical precipitation to endow antibacterial of films and simultaneously strengthen tensile strength. ZnCl2 was selected as a promoter of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride for cellulose dissolution and as a precursor for nano-ZnO synthesis. Zn2+-absorbed cellulose solution was reacted with NaOH under ultrasonic to obtain nano-ZnO embedded RC films. The results indicated that RC films treated with the longest sonication time, highest regeneration solution basicity, and highest cellulose concentration were demonstrated to be the most effective against S. aureus, which agreed well with the dense and homogeneous distribution of high content of nano-ZnO on the film surface. The nanocomposite films achieved particularly high mechanical strength of 202.0 MPa with improved thermal stability. Strong H-bonding formed between nano-ZnO and cellulose, which contributed to high tensile strength and thermal stability of films. This work affords a simple approach to prepare cellulose nanocomposite with outstanding performance for potential application in packaging.

6.
Environ Int ; 155: 106594, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940395

RESUMEN

Antibiotics contamination is an emerging environmental concern, owing to its potential risks to ecosystems and human health. Microalgae-based technology has been widely reported as a promising alternative to conventional wastewater treatment, since it is a solar-power driven, ecologically friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable reclamation strategy. This review provides fundamental insights into the major mechanisms underpinning microalgae-based antibiotics removal, including bioadsorption, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation. The critical role of extracellular polymeric substances on bioadsorption and extracellular biodegradation of antibiotics are also covered. Moreover, this review sheds light on the important factors affecting the removal of antibiotics by microalgae, and summarizes several novel approaches to improve the removal efficiency, including acclimation, co-metabolism and microbial consortium. Besides, hybrid systems (such as, microalgae-based technologies combined with the conventional activated sludge, advanced oxidation processes, constructed wetlands, and microbial fuel cells), and genetic engineering are also recommended, which will be feasible for enhanced removal of antibiotics. Finally, this review also highlights the need for further studies aimed at optimizing microalgae-based technology, with emphasis on improving performance and expanding its application in large-scale settings, especially in terms of technical, environmental-friendly and economically competitiveness. Overall, this review summarizes current understanding on microalgae-based technologies for removal of antibiotics and outlines future research directions.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945479

RESUMEN

Inpainting arbitrary missing regions is challenging because learning valid features for various masked regions is nontrivial. Though U-shaped encoder-decoder frameworks have been witnessed to be successful, most of them share a common drawback of mask unawareness in feature extraction because all convolution windows (or regions), including those with various shapes of missing pixels, are treated equally and filtered with fixed learned kernels. To this end, we propose our novel mask-aware inpainting solution. Firstly, a Mask-Aware Dynamic Filtering (MADF) module is designed to effectively learn multi-scale features for missing regions in the encoding phase. Specifically, filters for each convolution window are generated from features of the corresponding region of the mask. The second fold of mask awareness is achieved by adopting Point-wise Normalization (PN) in our decoding phase, considering that statistical natures of features at masked points differentiate from those of unmasked points. The proposed PN can tackle this issue by dynamically assigning point-wise scaling factor and bias. Lastly, our model is designed to be an end-to-end cascaded refinement one. Supervision information such as reconstruction loss, perceptual loss and total variation loss is incrementally leveraged to boost the inpainting results from coarse to fine. Effectiveness of the proposed framework is validated both quantitatively and qualitatively via extensive experiments on three public datasets including Places2, CelebA and Paris StreetView.

8.
Chem Rev ; 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947187

RESUMEN

Porous solids in the form of adsorbents and catalysts play a crucial role in various industrially important chemical, energy, and environmental processes. Formulating them into structured configurations is a key step toward their scale up and successful implementation at the industrial level. Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has emerged as an invaluable platform for shape engineering porous solids and fabricating scalable configurations for use in a wide variety of separation and reaction applications. However, formulating porous materials into self-standing configurations can dramatically affect their performance and consequently the efficiency of the process wherein they operate. Toward this end, various research groups around the world have investigated the formulation of porous adsorbents and catalysts into structured scaffolds with complex geometries that not only exhibit comparable or improved performance to that of their powder parents but also address the pressure drop and attrition issues of traditional configurations. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the recent advances and current challenges in the field of adsorption and catalysis to better guide the future directions in shape engineering solid materials with a better control on composition, structure, and properties of 3D-printed adsorbents and catalysts.

