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J Pharm Pract ; : 897190019895437, 2019 Dec 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875758


Vaccine hesitancy has been identified as a top threat to global health by the World Health Organization. The current measles outbreak in the United States places even greater emphasis on the relevance of this topic. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective methods to avoid preventable disease and associated complications. Safety concerns and lack of education commonly contribute to vaccination refusals. By providing patients evidence-based facts and education, pharmacists have the opportunity to address common misconceptions influencing the antivaccination movement and prevent future outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.

Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(9): 6725, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559501


Objective. To develop and establish validity for a grading rubric to evaluate diabetes subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) note writing on primary care (PC) advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and to assess reliability and student perceptions of the rubric. Methods. Ten PC APPE faculty members collaborated to develop a rubric to provide formative and summative feedback on three written SOAP notes per APPE student over a 10-month period. Correlation analyses were conducted between rubric scores and three criterion variables to assess criterion-related validity: APPE grades, Pharmaceutical Care Ability Profile Scores, and Global Impression Scores. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability testing were completed using Cohen's kappa and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). Student perceptions were assessed through an anonymous student survey. Results. Fifty-one students and 167 SOAP notes were evaluated using the final rubric. The mean score significantly increased from the first to second SOAP note and from the first to third SOAP note. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between final rubric scores and criterion variables. The ICC for inter-rater reliability was fair (.59) for final rubric scores and excellent for intra-rater reliability (.98 to1.00). Students responded that the rubric improved their ability (84.9%) and confidence (92.4%) to write SOAP notes. Conclusion. The rubric may be used to make valid decisions about students' SOAP note writing ability and may increase their confidence in this area. The use of the rubric allows for greater reliability among multiple graders, supporting grading consistency.

Documentación/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Docentes , Retroalimentación Formativa , Metas , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Escritura
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1574-1578, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527822


INTRODUCTION: Descriptions of SOAP note requirements and assessment methods used during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) are limited in the literature. This study aimed to gather information from preceptors regarding SOAP note writing and assessment methods utilized during ambulatory care APPEs. METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to ambulatory care preceptors with data collected via Qualtrics and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test to assess the significance for associations between dependent and independent variables, and the Gamma test to assess dependent variables in grading habits and feedback types. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 62% with 75% of preceptors having students write SOAP notes during APPEs. A majority of preceptors (84%) do not formally grade SOAP notes with full-time faculty being more likely to grade and provide written feedback. Half of the preceptors perceived students as either prepared or very prepared to write SOAP notes but the majority felt that students struggle with the assessment portion of the note. There were significant differences between schools in the percentage of preceptors that formally grade SOAP notes, ranging from 2 to 45%. CONCLUSIONS: Preceptors' perception of student preparedness to write SOAP notes on ambulatory APPEs was similar, despite assessment methods varying widely.

Documentación/normas , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Percepción , Preceptoría/métodos , Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , Documentación/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Servicios Farmacéuticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(11): 1501-1506, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514541


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Group on Pharmacotherapy recommends a formal curriculum during family medicine residency training and describes benefits of utilizing pharmacists. Limited literature exists on how programs have incorporated questions from family medicine board preparation sources into pharmacotherapy academic education. The primary objective was to assess the impact on family medicine residents' perceived knowledge after incorporation of board review items into pharmacotherapy sessions. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Pharmacists affiliated with the University of Alabama Family Medicine Residency program incorporated questions from board preparation sources into monthly interactive pharmacotherapy sessions as part of a didactic curriculum between 2014 and 2016. An anonymous survey was administered for two consecutive years in 2015 and 2016 to assess residents' perceptions of the sessions and utilization of board-type questions as an active learning component. The change in residents' perception of knowledge was quantitatively analyzed and written comments were evaluated for recurring themes. FINDINGS: The cumulative survey response was 78% (68/87). Over 80% of residents reported that pharmacotherapy sessions and the use of board-type questions was quite or very helpful. The percent of residents that rated their knowledge as good or excellent significantly increased after every session compared to baseline. Residents noted the sessions' information, applicability, interactive nature, and relevance as strengths. SUMMARY: Incorporation of board preparation questions into interactive pharmacotherapy sessions was well received and improved residents' perception of pharmacotherapy knowledge. Utilizing this model in a formal pharmacotherapy curriculum taught by pharmacists is beneficial for family medicine resident learners.

Curriculum/tendencias , Medicina General/educación , Internado y Residencia/normas , Innovación Organizacional , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/normas , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Int J Womens Health ; 7: 615-24, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26124682


BACKGROUND: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), characterized by hot flashes and night sweats, are the most commonly reported symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency during menopause and occur in up to 70% of women. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of symptoms. Although hormone therapy (HT) is generally recommended as first-line treatment, it is not appropriate for all patients. Antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been evaluated and utilized internationally for alternative treatment for VMS. In 2013, paroxetine mesylate (Brisdelle(®)) received a US Food and Drug Administration-labeled indication for moderate-to-severe hot flashes, making it the first nonhormonal treatment for VMS associated with menopause. The objective of this review is to critically evaluate available clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of paroxetine for the treatment of VMS in menopausal women. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords paroxetine, vasomotor symptoms, hot flashes, and menopause. Searches were limited to humans, English language, and clinical trial design with a primary outcome of hot flash/vasomotor changes. RESULTS: Paroxetine (hydrochloride and mesylate) has been associated with a 33%-67% reduction in hot flash frequency with 6-12 weeks of treatment compared to 13.7%-37.8% reductions with placebo in patients both with and without a history of breast cancer. It was also associated with significant reductions in hot flash severity. Benefits of treatment persisted through 24 weeks in the study of the longest duration. Most adverse effects reported were of mild-to-moderate severity, with improved tolerability associated with lower doses (7.5-12.5 mg/day). CONCLUSION: Paroxetine is a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of VMS during menopause. Paroxetine (7.5-12.5 mg/day) should be considered a first-line therapy option for VMS in patients when HT is either inappropriate or intolerable.

Hosp Pharm ; 50(8): 700-9, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823619


BACKGROUND: Pharmacist interventions have been shown to have an impact on reducing readmission rates, however further research is necessary to target resources to high-risk populations and determine the most effective bundle of interventions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-bundled intervention on 30-day readmission rates for high-risk patients with pneumonia. METHODS: A pilot study with a historical control conducted at a community, teaching-affiliated medical center. Up to 65 selected subjects were included if they had pneumonia and any of the following high-risk criteria: admission within 6 months, at least 5 scheduled home medications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or heart failure. A retrospective chart review was conducted to compile the historical control group that received usual care between June and November 2013. Patients admitted from December 2013 through March 2014 were reviewed to receive a bundled intervention. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission rates. Risk factors and reasons for readmission, pharmacist clinical interventions, and the time interval between discharge and readmission were also evaluated. RESULTS: A trend toward a reduced 30-day readmission rate was observed in the intervention group (n = 43) compared to those who received usual care (n = 65) (27.9% vs 40.0%; relative risk [RR], 0.6977; 95% CI, 0.3965-1.2278; P = .2119). The most commonly identified high-risk inclusion criteria were having at least 5 scheduled home medications and COPD. The time interval between discharge and readmission did not considerably differ between groups (10.8 vs 10.6 days). CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacist-bundled intervention was associated with a reduced 30-day readmission rate for high-risk patients with pneumonia.