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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1016-1023, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518060

RESUMEN

Salmonella is a major zoonotic foodborne pathogen that persists on poultry farms worldwide. The present study aimed to survey the prevalence of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) recovered from broiler chickens in Shandong Province, China. A total of 280 Salmonella isolates were identified from 923 broiler chicken samples between 2013 and 2018. Among the isolates, S. Enteritidis (n = 128, 45.7%) was the predominant serovar, and high antimicrobial resistance rates to piperacillin (PIP) (n = 123, 96.1%), ampicillin (AM) (n = 122, 95.3%), nitrofurantoin (FT) (n = 106, 96.1%), and tetracycline (TE) (n = 93, 72.7%) were observed in S. Enteritidis. A total of 96 (75.0%) S. Enteritidis isolates presented with multidrug resistance, the most frequent of which were the combination of AM, PIP, TE, and FT. Resistance to fluoroquinolone tended to increase during 2013 to 2018. Our findings provide important and updated information about the baseline antimicrobial-resistant data for food safety and a risk assessment of S. Enteritidis from broiler chickens in Shandong Province and will be helpful for future surveillance activities to ensure the safety of the chicken supply.

2.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 62: 102003, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545444

RESUMEN

The use of genetically tractable plant-microbe pairs has driven research in plant immunity and mutualistic symbiosis. Clear functional readouts for the outcomes of symbiosis or immunity have facilitated forward genetic screening and identification of signals, molecules and mechanisms that determine the outcome of these interactions. Plants also associate with beneficial microbial communities that form the microbiome. However, the complexity of the microbiome, combined with relatively subtle effects on plant growth and immunity, has impeded forward genetic screening to identify plant and bacterial genes that shape the microbiome. As a result, microbiome research has relied largely on reverse genetics approaches, based on what is known about plant nutrient uptake and immunity, to identify mechanisms in plant-microbiome research. Here we revisit the features of reductionist model systems that have made them so powerful for studying plant-microbe interactions, and how modeling microbiome research after these systems can propel discovery of novel mechanisms.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 55, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546628

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although several brain networks play important roles in cervical dystonia (CD) patients, regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in CD patients have not been clarified. We investigated to explore ReHo in CD patients at rest and analyzed its correlations with symptom severity as measured by Tsui scale. METHODS: A total of 19 CD patients and 21 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent fMRI scans at rest state. Data were analyzed by ReHo method. RESULTS: Patients showed increased ReHo in the right cerebellum crus I and decreased ReHo in the right superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Moreover, the right precentral gyrus, right insula, and bilateral middle cingulate gyrus also showed increased ReHo values. A significantly positive correlation was observed between ReHo value in the right cerebellum crus I and symptom severity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation suggested abnormal ReHo existed in brain regions of the "pain matrix" and salience network (the right insula and bilateral middle cingulate gyrus), the motor network (the right precentral gyrus), the cerebellum and MPFC and further highlighted the significance of these networks in the pathology of CD.

4.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(3): 69, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547501

RESUMEN

A novel heterogeneous architecture has been constructed integrating two-dimensional (2D) bimetallic CoCu-zeolite imidazole framework (CoCu-ZIF) and zero-dimensional (0D) Ti3C2Tx MXene-derived carbon dots (CDs) (represented by CoCu-ZIF@CDs). The prepared CoCu-ZIF@CDs were further explored as sensitive layer for anchoring B16-F10 cell-targeted aptamer strands and detecting B16-F10 cells from the biological environment. Basic characterization showed that CDs were homogeneously embedded within CoCu-ZIF NSs owing to their π-π stacking interaction, leading to outstanding fluorescence performance of the 0D/2D CoCu-ZIF@CD nanohybrid. As such, the CoCu-ZIF@CD-based cytosensor was applied to detect living B16-F10 cells through electrochemical techniques and cell imaging. Compared with CoCu-ZIF- and CD-based cytosensors, the constructed CoCu-ZIF@CD-based one showed superior sensing performance, with an extremely low limit of detection (LOD) of 33 cells∙mL-1 and a wide range of suspension concentration of 1 × 102-1 × 105 cells∙mL-1 B16-F10 cells. The developed cytosensor also demonstrated excellent detection performance, including cell imaging properties, good selectivity, high stability, and good reproducibility. By anchoring other probe molecules, the constructed CoCu-ZIF@CD-based biosensor can be extensively explored for early diagnosis of other analytes, thereby widening the applications of porous organic frameworks in biosensing and biomedical fields. A novel sensing system for melanoma B16-F10 cells based on a novel CoCu-ZIF@CD nanohybrid has been developed. The CoCu-ZIF@CDs-based cytosensor displayed an extremely low limit of detection (LOD) of 33 cells∙mL-1 within the wide range of B16-F10 cell concentration from 1 × 102 to 1 × 105 cells∙mL-1, accompanying with cell imaging properties, good selectivity, high stability, and well reproducibility.

