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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224457

RESUMEN

Existing enhancement methods are empirically expected to help the high-level end computer vision task: however, that is observed to not always be the case in practice. We focus on object or face detection in poor visibility enhancements caused by bad weathers (haze, rain) and low light conditions. To provide a more thorough examination and fair comparison, we introduce three benchmark sets collected in real-world hazy, rainy, and low-light conditions, respectively, with annotated objects/faces. We launched the UG2+ challenge Track 2 competition in IEEE CVPR 2019, aiming to evoke a comprehensive discussion and exploration about whether and how low-level vision techniques can benefit the high-level automatic visual recognition in various scenarios. To our best knowledge, this is the first and currently largest effort of its kind. Baseline results by cascading existing enhancement and detection models are reported, indicating the highly challenging nature of our new data as well as the large room for further technical innovations. Thanks to a large participation from the research community, we are able to analyze representative team solutions, striving to better identify the strengths and limitations of existing mindsets as well as the future directions.

2.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(1): 121-127, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227773

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of electroacupuncture at Jiaji acupoints (EX-B 2) plus moxibustion and intermediate frequency on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). METHODS: A total of 140 outpatients who satisfied the inclusion criteria and volunteered for this treatment were randomly divided into treatment (n = 70) and control (n = 70) groups. Both groups received a localized lesion area and electroacupuncture treatment combined with moxibustion and intermediate frequency. The treatment group (TG) increased acupuncture at Jiaji acupoints (EX-B 2) and electroacupuncture. Pain and anxiety were assessed before and after 5, 10, 15, and 20 treatments by using visual pain simulation score (VAS) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), respectively. Clinical efficacy was also evaluated. RESULTS: The baseline between the two groups did not significantly differ (P > 0.05). The VAS and HAMA scores of the two groups after treatment significantly decreased compared with those of various treatment stages (P > 0.05). The HAMA score (P < 0.01) of TG was lower than that of the control group (CG). The VAS score of TG was lower than that of CG in the 5th and 10th treatments (P < 0.01). In the 15th and 10th scores, CG was also superior to TG (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combined treatment of electroacupuncture at Jiaji acupoints (EX-B 2), moxibustion, and intermediate frequency can relieve the pain and anxiety symptoms of PHN. The efficacy of the combined treatment was superior to traditional acupuncture.

3.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240576

RESUMEN

Efficient utilization of solar energy for water evaporation is an advanced and environment-friendly technology to solve the crisis of global drinking water shortage. Herein, we report an efficient solar vapor generator comprised of a light-absorbing and photothermal hybrid compound [Ni(Phen) 3 ][V 14 O 34 Cl]Cl (NiV 14 ) confined in mesoporous and hydrophilic glass (meso-glass). The generator is floating in water by supporting on domestic melamine-formaldehyde (MF) foam to ensure the evaporation at water-air interface. Porous structures and poor thermal conductivity of the meso-glass together with MF foam contribute to the unfailing water supply, strong solar thermal localization and less heat dissipation, and convection. Associated with strong photothermal role of NiV 14 , these synergistic effects led to a water evaporation rate of 14.38 kg m -2 h -1 with total water evaporation efficiency of 111.4% under 6 suns and a daily solar water purification yield of 42.00 L m -2 under 1 sun irradiation. This solar evaporation system shows great promise for high-efficiency water purification application.

4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 99, 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241292

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bladder-related pain symptoms in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) are often accompanied by depression and memory deficits. Magnesium deficiency contributes to neuroinflammation and is associated with pain, depression, and memory deficits. Neuroinflammation is involved in the mechanical allodynia of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Magnesium-L-Threonate (L-TAMS) supplementation can attenuate neuroinflammation. This study aimed to determine whether and how L-TAMS influences mechanical allodynia and accompanying depressive symptoms and memory deficits in CYP-induced cystitis. METHODS: Injection of CYP (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, every 3 days for 3 doses) was used to establish a rat model of BPS/IC. L-TAMS was administered in drinking water (604 mg·kg-1·day-1). Mechanical allodynia in the lower abdomen was assessed with von Frey filaments using the up-down method. Forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to measure depressive-like behaviors. Novel object recognition test (NORT) was used to detect short-term memory function. Concentrations of Mg2+ in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by calmagite chronometry. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining measured the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α/nuclear factor-κB (TNF-α/NF-κB), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor type 2B subunit (NR2B) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the L6-S1 spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and hippocampus. RESULTS: Free Mg2+ was reduced in the serum and CSF of the CYP-induced cystitis rats on days 8, 12, and 20 after the first CYP injection. Magnesium deficiency in the serum and CSF correlated with the mechanical withdrawal threshold, depressive-like behaviors, and short-term memory deficits (STMD). Oral application of L-TAMS prevented magnesium deficiency and attenuated mechanical allodynia (n = 14) and normalized depressive-like behaviors (n = 10) and STMD (n = 10). The upregulation of TNF-α/NF-κB signaling and IL-1ß in the L6-S1 SDH or hippocampus was reversed by L-TAMS. The change in NR2B expression in the SDH and hippocampus in the cystitis model was normalized by L-TAMS. CONCLUSIONS: Normalization of magnesium deficiency by L-TAMS attenuated mechanical allodynia, depressive-like behaviors, and STMD in the CYP-induced cystitis model via inhibition of TNF-α/NF-κВ signaling and normalization of NR2B expression. Our study provides evidence that L-TAMS may have therapeutic value for treating pain and comorbid depression or memory deficits in BPS/IC patients.