10.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948750

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Biomechanical comparison between rigid and non-rigid posterior stabilization systems following lumbar interbody fusion has been conducted in several studies. However, most of these previous studies mainly focused on investigating biomechanics of adjacent spinal segments or spine stability. The objective of the present study was to compare biomechanical responses of the fusion devices when using different posterior instrumentations. METHODS: Finite-element model of the intact human lumbar spine (L1-sacrum) was modified to simulate implantation of the fusion cage at L4-L5 level supplemented with different posterior stabilization systems including (i) pedicle screw-based fixation using rigid connecting rods (titanium rods), (ii) pedicle screw-based fixation using flexible connecting rods (PEEK rods) and (iii) dynamic interspinous spacer (DIAM). Stress responses were compared among these various models under bending moments. RESULTS: The highest and lowest stresses in endplate, fusion cage and bone graft were found at the fused L4-L5 level with DIAM and titanium rod stabilization systems, respectively. When using PEEK rod for the pedicle screw fixation, peak stress in the pedicle screw was lower but the ratio of peak stress in the rods to yield stress of the rod material was higher than using titanium rod. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with conventional rigid posterior stabilization system, the use of non-rigid stabilization system (i.e., the PEEK rod system and DIAM system) following lumbar interbody fusion might increase the risks of cage subsidence and cage damage, but promote bony fusion due to higher stress in the bone graft. For the pedicle screw-based rod stabilization system, using PEEK rod might reduce the risk of screw breakage but increased breakage risk of the rod itself.

11.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949074

RESUMEN

Seed storage proteins (SSPs) are determinants of wheat end-product quality. SSP synthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Few transcriptional regulators of SSP synthesis have been identified in wheat and this study aims to identify novel SSP gene regulators. Here, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TuODORANT1 from Triticum urartu was found to be preferentially expressed in the developing endosperm during grain filling. In common wheat (Triticum aestivum) overexpressing TuODORANT1, the transcription levels of all the SSP genes tested by RNA-Seq analysis were reduced by 49.71% throughout grain filling, which contributed to 13.38%-35.60% declines in the total SSP levels of mature grains. In in vitro assays, TuODORANT1 inhibited both the promoter activities and the transcription of SSP genes by 1-13-fold. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and ChIP-qPCR analysis demonstrated that TuODORANT1 bound to the cis-elements 5'-T/CAACCA-3' and 5'-T/CAACT/AG-3' in SSP gene promoters both in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, the homolog TaODORANT1 in common wheat hindered both the promoter activities and the transcription of SSP genes by 1-112-fold in vitro. Knockdown of TaODORANT1 in common wheat led to 14.73%-232.78% increases in the transcription of the tested SSP genes, which contributed to 11.43%-19.35% elevation in the total SSP levels. Our data show that both TuODORANT1 and TaODORANT1 are repressors of SSP synthesis.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949525

RESUMEN

Herein, we report an N-alkylation of pyrroles triggered by an unprecedented selective ring-expansive migration of the spiro-2H-pyrrole intermediates obtained via Ir-catalyzed asymmetric allylic dearomatization. The reaction affords a series of tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidine derivatives in good yields (up to 88%) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to >99% ee). The proposed reaction mechanism is supported by DFT calculations and the characterization of the key intermediate.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145663, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940751

RESUMEN

Humans are more likely to be exposed to ultrafine particles (UFPs) emitted by light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) in urban road traffic, which can cause serious bodily harm. In this study, we conducted on-road measurement of the Particle Number (PN) emissions from 18 China-3, China-4, and China-5 LDGVs on representative roads in Beijing. To clarify the impact of key parameters (standards, driving conditions, and technology) on the PN emissions, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the emission results. We found the PN emission factors (EFs) of port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles have declined considerably under stricter standards. Furthermore, we found the average EF of China-5 LDGVs with gasoline direct injection (GDI) was 10 times that of PFI vehicles, and the PN EFs of PFI vehicles increase as the age of the engine increases (R2 = 0.59). In different operating conditions, the PN EFs of all test vehicles under highway driving conditions were lower than those under non-highway driving conditions (6.5%-82.0%). The PN EFs of PFI LDGVs going uphill are 1.4-2.8 times those when going downhill. The PN EFs of LDGVs under start-up were 18-47% higher than under hot-running. PN emissions were high under positive engine power and increased with vehicle specific power. The dilution ratio has a significant impact on the test results, especially in a higher vehicle specific power interval, indicating that a high dilution ratio may lead to deviation of test values. Further research needs to determine the optimal dilution ratio to minimize test deviation. This study provides important data support for PN emission control. The optimal upper limit of the primary dilution ratio should be further studied and specified as a standard.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811437