5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548988

RESUMEN

Left ventricular thrombosis and cerebral infarction caused by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) are uncommon in infants. We present the case of a 23-month-old girl whose echocardiography revealed a left ventricular thrombus, which resolved after sinus rhythm was restored. The girl had experienced repeated systemic convulsions and high muscular tension of the left limb accompanied by movement disorder. Soon afterward, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed scattered lacunar cerebral infarctions in the right lateral ventricle. The symptoms, signs, and laboratory examination satisfied the diagnosis of left ventricular thrombosis and cerebral infarction caused by recurrent episodes of PSVT. The girl was given antiarrhythmic drugs, including propranolol, esmolol, and amiodarone, intracranial pressure decreasing treatment (mannitol), heart and brain cell nutritional therapy, anticoagulant therapy, and her condition gradually improved. This case report highlights the importance of pediatric PSVT patients' clinical management and that more emphasis should be placed on early recognition and prevention of severe complications. Pediatricians should be trained early recognition of the nonspecific clinical manifestations of PSVT, make effectively and quickly diagnosis by electrocardiogram, evaluation of cardiac function and thrombosis by echocardiography, and termination PSVT as rapidly as possible. Thromboprophylaxis therapy might be considered for recurrent episodes of PSVT.

6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aberrations of monocyte/macrophage-associated cytokines are increasingly recognized in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the combined expression of these cytokines has not been sufficiently studied in relation to either disease activity or renal involvement in SLE. Here, we explored clinical values of monocyte/macrophage-associated cytokines for monitoring of disease activity and renal involvement in SLE patients. METHODS: A total of 44 healthy people and 100 SLE patients were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of 8 monocyte/macrophage-associated cytokines [interferon gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-34 (IL-34), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)] were measured, and correlations between their levels and both SLE activity and renal involvement were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Additionally, we analyzed the correlation between M-CSF level and laboratory or clinical data and used real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess M-CSF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in sorted candidate cells. RESULTS: The levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were significant for predicting SLE activity, while the M-CSF level was significant for predicting both SLE activity and renal involvement. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of M-CSF in monocytes from SLE patients was higher than that of healthy people, and the M-CSF level was positively correlated with monocyte numbers. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine M-CSF is a promising marker to evaluate both disease activity and renal involvement in SLE, and the high level of M-CSF in SLE patients was mainly derived from monocytes.

7.
Global Spine J ; : 2192568221993444, 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557606

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the preoperative width of the intervertebral foramen (WIVF) and the pain relief in patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. METHODS: Patients were divided into 2 groups based on pain relief status at the 6-month follow-up (pain relief group: 430 patients; persistent pain group: 108 patients). Possible factors such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), the symptom duration, the preoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, the canal stenosis status, and the graft material were obtained. The C2-C7 Cobb angle, disc space, and width and height of the intervertebral foramen were measured on X-ray and CT 3-dimension reconstruction. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the factors that affected pain relief. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for the predictive factors to determine the optimal threshold for foreseeing persistent pain. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the preoperative WIVF, symptom duration and ratio of disc space distraction between the 2 groups (each P < 0.05). The regression model showed that pain relief was negatively affected by the symptom duration and ratio of disc space distraction. Besides, an increase in the preoperative width of the intervertebral foramen (WIVF) could significantly decrease the possibility of persistent pain. Based on the ROC curve, the optimal threshold of preoperative WIVF was 4.35 mm. CONCLUSION: When the preoperative WIVF is equal to or less than 4.35 mm, the possibility of the occurrence of postoperative persistent pain significantly increased.