5.
Elife ; 92020 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242818

RESUMEN

Photoreceptor degeneration is a major cause of blindness and a considerable health burden during aging but effective therapeutic or preventive strategies have not so far become readily available. Here we show in mouse models that signaling through the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT protects photoreceptor cells against both light-induced and inherited retinal degeneration. Upon light damage, photoreceptor cells upregulate Kit ligand (KITL) and activate KIT signaling, which in turn induces nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor NRF2 and stimulates the expression of the antioxidant gene Hmox1. Conversely, a viable Kit mutation promotes light-induced photoreceptor damage, which is reversed by experimental expression of Hmox1. Furthermore, overexpression of KITL from a viral AAV8 vector prevents photoreceptor cell death and partially restores retinal function after light damage or in genetic models of human retinitis pigmentosa. Hence, application of KITL may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for prevention or treatment of retinal degenerative diseases.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243024

RESUMEN

Borophene sheets have been synthesized in recent experiments, but the metallic nature and structural instability of the sheets seriously prevent the outstanding emerging applications. Hydrogenated borophene has been predicted as an ideal material for nanoelectronic applications due to its high stability and excellent electronic and mechanical properties. However, the fabrication of hydrogenated borophene has still a great challenge. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenated borophenes in large quantities can be prepared without any metal substrates by a stepwise in-situ thermal decomposition of sodium borohydride under hydrogen as the carrier gas. The borophenes with good crystallinity exhibit superior stability in strong acid or base solvents. The structure of the grown borophene is in good agreement with the predicted semiconducting alpha-boron sheet. The fabricated borophene-based memory device shows a high ON/OFF current ratio of 3 × 10 3 and a low operating voltage of less than 0.35 V as well as good stability.

7.
Mol Pharm ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233440

RESUMEN

Diabetic wound is a worldwide health problem causing extremely heavy public health burden and requires effective treatment. Optimal strategies for treating non-healing diabetic wounds include stem cell-based therapy and delivery of novel drug substances, such as functional microRNAs (miRNAs), however, miRNA was easy to degrade in the wound microenvironment. Herein, we developed a human adipose stem cell derived exosomes (hASC-exos) based miRNA delivery strategy to enhance its therapeutic efficacy. The miR-21-5p mimics, as novel therapeutic candidates for diabetic wounds, was loaded into hASC-exos by electroporation, taking advantages of natural availability and biocompatibility of exosomes as extracellular miRNA transporting particles. The engineered exosomes (E-exos) exhibited excellent effects on promoting proliferation and migration of keratinocytes via Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in vitro, and on accelerating diabetic wound healing by increasing re-epithelization, collagen remodeling, angiogenesis and vessel maturation in vivo. Results from this study would set the fundamentals of applying hASC-exos to deliver future drug substances, and to develop cell-free therapy for wound healing treatments.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234597

