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1.
Head Neck ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The primary purpose was to evaluate the prognostic potential of diffusion imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting distant metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC) patients. The secondary aim was to examine differences in DWI and DCE-MRI-derived parameters on the basis of human papilloma virus (HPV) status, differentiation grade, and nodal stage of HNSCC. METHODS: Fifty-six patients underwent pretreatment DWI and DCE-MRI. Patients were divided into groups who subsequently did (n = 12) or did not develop distant metastases (n = 44). Median values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume transfer constant (Ktrans ), and mean intracellular water-lifetime (τi ) and volume were computed from metastatic lymph nodes and were compared between two groups. Prognostic utility of HPV status, differentiation grading, and nodal staging was also evaluated both in isolation or in combination with MRI parameters in distinguishing patients with and without distant metastases. Additionally, MRI parameters were compared between two groups based on dichotomous HPV status, differentiation grade, and nodal stage. RESULTS: Lower but not significantly different Ktrans (0.51 ± 0.15 minute-1 vs 0.60 ± 0.05 minute-1 ) and not significantly different τi (0.13 ± 0.03 second vs 0.19 ± 0.02 second) were observed in patients who developed distant metastases than those who did not. Additionally, no significant differences in ADC or volume were found. τi, was the best parameter in discriminating two groups with moderate sensitivity (67%) and specificity (61.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses did not improve the overall prognostic performance for combination of all variables. A trend toward higher τi was observed in HPV-positive patients than those with HPV-negative patients. Also, a trend toward higher Ktrans was observed in poorly differentiated HNSCCs than those with moderately differentiated HNSCCs. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment DCE-MRI may be useful in predicting distant metastases in HNSCC.

2.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720179

RESUMEN

Sport-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Around the globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenous samples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming, and thus current findings from studies of sport-related brain injury are often limited by small sample sizes. Further, current studies apply a variety of neuroimaging techniques and analysis tools which limit comparability among studies. The ENIGMA Sports Injury working group aims to provide a platform for data sharing and collaborative data analysis thereby leveraging existing data and expertise. By harmonizing data from a large number of studies from around the globe, we will work towards reproducibility of previously published findings and towards addressing important research questions with regard to diagnosis, prognosis, and efficacy of treatment for sport-related brain injury. Moreover, the ENIGMA Sports Injury working group is committed to providing recommendations for future prospective data acquisition to enhance data quality and scientific rigor.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713002

RESUMEN

Adult-onset non-cirrhotic hyperammonemia (NCH) is poorly understood and has a high morbidity and mortality. To elucidate the etiology and management of NCH we performed a retrospective analysis of 23 adults (median age 51) with NCH treated between 2014 and 2020 at two academic medical centers. Hyperammonemia was diagnosed in all cases during the evaluation of altered mental status, with 22% presenting with seizures. Peak ammonia levels were >200 µmol/L in 70% of cases. Defects in ammonia metabolism were assessed using urea cycle biochemical testing, germline genetic testing and testing for urease-producing infectious agents. Ammonia metabolism defects in these cases appear attributable to four major sources: (1) infection with urease-producing organism (n=5); (2) previously undiagnosed inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) (n=4); (3) clinical exposures causing acquired urea cycle dysfunction (n=6); and (4) unexplained acquired urea cycle dysfunction (uaUCD) (n=8), as evidenced by biochemical signatures of urea cycle dysfunction without a genetic or clinical exposure. Severe protein malnutrition appeared to be a reversible risk factor for uaUCD. Overall, 13% of our cohort died prior to resolution of hyperammonemia, 26% died after hyperammonemia resolution, 57% survived after having reversible neurological changes, and 4% survived with irreversible neurological changes. Renal replacement therapy for ammonia clearance was often utilized for patients with an ammonia level above 250 µmol/L and patients were frequently empirically treated with antibiotics targeting urea-splitting organisms. Our study demonstrates that acquired urea cycle dysfunction, IEMs and urease-producing infections are major sources of adult-onset NCH and highlights successful management strategies for adult-onset NCH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1507-1515, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584447