8.
Arthroscopy ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539982

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the anatomical landmarks of Schöttle's Point and establish a locating method for identification. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, the patients undergoing MPFL reconstruction for patellofemoral instability were enrolled. INCLUSION CRITERIA: at least 2 episodes of patellar dislocation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: previous knee surgeries, open physes, severe trochlear dysplasia, tibial tuberosity lateralization or patella alta. Group A: From January 2013 to December 2013, preoperative 3D-CT images were obtained. Anatomical features of Schöttle's point were measured on the 3D-CT images. A Schöttle's point locating method with two distinct landmarks was established. Group B: From January 2014 to January 2016, consecutive MPFL reconstructions were performed. The placement of Schöttle's point was following the established method without fluoroscopy. The accuracy of femoral tunnel positions was assessed on the 3D-CT images postoperatively. RESULTS: CT images of 53 knees were obtained in Group A. 47 MPFL reconstructions were performed in Group B. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding to demographic characteristics. The intra-class correlation coefficients were excellent for all measures (r = 0.97). In group A, the Schöttle's point was 8.1±0.2 mm (95% CI 7.7-8.5) distal to the apex of adductor tubercle and 8.0±0.3 mm (95% CI 7.4-8.6) anterior to the posterior edge. Apex of adductor tubercle was defined as the most convex point, and posterior edge was defined as the edge of posteromedial cortex in transition area between medial condyle and femoral shaft. In group B, 44 of 47 femoral tunnels (93.6%) were considered to be localized in the proper zone. CONCLUSION: The Schottle's point was approximately 8 mm distal to the apex of adductor tubercle and 8 mm from the posterior edge. The Schottle's point locating method without fluoroscopy had high accuracy.

9.
Future Med Chem ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527844

RESUMEN

Aim: To investigate whether kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by mediating the PVT1/miR-214 and PAK4/ß-catenin pathways in SRA01/04 cells. Methods & methods: qRT-PCR and western blot assays were used for gene and protein determination, and migration and invasion assays were conducted. A coimmunoprecipitation assay was used for determining protein interactions. Results: High glucose effectively upregulated PVT1 expression, downregulated miR-214 expression and promoted cell migration and invasion. Kaempferol attenuated high glucose-induced EMT by increasing PVT1 expression and decreasing miR-214 expression. PAK4 was identified as a direct target of miR-214. PAK4 overexpression could rescue the effects of PVT1 deficiency on SRA01/04 cells. Conclusion: Kaempferol ameliorated the regulatory effects of PVT1/miR-214 on high glucose-induced EMT through PAK4/ß-catenin in SRA01/04 cells.

11.
Neurosci Lett ; : 135674, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529652

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition leading to severe disability from progressive impairments in cognitive functions including memory and learning. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been linked to the pathogenesis of AD. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of miR-140 in AD. First, we examined the expression of miR-140 and PINK1 in brain tissues of the established AD model rats and neurons cultured with Aß-derived diffusible ligands (AßDDLs). We identified an interaction between miR-140 and PINK1, and measured spatial learning and memory abilities of the model rats using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. After ectopic expression and depletion experiments in neurons and AD rats, we measured the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), along with mTOR expression and phosphorylation, and autophagy-related factors. Results showed up-regulation of miR-140 and down-regulation of PINK1 in AD model rats and neurons. PINK1 was verified to be a direct target of miR-140, and silencing of miR-140 suppressed mitochondrial dysfunction, and enhanced autophagy in AD model rats and neurons, as supported by decreased levels of mTOR expression and phosphorylation, ß-amyloid p-Tau (Ser396), p-Tau (Thr231), Tau and ROS, and increased MMP levels and expression of Beclin 1 expression and LC3-II/LC3-I. Collectively, functional suppression of miR-140 enhanced autophagy and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by upregulating PINK1, ultimately suggesting a novel therapeutic target for AD.

