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1.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113098, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225050

RESUMEN

The Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) is considered the most floristically diverse savanna in the world, home to more than seven thousand species. The region is a mosaic of savannas, grasslands and forests whose unique biophysical and landscape attributes are on the basis of a recent ecoregional map, paving the way to improved region-based strategies for land management actions. However, as a fire-prone ecosystem, Cerrado owes much of its distribution and ecological properties to the fire regime and contributes to an important parcel of South America burned area. Accordingly, any attempt to use ecoregion geography as a guide for management strategies should take fire into account, as an essential variable. The main aim of this study is to complement the ecoregional map of the Cerrado with information related to the fire component. Using remotely sensed information, we identify patterns and trends of fire frequency, intensity, seasonality, extent and scar size, and combine this information for each ecoregion, relying on a simple classification that summarizes the main fire characteristics over the last two decades. Results show a marked north-south fire activity gradient, with increased contributions from MATOPIBA, the latest agricultural frontier. Five ecoregions alone account for two thirds of yearly burned area. More intense fires are found in the Arc of Deforestation and eastern ecoregions, while ecoregions in MATOPIBA display decreasing fire intensity. An innovative analysis of fire scars stratified by size class shows that infrequent large fires are responsible for the majority of burned area. These large fires display positive trends over many ecoregions, whereas smaller fires, albeit more frequent, have been decreasing in number. The final fire classification scheme shows well defined spatially-aggregated groups, where trends are found to be the key factor to evaluate fire within their regional contexts. Results presented here provide new insights to improve fire management strategies under a changing climate.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Incendios , Brasil , Bosques , Pradera
2.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112870, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052615

RESUMEN

In the Brazilian Pantanal, wildfire occurrence has increased, reaching record highs of over 40,000 km2 in 2020. Smoke from wildfires worsened the situation of isolated, as well as urban communities, already under an increasing toll of COVID-19. Here we review the impacts and the possible causes of the 2020 mega-fires and recommend improvements for public policies and fire management in this wetland. We calculated the amount of area burnt annually since 2003 and describe patterns in precipitation and water level measurements of the Paraguay River. Our analyses revealed that the 2020 wildfires were historically unprecedented, as 43% of the area (over 17,200 km2) had not been burnt previously in the last two decades. The extent of area affected in 2020 represents a 376% increase compared to the annual average of the area burnt annually in the last two decades, double than the value in 2019. Potential factors responsible for this increase are (i) severe drought decreased water levels, (ii) the fire corridor was located in the Paraguay River flood zone, (iii) constraints on firefighters, (iv) insufficient fire prevention strategy and agency budget reductions, and (v) recent landscape changes. Climate and land use change will further increase the frequency of these extreme events. To make fire management more efficient and cost-effective, we recommend the implementation of an Integrated Fire Management program in the Pantanal. Stakeholders should use existing traditional, local ecological, and scientific knowledge to form a collective strategy with clear, achievable, measurable goals, considering the socio-ecological context. Permanent fire brigades, including indigenous members, should conduct year-round fire management. Communities should cooperate to create a collaborative network for wildfire prevention, the location and characteristics (including flammability) of infrastructures should be (re)planned in fire-prone environments considering and managing fire-catalysed transitions, and depending on the severity of wildfires. The 2020 wildfires were tackled in an ad-hoc fashion and prioritisation of areas for urgent financial investment, management, protection, and restoration is necessary to prevent this catastrophe from happening again.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Incendios Forestales , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Bosques , Humanos , Paraguay , SARS-CoV-2 , Humedales
4.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(8): 1319-1332, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314060

RESUMEN

Temperature record-breaking events, such as the observed more intense, longer-lasting, and more frequent heat waves, pose a new global challenge to health sectors worldwide. These threats are of particular interest in low-income regions with limited investments in public health and a growing urban population, such as Brazil. Here, we apply a comprehensive interdisciplinary climate-health approach, including meteorological data and a daily mortality record from the Brazilian Health System from 2000 to 2015, covering 21 cities over the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. The percentage of absolute mortality increase due to summer extreme temperatures is estimated using a negative binomial regression modeling approach and maximum/minimum temperature-derived indexes as covariates. Moreover, this study assesses the vulnerability to thermal stress for different age groups and both genders and thoroughly analyzes four extremely intense heat waves during 2010 and 2012 regarding their impacts on the population. Results showed that the highest absolute mortality values during heat-related events were linked to circulatory illnesses. However, the highest excess of mortality was related to diabetes, particularly for women within the elderly age groups. Moreover, results indicate that accumulated heat stress conditions during consecutive days preferentially preceded by persistent periods of moderate-temperature, lead to higher excess mortality rather than sporadic single hot days. This work may provide directions in human health policies related to extreme climate events in large tropical metropolitan areas from developing countries, contributing to altering the historically based purely reactive response.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Calor , Anciano , Brasil , Ciudades , Cambio Climático , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 796-808, 2019 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308855