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has altered the health care environment for the management of head and neck cancers. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide direction during the pandemic for rational Head and Neck Cancer management in order to achieve a medically and ethically appropriate balance of risks and benefits. METHODS: Creation of consensus document. RESULTS: The process yielded a consensus statement among a wide range of practitioners involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer in a multihospital tertiary care health system. CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines support an ethical approach for the management of head and neck cancers during the COVID-19 epidemic consistent with both the local standard of care as well as the head and neck oncological literature.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia , Control de Infecciones/normas , Oncología Médica/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Atención Ambulatoria/normas , Terapia Combinada , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sistemas Multiinstitucionales , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Seguridad del Paciente , Pennsylvania , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Cuidado Terminal/normas , Centros de Atención Terciaria
6.
J Neuroimaging ; 30(4): 387-409, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533752

RESUMEN

Sports-related concussion is a serious health challenge, and females are at higher risk of sustaining a sports-related concussion compared to males. Although there are many studies that investigate outcomes following concussion, females remain an understudied population, despite representing a large proportion of the organized sports community. In this review, we provide a summary of studies that investigate sex-related differences in outcome following sports-related concussion. Moreover, we provide an introduction to the methods used to study sex-related differences after sports-related concussion, including common clinical and cognitive measures, neuroimaging techniques, as well as biomarkers. A literature search inclusive of articles published to March 2020 was performed using PubMed. The studies were reviewed and discussed with regard to the methods used. Findings from these studies remain mixed with regard to the effect of sex on clinical symptoms, concussion-related alterations in brain structure and function, and recovery trajectories. Nonetheless, there is initial evidence to suggest that sex-related differences following concussion are important to consider in efforts to develop objective biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of concussion. Additional studies on this topic are, however, clearly needed to improve our understanding of sex-related differences following concussion, as well as to understand their neurobiological underpinnings. Such studies will help pave the way toward more personalized clinical management and treatment of sports-related concussion.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478869

RESUMEN

Therapeutic innovation for human papilloma virus-related (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is impaired by inadequate preclinical models and the absence of accurate biomarkers. Our study establishes the first well-characterized panel of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and organoids from HPV+ HNSCCs while determining fidelity of the models to the distinguishing genetic features of this cancer type. Despite low engraftment rates, whole exome sequencing showed that PDXs retain multiple distinguishing features of HPV+ HNSCC lost in existing cell lines, including PIK3CA mutations, TRAF3 deletion and the absence of EGFR amplifications. Engrafted HPV+ tumors frequently contained NOTCH1 mutations, thus providing new models for a negatively prognostic alteration in this disease. Genotype-phenotype associations in the models were then tested for prediction of tumor progression and survival in published clinical cohorts. Observation of high tumor mutational burdens (TMBs) in the faster-growing models facilitated identification of a novel association between TMB and local progression in both HPV+ and HPV- patients that was prognostic in HPV- cases. In addition, reduced E7 and p16INK4A levels found in a PDX from an outlier case with lethal outcome led to detection of similar profiles among recurrent HPV+ HNSCCs. Transcriptional data from the Cancer Genome Atlas was used to demonstrate that the lower E2F target gene expression predicted by reduced E7 levels has potential as a biomarker of disease recurrence risk. Our findings bridge a critical gap in preclinical models for HPV+ HNSCCs and simultaneously reveal novel potential applications of quantifying mutational burden and viral oncogene functions for biomarker development.

8.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503028

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional printing (3DP) addresses distinct clinical challenges in pediatric care including: congenital variants, compact anatomy, high procedural risk, and growth over time. We hypothesized that patient-specific applications of 3DP in pediatrics could be categorized into concise, discrete categories of use. METHODS: Terms related to "three-dimensional printing" and "pediatrics" were searched on PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science. Initial search yielded 2122 unique articles; 139 articles characterizing 508 patients met full inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Four categories of patient-specific 3DP applications were identified: Teaching of families and medical staff (9.3%); Developing intervention strategies (33.9%); Procedural applications, including subtypes: contour models, guides, splints, and implants (43.0%); and Material manufacturing of shaping devices or prosthetics (14.0%). Procedural comparative studies found 3DP devices to be equivalent or better than conventional methods, with less operating time and fewer complications. CONCLUSION: Patient-specific applications of Three-Dimensional Printing in Medicine can be elegantly classified into four major categories: Teaching, Developing, Procedures, and Materials, sharing the same TDPM acronym. Understanding this schema is important because it promotes further innovation and increased implementation of these devices to improve pediatric care. IMPACT: This article classifies the pediatric applications of patient-specific three-dimensional printing. This is a first comprehensive review of patient-specific three-dimensional printing in both pediatric medical and surgical disciplines, incorporating previously described classification schema to create one unifying paradigm. Understanding these applications is important since three-dimensional printing addresses challenges that are uniquely pediatric including compact anatomy, unique congenital variants, greater procedural risk, and growth over time. We identified four classifications of patient-specific use: teaching, developing, procedural, and material uses. By classifying these applications, this review promotes understanding and incorporation of this expanding technology to improve the pediatric care.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476212