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TwHF), a traditional Chinese herb medicine, has been widely used for clinical treatment of various rheumatic immune diseases. Tripterygium glycosides (TG) extracted from TwHF has been verified to process multiple bioactivities, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the clinical application of TG is limited due to its severe toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. For the clinical safety of TG usage, attenuation of toxicity is the key issue to be solved. PURPOSE: Tripterigium glycoside fraction n2 (TG-n2) is a detoxified mixture obtained from TG using a new preparation method. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that TG-n2 has a lower toxicity than TG. The aim of the present study was to screen the renal protective effect of TG-n2 in nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by adriamycin (ADR) in rats and its effect on apoptosis, as well as the effective difference between TG-n2 and TG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ADR-induced NS rat model was established. Rats were intravenously injected with ADR (6 mg/kg), then treated with either TG-n2 (10 mg/kg/day) or TG (10 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 4 weeks. Clinical indexes in each group were determined. HE staining and electron microscopic analysis were used to evaluate renal histopathological damage. Caspase-3 activity reagent and TUNEL staining were used to estimate renal apoptosis. Protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-12, Bax, Bcl-2, p53, TNF-R1, FLIP and podocin were measured by Western Blot. RESULTS: TG-n2 and TG intervention ameliorated renal function as assessed by the levels of 24-h proteinuria, Cr, BUN, TC, TG, ALB, LDH and LDL-c. TG-n2 and TG alleviated the decrease of podocin protein expression and morphological injury of podocyte as screened by Western Blot and electron microscopic analysis. Besides, renal tubular injury was reduced as inspected by light microscopic analysis. TG-n2 and TG could significantly inhibit the apoptosis and activity of caspase-3 in kidney tissues as examined by fluorescence microscopic analysis and reagent. After intervention of TG-n2 and TG, protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9, Bax, p53 and TNF-R1 in renal issues were significantly decreased compared with ADR group. In contrast, protein level of Bcl-2 was elevated remarkedly. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that attenuated TG-n2 may have a similar protective effect with TG in ADR-induced NS in rats by inhibiting activation of apoptosis.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(1): 14-19, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237406

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders are a common mental illness that seriously endangered physical and mental health of human beings. The etiology of anxiety disorders is closely related to the abnormality of monoamines neurotransmitters, amino acids neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. The long-term use of anti-anxiety chemical drugs has some adverse effects, such as constipation, muscle relaxation, lethargy, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. However, traditional Chinese medicines have advantages of multi-component, multi-target coordination, with less adverse reactions. Therefore, it is a promising prospect to develop novel anti-anxiety drugs from traditional Chinese medicines and formulas. This article reviewed some traditional Chinese medicines and formulas that can relieve anxiety symptoms. These include traditional Chinese medicines(Panax ginseng, Lycium ruthenium, Morus alba, Bupleurum plus dragon bone oyster soup, Chailong Jieyu Pills, and Naogongtai Formulas) with the effect on monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine; traditional Chinese medicines(Rehmannia glutinosa, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa, Jielv Anshen Decoction, Baixiangdan Capsules, Antianxietic Compound Prescription Capsules) with the effect on amino acid neurotransmitters, such as glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyrc acid; and traditional Chinese medicines(P. ginseng, Xiaoyao San, Shuyu Ningxin Decoction)with the effect on neuropeptide Y pathway, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for the further development of some novel and more effective anti-anxiety therapeutics from traditional Chinese medicine and formulas.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239675

RESUMEN

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is closely associated with aging. Our previous studies have confirmed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can inhibit nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis. However, whether or not HO-1 is involved in NP cell senescence and autophagy is unclear. Our results indicated that HO-1 expression was reduced in IDD tissues and replicative senescent NP cells. HO-1 overexpression using a lentiviral vector reduced the NP cell senescence level, protected mitochondrial function, and promoted NP cell autophagy through the mitochondrial pathway. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA pretreatment reversed the anti-senescent and protective effects on the mitochondrial function of HO-1, which promoted the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intervertebral disc. In vivo, HO-1 overexpression inhibited IDD and enhanced autophagy. In summary, these results suggested that HO-1 overexpression alleviates NP cell senescence by inducing autophagy via the mitochondrial route.

11.
Anticancer Drugs ; 31(4): 326-332, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197005

RESUMEN

Leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 has been extensively explored because of its protective function in cell homeostasis and correlation with osteogenesis imperfect. Human osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone with multiple and complex genomic aberrations. However, the functional role of leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 is still unknown in osteosarcoma. Thus we performed this study to explain the leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 effect in osteosarcoma. Gene arrays of human osteosarcoma were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to assess the expression of leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 in osteosarcoma cell lines. Then we attenuated leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 expression in MG63 cells by siRNA strategy and assessed the effect of leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion through in-vitro experiments. Additionally, we detected the role of leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 knockdown on PI3K/AKT pathway-related proteins using western blotting. Leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 was increased in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. The overall survival curve demonstrated that high-regulated leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 was linked with poor prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The capabilities of proliferation, migration and invasion were all inhibited in MG63 cell because of the downregulation of leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated PI3K and AKT was impaired after knockdown the leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 as well as P70S6K. In conclusion, leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 might function as an important therapeutic factor in human osteosarcoma through regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200431