RESUMEN

Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that tumour-associated macrophages support cancer progression. Moreover, macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in pathogenesis of multiple cancers, yet the functions of molecular determinants in which have not been fully understood. Herein, we aim to understand whether macrophage modulates pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression in an EV-dependent manner and the underlying mechanisms. microRNA (miR)-365 was experimentally determined to be enriched in the EVs from M2 macrophages (M2-EVs), which could be transferred into PDAC cells. Using a co-culture system, M2-EVs could enhance the proliferating, migrating and invading potentials of PDAC cells, while inhibition of miR-365 in M2-EVs could repress these malignant functions. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) was identified to be a direct target of miR-365, while the focal adhesion kinase (F/ATP)-dependent tyrosine kinase (AKT) pathway was activated by miR-365. We further demonstrated that overexpression of BTG2 could delay the progression of PDAC in vitro, whereas by impairing BTG2-mediated anti-tumour effect, M2-EV-miR-365 promoted PDAC progression. For validation, a nude mouse model of tumorigenesis was established, in which we found that targeting M2-EV-miR-365 contributed to suppression of tumour growth. Collectively, M2-EVs carry miR-365 to suppress BTG2 expression, which activated FAK/AKT pathway, thus promoting PDAC development.

15.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2000424, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811465

RESUMEN

How to precisely detect and effectively cure cancer which is defined as precise nanomedicine has drawn great attention worldwide. Polymeric nanoreactors which can in situ catalyze inert species into activated ones, can greatly increase imaging quality and enhance therapeutic effects along with decreased background interference and reduced serious side effects. After a brief introduction, the design and preparation of polymeric nanoreactors are discussed from the following aspects, that is, solvent-switch, pH-tuning, film rehydration, hard template, electrostatic interaction, and polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Subsequently, the biomedical applications of these nanoreactors in the fields of cancer imaging, cancer therapy, and cancer theranostics are highlighted. The last but not least, conclusions and future perspectives about polymeric nanoreactors are given. It is believed that polymeric nanoreactors can bring a great opportunity for future fabrication and clinical translation of precise nanomedicine.

16.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813625

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between pancreatic parenchyma loss and early postoperative hyperglycemia in patients with benign pancreatic diseases. METHODS: A total of 171 patients with benign pancreatic tumors or chronic pancreatitis, whose preoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) was normal and who underwent partial pancreatectomy were reviewed. The pancreatic volume was measured by CT imaging before and after the operation. According to their different pancreatic resection volume (PRV), 171 patients were divided into five groups: < 30%, 30%-39%, 40%-49%, 50%-59%, and ≥ 60%. The correlation between the PRV and postoperative FBG was investigated. According to the postoperative FBG value, the patients were divided into a hyperglycemia group (HG) and nonhyperglycemia group (non-HG) to explore the best cutoff value of the PRV between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the postoperative FBG among the five groups (PRV < 30%, 30%-39%, 40%-49%, 50%-59%, and ≥ 60%). The PRV was positively correlated with postoperative FBG in the benign tumor group and chronic pancreatitis group (R = 0.727 and 0.651, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that the best cutoff value of the PRV between the HG (n = 84) and non-HG (n = 87) was 39.95% with an AUC = 0.898; the sensitivity was 89.29%, and the specificity was 82.76%. CONCLUSION: There was a linear positive correlation between the postoperative FBG level and PRV. Patients with a PRV ≥ 40% are more likely to develop early postoperative hyperglycemia.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813710