RESUMEN

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability worldwide, but the heterogeneous nature of TBI with respect to injury severity and health comorbidities make patient outcome difficult to predict. Injury severity accounts for only some of this variance, and a wide range of preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury factors may influence outcome, such as sex, socioeconomic status, injury mechanism, and social support. Neuroimaging research in this area has generally been limited by insufficient sample sizes. Additionally, development of reliable biomarkers of mild TBI or repeated subconcussive impacts has been slow, likely due, in part, to subtle effects of injury and the aforementioned variability. The ENIGMA Consortium has established a framework for global collaboration that has resulted in the largest-ever neuroimaging studies of multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders. Here we describe the organization, recent progress, and future goals of the Brain Injury working group.

10.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(8): 1157-1161, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527770

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Compared with 3D-planned pelvic radiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce acute toxicity in cervical cancer patients after radical hysterectomy. This study evaluated late toxicity and patterns of failure after post-operative pelvic IMRT interdigitated weekly with high dose rate brachytherapy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 53 cervical cancer patients treated between January 2006 and August 2019 with radical hysterectomy, lymphadenectomy, and post-operative IMRT and high dose rate brachytherapy. The decision to include chemotherapy was made by the treating gynecologic oncologist based on patient-specific criteria including positive pelvic lymph nodes, positive surgical margins, or positive parametrial invasion. The actuarial rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity, vaginal cuff/regional nodal/distant failure, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 70 months (range 5.4-148) months and age at diagnosis was 47 (range 24-73) years. The 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) clinical stages were IB1 (n=19), IB2 (n=7), IIB (n=7), IIIC1 (n=19), and IIIC2 (n=1). Median radiation dose delivered in 160 cGy daily fractions was 5120 (range 4640-5120) cGy. Median brachytherapy dose prescribed to the vaginal surface delivered in six weekly fractions was 2400 (range 1200-4800) cGy. Concurrent chemotherapy was delivered in 35 (66%) patients. There were no acute grade >3 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicities. Late grade >3 occurred in two (3.8%) patients, including a small bowel obstruction and a ureteral stricture. The 5-year actuarial rate for gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity was 1.9%. There were no vaginal cuff recurrences. The 5-year actuarial rates for regional nodal failure, distant failure outside the radiation field, any failure, and overall survival were 11%, 11%, 14%, and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative IMRT with high dose rate brachytherapy for patients with cervical cancer is associated with excellent outcomes and limited rates of radiation-related non-hematologic toxicity.

11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(3): 639-643, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248993