RESUMEN

Global temperatures have increased considerably over the last decades, directly impacting the number, intensity and duration of extreme events such as heat waves. Climate model projections accounting for anthropogenic factors indicate that deadly mega-heat waves are likely to become more frequent in the future. Although the atmospheric features and social-economic related impacts of heat waves have already been documented in various regions around the world, for other highly populated regions, such as the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), a similar objective assessment is still needed. Heat waves directly impact the public health sector and particularly the less wealthy and elderly population groups. During February 2010, an elevated mortality peak occurred during a 8-day period (from 2 to 9 Feb 2010) characterized as a heat wave episode in MRRJ. A total excess of 737 deaths was recorded with the elderly group registering the highest mortality incidence. During this heat wave period, a quasi-stationary anticyclonic anomaly forced in altitude by a Rossby wave train was established over the south Brazilian coast. At the surface, the meteorological scenario from January 2010 to the heat wave period was marked by clear sky conditions, large precipitation deficits, and enhanced diabatic heating. During the heat wave period, warm and dry air masses were advected from interior regions towards the MRRJ, exacerbating temperature conditions by pronounced subsidence and adiabatic heating mechanisms. All these conditions contributed to pronounced positive temperature anomalies, reinforced by land-atmosphere feedbacks.


Asunto(s)
Atmósfera/química , Clima , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Calor , Mortalidad/tendencias , Anciano , Brasil , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Incidencia , Salud Pública
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 89(3): 1487-1501, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954172

RESUMEN

An automated procedure is here presented that allows identifying and dating burned areas in Portugal using values of daily reflectance from near-infrared and middle-infrared bands, as obtained from the MODIS instrument. The algorithm detects persistent changes in monthly composites of the so-called (V,W) Burn-Sensitive Index and the day of maximum change in daily time series of W is in turn identified as the day of the burning event. The procedure is tested for 2005, the second worst fire season ever recorded in Portugal. Comparison between the obtained burned area map and the reference derived from Landsat imagery resulted in a Proportion Correct of 95.6%. Despite being applied only to the months of August and September, the algorithm is able to identify almost two-thirds of all scars that have occurred during the entire year of 2005. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the dating procedure was also conducted, showing that 75% of estimated dates presented deviations between -5 and 5 days from dates of hotspots derived from the MODIS instrument. Information about location and date of burning events as provided by the proposed procedure may be viewed as complementary to the currently available official maps based on end-of-season Landsat imagery.

7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1487-1501, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-886740

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT An automated procedure is here presented that allows identifying and dating burned areas in Portugal using values of daily reflectance from near-infrared and middle-infrared bands, as obtained from the MODIS instrument. The algorithm detects persistent changes in monthly composites of the so-called (V,W) Burn-Sensitive Index and the day of maximum change in daily time series of W is in turn identified as the day of the burning event. The procedure is tested for 2005, the second worst fire season ever recorded in Portugal. Comparison between the obtained burned area map and the reference derived from Landsat imagery resulted in a Proportion Correct of 95.6%. Despite being applied only to the months of August and September, the algorithm is able to identify almost two-thirds of all scars that have occurred during the entire year of 2005. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the dating procedure was also conducted, showing that 75% of estimated dates presented deviations between -5 and 5 days from dates of hotspots derived from the MODIS instrument. Information about location and date of burning events as provided by the proposed procedure may be viewed as complementary to the currently available official maps based on end-of-season Landsat imagery.

8.
Ecol Appl ; 18(1): 64-79, 2008 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18372556

RESUMEN

This paper presents results of the AQL2004 project, which has been develope within the GOFC-GOLD Latin American network of remote sensing and forest fires (RedLatif). The project intended to obtain monthly burned-land maps of the entire region, from Mexico to Patagonia, using MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) reflectance data. The project has been organized in three different phases: acquisition and preprocessing of satellite data; discrimination of burned pixels; and validation of results. In the first phase, input data consisting of 32-day composites of MODIS 500-m reflectance data generated by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) of the University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.) were collected and processed. The discrimination of burned areas was addressed in two steps: searching for "burned core" pixels using postfire spectral indices and multitemporal change detection and mapping of burned scars using contextual techniques. The validation phase was based on visual analysis of Landsat and CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) images. Validation of the burned-land category showed an agreement ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on the ecosystem and vegetation species present. The total burned area for the entire year was estimated to be 153 215 km2. The most affected countries in relation to their territory were Cuba, Colombia, Bolivia, and Venezuela. Burned areas were found in most land covers; herbaceous vegetation (savannas and grasslands) presented the highest proportions of burned area, while perennial forest had the lowest proportions. The importance of croplands in the total burned area should be taken with reserve, since this cover presented the highest commission errors. The importance of generating systematic products of burned land areas for different ecological processes is emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , América Latina
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