RESUMEN

To explore the impact of promotion of electric vehicles on carbon emissions in China, this paper used the principal component analysis (PCA)-logistic regression model to predict the demand for traditional vehicles, and used the scenario analysis method to analyze the proportion of electric vehicles in traditional vehicles qualitatively. Then this paper calculated the carbon emissions during the power generation process based on the existing power structure. In addition, the IPCC carbon emission calculation method is used to compare the CO2 emissions produced by electric vehicles and fuel vehicles with similar vehicle quality while driving the same distance and consuming different energy sources. The results showed that the CO2 emissions of electric vehicles accounted for only 37.05% of fuel vehicles. By 2050, the annual electricity demand of electric vehicles will be 828.7, 776.9, and 752.1 billion kWh under the radical scenario, the reference scenario, and the negative scenario, respectively. According to the current power structure, the carbon emissions will be 1.2, 1.1, and 1 billion tons, respectively. The rapid growth of electric vehicles has a substantial impact on the grid load. Studying the changes in CO2 emissions from energy substitution is significant to formulate the development strategy of the automobile industry and adjust energy structure policies.

18.
Org Lett ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818114

RESUMEN

A novel diethylzinc-mediated radical 1,2-addition of perfluoroalkyl iodides to unactivated alkenes and alkynes is presented, which demonstrates a novel way to generate an ethyl difluoroacetate radical. This method is highly efficient and gives full conversions of the substrates, high yields of the products, and negligible byproducts and requires no column chromatography purifications. The mild conditions enable this protocol to exhibit excellent functional group compatibility.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804950

RESUMEN

To realize high-precision and high-frequency unattended site calibration and detection of satellites, automatic direction adjustment must be implemented in mirror arrays. This paper proposes a high-precision automatic calibration model based on a novel point light source tracking system for mirror arrays. A camera automatically observes the solar vector, and an observation equation coupling the image space and local coordinate systems is established. High-precision calibration of the system is realized through geometric error calculation of multipoint observation data. Moreover, model error analysis and solar tracking verification experiments are conducted. The standard deviations of the pitch angle and azimuth angle errors are 0.0176° and 0.0305°, respectively. The root mean square errors of the image centroid contrast are 2.0995 and 0.8689 pixels along the x- and y-axes, respectively. The corresponding pixel angular resolution errors are 0.0377° and 0.0144°, and the comprehensive angle resolution error is 0.0403°. The calculated model values are consistent with the measured data, validating the model. The proposed point light source tracking system can satisfy the requirements of high-resolution, high-precision, high-frequency on-orbit satellite radiometric calibration and modulation transfer function detection.

20.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 231-238, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792267

RESUMEN

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is reported to accelerate atherosclerosis and the development of adverse cardiac outcomes. Relationship between coronary atherosclerotic burden and TMAO has been examined in stable coronary artery disease and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but not in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We examined the association between TMAO and coronary atherosclerotic burden in NSTEMI. In this prospective cohort study, two groups including NSTEMI (n = 73) and age-sex matched Healthy (n = 35) individuals were enrolled between 2019 and 2020. Coronary atherosclerotic burden was stratified based on the number of diseased coronary vessels and clinical risk scores including SYNTAX and GENSINI. Fasting plasma TMAO was measured by isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography. The median plasma TMAO levels were significantly higher in the NSTEMI group than in the Healthy group, respectively (0.59 µM; interquartile range [IQR]: 0.43-0.78 versus 0.42 µM; IQR: 0.33-0.64; P = 0.006). Within the NSTEMI group, higher TMAO levels were observed in the multivessel disease (MVD) versus single vessel disease (P = 0.002), and intermediate-high risk (score ≥ 23) versus low risk (score < 23) of SYNTAX (P = 0.003) and GENSINI (P = 0.005). TMAO level remained an independent predictor of MVD (odds ratio [OR]: 5.94, P = 0.005), intermediate-high risk SYNTAX (OR: 3.61, P = 0.013) and GENSINI scores (OR: 4.60, P = 0.008) following adjustment for traditional risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis for TMAO predicted MVD (AUC: 0.73, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 0.60-0.86, P = 0.002), intermediate-high SYNTAX score (AUC: 0.70, 95% Cl: 0.58-0.82, P = 0.003) and GENSINI score (AUC: 0.70, 95% Cl: 0.57-0.83, P = 0.005). In all, TMAO levels are independently associated with high coronary atherosclerotic burden in NSTEMI.

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