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare FIGO 2009 and FIGO 2018 cervical cancer staging criteria with a focus on stage migration and treatment outcomes. METHODS: This study is based on a database cohort of 1282 patients newly diagnosed with cervical cancer from 1997 to 2019. All underwent standard clinical examination and whole-body FDG-PET. Tumor stage was recorded using the FIGO 2009 system, which excluded surgical pathologic, FDG-PET and other advanced imaging findings, and then re-classified to the FIGO 2018 system, including surgical pathologic and imaging findings. Patient management was based on clinical, surgical, and imaging findings. Stage migration and prognosis were evaluated. RESULTS: The distribution per the 2009 staging system was stage I in 593 (46%), stage II in 342 (27%), stage III in 263 (21%), and stage IV in 84 (7%) and the 2018 staging system was stage I in 354 (28%), stage II in 156 (12%), stage III in 601 (47%), and stage IV in 171 (13%). No patients were down-staged. Stage migration occurred in 53% (676/1282) and was attributable to detection of occult lymph node metastasis in 520 (41%), occult distant metastasis in 90 (7%), and tumor size and extent in 66 (5%). The 5-year progression-free survivals (PFS) by FIGO 2009 versus FIGO 2018 were as follows: stage I, 80% vs. 87% (p = 0.02); stage II, 59% vs. 71% (p = 0.002); stage III, 35% vs. 55% (p < 0.001), and stage IV, 20% vs. 16% (p = 0.41). CONCLUSION: Inclusion of surgical pathologic and imaging findings resulted in upward stage migration in the majority, mostly related to nodal and distant metastasis. While FIGO 2018 improves survival discriminatory ability for stages I and IV patients, survival remains heterogeneous among stage III substages.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gut microbial diversity is associated with improved response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Based on the known detrimental impact that antibiotics have on microbiome diversity, we hypothesized that antibiotic receipt prior to ICI would be associated with decreased survival. METHODS: Patients with stage III and IV melanoma treated with ICI between 2008 and 2019 were selected from an institutional database. A window of antibiotic receipt within 3 months prior to the first infusion of ICI was pre-specified. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes were melanoma-specific mortality and immune-mediated colitis requiring intravenous (IV) steroids. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: There were 568 patients in our database, of which 114 received antibiotics prior to ICI. 35.9% of patients had stage III disease. On multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis of patients with stage IV disease, the antibiotic-exposed group had statistically significantly worse OS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.57, p<.001). The same effect was observed among antibiotic-exposed patients with stage III disease (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.31-5.87, p=.007). When limited to only patients who received adjuvant ICI (N = 89), antibiotic-exposed patients also had statistically significantly worse OS (HR 4.84, 95% CI 1.09-21.50, p=.04). The antibiotic group had a greater incidence of colitis (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02-4.52, p=.046). CONCLUSION: Patients with stage III and IV melanoma exposed to antibiotics prior to ICI had statistically significantly worse OS than unexposed patients. Antibiotic exposure was associated with greater incidence of moderate to severe immune-mediated colitis. Given the large number of antibiotics prescribed annually, physicians should be judicious with their use in cancer populations likely to receive ICI.

13.
Mo Med ; 117(2): 136-142, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308239

RESUMEN

Plastic Surgery restores unique human qualities such as appearance, speech (palate), hands, to improve interaction with others and quality of life. Three-dimensional printing technology can be applied to Plastic Surgery craniomaxillofacial operations to change the bony skeleton of the skull, face, and jaws. Three-dimensional printing for patient-specific applications have four types: Type I contour models, Type II guides, Type III splints, Type IV implants. Plastic Surgery innovation in 3D printing clinical applications are described here and https://www.slucare.edu/newsroom/kmov-science-of-healing-faces-of-childhood.php.

14.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025292

RESUMEN

Satellite cells are the main muscle-resident cells responsible for muscle regeneration. Much research has described this population as being heterogeneous, but little is known about the different roles each subpopulation plays. Recent advances in the field have utilized the power of single-cell analysis to better describe and functionally characterize subpopulations of satellite cells as well as other cell groups comprising the muscle tissue. Furthermore, emerging technologies are opening the door to answering as-yet-unresolved questions pertaining to satellite cell heterogeneity and cell fate decisions.

16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(2): 440-448, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928642

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest that ultrahigh-dose-rate, "FLASH," electron radiation therapy (RT) decreases normal tissue damage while maintaining tumor response compared with conventional dose rate RT. Here, we describe a novel RT apparatus that delivers FLASH proton RT (PRT) using double scattered protons with computed tomography guidance and provide the first report of proton FLASH RT-mediated normal tissue radioprotection. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Absolute dose was measured at multiple depths in solid water and validated against an absolute integral charge measurement using a Faraday cup. Real-time dose rate was obtained using a NaI detector to measure prompt gamma rays. The effect of FLASH versus standard dose rate PRT on tumors and normal tissues was measured using pancreatic flank tumors (MH641905) derived from the KPC autochthonous PanCa model in syngeneic C57BL/6J mice with analysis of fibrosis and stem cell repopulation in small intestine after abdominal irradiation. RESULTS: The double scattering and collimation apparatus was dosimetrically validated with dose rates of 78 ± 9 Gy per second and 0.9 ± 0.08 Gy per second for the FLASH and standard PRT. Whole abdominal FLASH PRT at 15 Gy significantly reduced the loss of proliferating cells in intestinal crypts compared with standard PRT. Studies with local intestinal irradiation at 18 Gy revealed a reduction to near baseline levels of intestinal fibrosis for FLASH-PRT compared with standard PRT. Despite this difference, FLASH-PRT did not demonstrate tumor radioprotection in MH641905 pancreatic cancer flank tumors after 12 or 18 Gy irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: We have designed and dosimetrically validated a FLASH-PRT system with accurate control of beam flux on a millisecond time scale and online monitoring of the integral and dose delivery time structure. Using this system, we found that FLASH-PRT decreases acute cell loss and late fibrosis after whole-abdomen and focal intestinal RT, whereas tumor growth inhibition is preserved between the 2 modalities.