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Household poverty associated with schizophrenia has been long described. However, the mechanisms by which schizophrenia may have influenced the economic status of a household in rural communities are still unclear. This study aimed to test an integrated model of schizophrenia, social support and caregiving burden on household poverty in a rural community in China. METHODS: A mental health survey using identical methods and ICD-10 was conducted in six townships of Xinjin County (population ≥ 15 years old, n = 152,776), Chengdu, China in 2015. Identified persons with schizophrenia (n = 661) and their caregivers completed a joint questionnaire of sociodemographic information, illness conditions, social support and caregiving burden. Descriptive analysis was applied first to give an overview of the dataset. Then, multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associative factors of social support, caregiving burden and household income. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the integrated model of schizophrenia, social support, caregiving burden and household income. RESULTS: Households with patient being female, married, able to work and having better social function were better off. Larger household size, higher social support and lower caregiving burden also had salient association with higher household income. The relationship between schizophrenia and household poverty appeared to be mediated by the impacts of schizophrenia on social support and caregiving burden. CONCLUSION: There was a strong association between schizophrenia and household poverty, in which social support and caregiving burden may had played significant roles on mediating it. More precise poverty alleviation policies and interventions should focus on supporting recovery for persons with schizophrenia, as well as on increasing social support and on reducing family caregiving burden.

13.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188705

RESUMEN

Although mutations in the RNA splicing factor SF3B1 are frequent in multiple cancers, their functional effects and therapeutic dependencies are poorly understood. Here we characterize 98 tumors and 12 isogenic cell lines harboring SF3B1 hotspot mutations, identifying hundreds of cryptic 3' splice sites common and specific to different cancer types. Regulatory network analysis revealed that the most common SF3B1 mutation activates MYC via effects conserved across human and mouse cells. SF3B1 mutations promote decay of transcripts encoding the PP2A phosphatase subunit PPP2R5A, increasing c-MYC S62 and BCL2 S70 phosphorylation which, in turn, promote MYC protein stability and impair apoptosis, respectively. Genetic PPP2R5A restoration or pharmacologic PP2A activation impaired SF3B1-mutant tumorigenesis elucidating a therapeutic approach to aberrant splicing by mutant SF3B1.

14.
Langmuir ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212611

RESUMEN

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was utilized to disclose four novel core-modified rubyrin self-assembly behaviors on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, of which N2S4-OR(1)/N2Se4-OR(2) had no phenanthrene pyrrole ring and N2S4-OR(3)/N2Se4-OR(4) had phenanthrene fused pyrrole rings and meso-aryl substituents. It was discovered that the core-modified rubyrin could self-assemble into either face-on or edge-on monolayer structures selectively at the liquid/HOPG interface in different solvents. There was an obvious solvent-dependent self-assembly for N2S4-OR(3)/N2Se4-OR(4) which adopted an edge-on and face-on structure in 1-phenyloctane and 1-heptanoic acid solvents respectively, whereas N2S4-OR(1)/N2Se4-OR(2) showed no obvious difference in the assembly structure which both adopted a face-on structure in the two solvents. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also utilized to reveal the relevant self-assembly mechanisms. This study shows a typical solvent effect regulating core-modified rubyrin self-assembly which is essential for porphyrin-based functional devices' design and manufacture.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212684

RESUMEN

With the aid of a pyridyl tetracarboxylate ligand, 2,5-bis(2',5'-dicarboxylphenyl)pyridine (H4L), two indium-organic frameworks, [In2(L)(OH)2]·2DMF·2H2O (1) and [Me2NH2][In(L)]·2.5NMF·4H2O (2), with (6,8)- and (4,4)-connected nets have been constructed in different solvent systems. Both 1 and 2 exhibit high thermal and chemical stability. Gas sorption behavior of 1 and 2 for N2, C2H2, C2H4, CO2, and CH4 indicate excellent separation selectivities of C2Hx/CH4 and CO2/CH4. Furthermore, 1 possesses a high density of Brønsted sites and shows efficient catalytic conversion for CO2 cycloaddition with epoxides. Meanwhile, luminescence investigations reveal that 2 can detect nitrofurazone efficiently.

16.
Bioorg Chem ; 97: 103715, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146172

RESUMEN

Neuroinflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. In our screening of natural effective neuroinflammatory inhibitors from natural products, stilbenes, such as resveratrol and its analogues, have received considerable attention over the last several decades as anti-neuroinflammatory agents. Then, Bletilla striata attracted our attention due to its abundant stilbenes portion, PE fraction. So, three new stilbenes: dusuanlansin E1 (23a), dusuanlansin E2 (23b), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl-3'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (27), and 30 known stilbene compounds were isolated from B. striata. These structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and circular dichroism (CD) data. Furthermore, all the isolated components were tested in vitro for their inhibitory effects on the nitric oxide generation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. As a result, compounds 2, 5, 6, 16, 17 can greatly inhibit the NO production without cytotoxicity. In addition, SARs between stilbenes and anti-neuroinflammation effects were discussed briefly. In conclusion, stilbenes were characteristic constituents of the tubers of B. striata with potential anti- neuroinflammatory effects.