Asunto(s)
Órganos en Riesgo/efectos de la radiación , Terapia de Protones/instrumentación , Traumatismos Experimentales por Radiación/prevención & control , Protección Radiológica/instrumentación , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagen/instrumentación , Abdomen/efectos de la radiación , Animales , Proliferación Celular/efectos de la radiación , Diseño de Equipo/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Fibrosis , Rayos gamma , Intestino Delgado/patología , Intestino Delgado/efectos de la radiación , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Tratamientos Conservadores del Órgano/instrumentación , Tratamientos Conservadores del Órgano/métodos , Órganos en Riesgo/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Terapia de Protones/métodos , Protección Radiológica/métodos , Radiometría/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagen/métodos , Dispersión de Radiación , Células Madre/efectos de la radiación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227686, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917818

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Speech intelligibility is fundamental to social interactions and a critical surgical outcome in patients with cleft palate. Online crowdsourcing is a burgeoning technology, with potential to mitigate the burden of limited accessibility to speech-language-pathologists (SLPs). This pilot study investigates the concordance of online crowdsourced evaluations of hypernasality with SLP ratings of children with cleft palate. METHODS: Six audio-phrases each from children with cleft palate were assessed by online crowdsourcing using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and compared to SLP's gold-standard hypernasality score on the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Score (PWSS). Phrases were presented to MTurk crowdsourced lay-raters to assess hypernasality on a Likert scale analogous to the PWSS. The survey included clickable reference audio samples for different levels of hypernasality. RESULTS: 1,088 unique online crowdsourced speech ratings were collected on 16 sentences of 3 children with cleft palate aged 4-8 years, with audio averaging 6.5 years follow-up after cleft palate surgery. Patient 1 crowd-mean was 2.62 (SLP rated 2-3); Patient 2 crowd-mean 2.66 (SLP rated 3); and Patient 3 crowd-mean 1.76 (SLP rated 2). Rounded for consistency with PWSS scale, all patients matched SLP ratings. Different sentences had different accuracies compared to the SLP gold standard scores. CONCLUSION: Online crowdsourced ratings of hypernasal speech in children with cleft palate were concordant with SLP ratings, predicting SLP scores in all 3 patients. This novel technology has potential for translation in clinical speech assessments, and may serve as a valuable screening tool for non-experts to identify children requiring further assessment and intervention by a qualified speech language pathology expert.


Asunto(s)
Fisura del Paladar/fisiopatología , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Colaboración de las Masas , Inteligibilidad del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Acústica del Lenguaje , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(5): 1015-1021, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985574

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Few studies have investigated recovery between sexes using objective outcome measures. Our purpose was to examine the independent association between biological sex and recovery of postconcussion gait among collegiate athletes. METHODS: We evaluated participants with a diagnosed concussion <7 d postinjury, and approximately 1.5 months and 3.5 months postinjury. Participants completed a single/dual-task gait evaluation and symptom inventory. During dual-task trials, they completed a mental task (backward subtraction, spelling, or month recitation). The primary outcome measure was height-adjusted gait velocity recovery, defined as achieving normal gait velocity using established values: >0.56 and >0.50 gait velocity (m·s)/height (m) under single and dual-task conditions, respectively. We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to identify associations between sex and dual-task recovery, controlling for age, concussion history, symptom severity, and loss of consciousness at the time of injury. RESULTS: Ninety-four individuals participated in the study: 47 (50%) were female athletes (mean age = 20.1, SD = 1.3 yr) and 47 (50%) were male athletes (mean age = 20.3, SD = 1.3 yr). Sex was not independently associated with height-adjusted single-task gait velocity recovery after controlling for potential confounders (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.87-3.01). However, male sex was independently associated with longer dual-task gait recovery time after controlling for potential confounders (hazard ratio = 2.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-5.35). CONCLUSION: Male athletes required a longer duration of time after concussion to achieve dual-task gait recovery than female athletes. Thus, functional dual-task abilities after concussion may be affected differentially by sex and should be accounted for within individualized concussion management strategies.

19.
Laryngoscope ; 130(3): 691-697, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411747

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In patients with head and neck carcinoma of unknown primary (HNCUP;pT0) following TORS-assisted workup, we have adopted a pharyngeal-sparing radiation therapy (PSRT) approach targeting only the at-risk neck and omitting treatment of the pharynx. We report outcomes following PSRT, and compare to institutional historical control subjects who received pharyngeal-targeted RT (PRT). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2018, 172 patients underwent TORS-assisted endoscopy as part of their workup for HNCUP. Following TORS, 54 patients had pT0 disease, of which 45 received RT. Forty-nine percent received PSRT and 51% received PRT. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences existed between the PSRT and PRT groups with respect to overall nodal distribution, p16 positivity (55% vs. 43%, P = .12), neck dissection rates (77% vs. 65%, P = .51), and administration of chemotherapy (55% vs. 65%, P = .55). Median follow-up for PSRT and PRT groups were 24 and 28 months, respectively (P = .04). Two-year RFS was 86% and 74% for PSRT and PRT patients, respectively (log-rank P = .30). Three and six patients recurred after PSRT and PRT, respectively. Two-year OS for PSRT and PRT patients was 91% and 74%, respectively (log-rank P = .31). Compared to PRT, PSRT was associated with statistically significantly less: grade 2+ mucositis (18% vs. 91%, P < .01), new opioid requirement (27% vs. 91%, P < .01), mean weight loss during RT (6.2 lbs vs. 17.4 lbs, P < .01), feeding tube placement during RT (5% vs. 43%, P < .01), and treatment-related unplanned hospitalizations (9% vs. 39%, P = .04). CONCLUSION: Following TORS-assisted management of patients with pT0 HNCUP, we observed reduced toxicity following PSRT compared to PRT without apparent compromise of disease cure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3 evidence, retrospective review comparing cases and controls Laryngoscope, 130:691-697, 2020.

20.
J Neurooncol ; 146(1): 121-130, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741234

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Practice patterns vary for adjuvant treatment of 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendroglioma patients. This study evaluates the outcomes of adjuvant (aRT) versus salvage radiation therapy (sRT) in a multi-institutional cohort. METHODS: Oligodendroglioma patients with confirmed 1p/19q codeletion who were treated with RT with or without chemotherapy from 2000 to 2017 at four tertiary centers were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival (OS), post-RT progression-free survival (PFS), freedom-from-RT (FFRT), and radiation necrosis (RN) rates were determined using Kaplan-Meier analyses. OS1/PFS1 were defined from the initial surgery. OS2/PFS2 were defined from the RT start-date. Multivariable analyses (MVAs) of prognostic factors for OS and PFS were performed with Cox regression. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-six patients were identified: 124(67%) received aRT and 62(33%) received sRT; of sRT patients, 58% were observed after surgery while 42% received chemotherapy without aRT. The median time from initial diagnosis to sRT was 61 months, and 74% had reoperations before sRT. sRT had longer OS1 than aRT (94% vs. 69% at 10 years, p = 0.03) and PFS1 (10-year PFS of 80% vs. 68%, p = 0.03), though sRT was not associated with significantly different OS1/PFS1 on MVAs. Chemotherapy did not delay sRT compared to observation and had worse PFS2 (42% vs. 79% at 5 years, p = 0.08). Higher RT dose was not associated with improved clinical outcomes but was associated with higher symptomatic RN rate (15% vs. 0% at 2 years, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Delaying RT for selected oligodendroglioma patients appears safe. Adjuvant chemotherapy does not delay sRT longer than observation and may be associated with worse PFS after RT.

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