17.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126209, 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113096

RESUMEN

To address the challenge of trichloroethene (TCE) remediation in low permeability zone, an inexpensive Cu-Ni bimetallic cathode was proposed in electrokinetic (EK) remediation system to couple electrokinetic migration with in situ electrochemical hydrodechlorination. Aqueous phase TCE was originally added into the anolyte so that breakthrough curves through the low permeability porous soil compartment could be obtained to better understand TCE migration driven by electroosmosis flow using different cathodes. The Cu-Ni cathode resulted in more TCE migration of 7.64 mg compared to that of 5.99 mg with Ni and 4.22 mg with mixed metal oxide (MMO) cathode, suggesting that the Cu-Ni cathode was capable of driving more TCE flux out of the contaminated soil. With the Cu-Ni cathode, 98.4% of TCE flux that reached the cathode was electrochemically reduced on the cathode, which was much higher than that with MMO cathode (77.9%) or Ni cathode (59.6%). TCE mass that was transported by electroosmosis flow increased from 2.04 to 6.68 mg when the voltage gradient increased from 1 to 4 V cm-1, with the normalized energy consumption increasing from 0.06 to 0.16 kWh kg-1 per unit water movement, and from 0.54 to 2.55 kWh g-1 per unit TCE transport. For TCE that did reach the cathode compartment, > 98% degradation maintained at the Cu-Ni cathode with various voltage gradients. The coupled electrokinetic and electrochemical hydrodechlorination technology appears to be a promising strategy for the remediation of low permeability porous media.

19.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175976

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To test the validity of the Ecological Video Identification of Physical Activity (EVIP) computer vision algorithms for automated video-based ecological assessment of physical activity in settings such as parks and schoolyards. METHODS: 27 hours of video were collected from stationary overhead video cameras across 22 visits in 9 sites capturing organized activities. Each person in the setting wore an accelerometer and each second was classified as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or sedentary/light activity. 57,987 seconds of data were used to train and test computer vision algorithms for estimating the total number of people in the video and number of people active (in MVPA) each second. In the testing dataset (38,658 seconds), video-based System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) observations were conducted every 5-minutes (130 observations). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and mean absolute errors (MAE) assessed agreement between (1) EVIP and ground truth (people counts+accelerometry) and (2) SOPARC observation and ground truth. Site and scene-level correlates of error were investigated. RESULTS: Agreement between EVIP and ground truth was high for number of people in the scene (CCC=0.88; MAE=2.70) and moderate for number of people active (CCC=0.55; MAE=2.57). EVIP error was uncorrelated with camera placement, presence of obstructions or shadows, and setting type. For both number in scene and number active, EVIP outperformed SOPARC observations in estimating ground truth values (CCCs were larger by 0.11-0.12 and MAEs smaller by 41%-48%). CONCLUSION: Computer vision algorithms are promising for automated assessment of setting-based physical activity. Such tools would require less manpower than human observation, produce more and potentially more accurate data, and allow for ongoing monitoring and feedback to inform interventions.

20.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 76: 103355, 2020 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143119

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Articles concerning the correlation of the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with air contaminant exposure present inconsistent findings and the magnitude of the link is still unclear. Therefore, we planned to systematically and quantitatively investigate the overall strength of proofs in this field. METHODS: Relevant articles on Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science, and CINHAL were searched as per relevant strategies. Only observational studies that disclosed the link of CKD risk with major air pollutants were enrolled, including PM10 and PM2.5, which were particulate matter less than 10 um and less than 2.5 um in erodynamic diameter respectively. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were determined using random--effects models, regardless of the heterogeneity quantified by I2 statistic. RESULTS: Finally, 7 studies involving 5,812,381 participants were included. The incidence of CKD was increased by long-term exposure to PM10 (including solely estimated exposure to PM10 from studies using PM2.5) (RR 1.08, 95 %CI 1.04-1.11) with considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 79 %), and the risk of CKD was raised by 8% when the long-time exposure to PM10 increased by 10 ug/m3. The pooled RR (95 %CI) with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 for risk of CKD was 1.09 (1.03-1.17). Stratified analysis also verified the general negative effects. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic subjection to major air contaminants (PM10 and PM2.5) is more likely to cause CKD. Thus, developing global approaches of air pollution elimination to prevent CKD is urgent.

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