12.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672121991777, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530727

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To predict post-operative depth of focus (DoF) using machine learning techniques after cataract surgery with Tecnis Symfony implantation and determine associated impact factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study among patients receiving Tecnis Symfony implantation, an extended-range-of-vision intraocular lens, during October 2016-January 2020 at Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, China. Four different predictive models were used to predict good post-operative DoF (⩾2.5 D): Extreme Gradient Boost (XGBoost), random forest (RF), LASSO penalized regression, and multivariable logistic regression (MLR). Apriori algorithm was employed to further explore the association between patient attributes and DoF. RESULTS: A total of 182 unique cases (143 patients) were included. The XGBoost model produced the best predictive accuracy compared to RF, LASSO, and MLR models. Overall performance of the best fitting XGBoost model was as follows: accuracy = 70.3%, AUC = 80.2%, sensitivity = 65.5%, and specificity = 87.5%. The Apriori algorithm identified six preoparative attributes with substantial effects on good post-operative DoF: low anterior chamber depth (ACD) (1.9 to <2.5 mm), smaller pupil size (1.7 to <2.5 mm), low-to-mid axial length (21 to <23 mm), minimum astigmatism degree (-0.2 to 0 diopter), low IOP (9 to <12 mmHg), and medium lens target refractive error (-0.5 to <-0.25 diopter). CONCLUSIONS: Machine Learning models were able to predict good post-operative DoF among cataract patients receiving a Tecnis Symfony ocular lens implantation. The accuracy of the model was above 70%. The Apriori algorithm identified six preoperative attributes with a strong association with post-operative DoF.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Two prostate cancer (PC) classification methods based on transcriptome profiles, a de novo method referred to as the "Prostate Cancer Classification System" (PCS) and a variation of the established PAM50 breast cancer algorithm, were recently proposed. Both studies concluded that most human PC can be assigned to one of three tumor subtypes, two categorized as luminal and one as basal, suggesting the two methods reflect consistency in underlying biology. Despite the similarity, differences and commonalities between the two classification methods have not yet been reported. METHODS: Here, we describe a comparison of the PCS and PAM50 classification systems. PCS and PAM50 signatures consisting of 37 (PCS37) and 50 genes, respectively, were used to categorize 9,947 PC patients into PCS and PAM50 classes. Enrichment of hallmark gene sets and luminal and basal marker gene expression were assessed in the same datasets. Finally, survival analysis was performed to compare PCS and PAM50 subtypes in terms of clinical outcomes. RESULTS: PCS and PAM50 subtypes show clear differential expression of PCS37 and PAM50 genes. While only three genes are shared in common between the two systems, there is some consensus between three subtype pairs (PCS1 versus Luminal B, PCS2 versus Luminal A, and PCS3 versus Basal) with respect to gene expression, cellular processes, and clinical outcomes. PCS categories displayed better separation of cellular processes and luminal and basal marker gene expression compared to PAM50. Although both PCS1 and Luminal B tumors exhibited the worst clinical outcomes, outcomes between aggressive and less aggressive subtypes were better defined in the PCS system, based on larger hazard ratios observed. CONCLUSION: The PCS and PAM50 classification systems are similar in terms of molecular profiles and clinical outcomes. However, the PCS system exhibits greater separation in multiple clinical outcomes and provides better separation of prostate luminal and basal characteristics.

14.
Sleep Breath ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532989

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Currently, mobile penetration is high amongst college students. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics of mobile phone use and to explore the influence of mobile phone use characteristics on sleep quality amongst college students. METHODS: From December 2016 to January 2017, we collected mobile phone use characteristics and sleep quality data using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and standardised questionnaires that were answered by 4500 medical university students in Liaoning Province (actual response rate of 94%, n = 4234 college students). This study used the SPSS 21.0 software to establish the database and perform the statistical analysis. RESULTS: One hundred percent of the college students had mobile phones and used mobile phones for entertainment (91%), work (51%), obtaining information (61%), and other purposes (23%). Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference in the PSQI score between students who held the phone at a distance of more than 10 cm from their eyes and those who held it a distance of less than 10 cm (P = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of poor sleep quality was 1.21-1.53 times higher for those who spent more than 5 h a day using their phones and 1.41-1.59 times higher for those who used their phones for more than half an hour before going to bed when the lights were off. CONCLUSIONS: Daily cumulative mobile phone use and use with the lights off before sleep are associated with poorer sleep quality.

15.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533378

RESUMEN

Intracellular pH and hypochlorite (ClO-) concentration play an important role in life activities, so there is an urgent need to develop a valid strategy to monitor pH and ClO- in biological systems with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we report long-wavelength emission nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) and their potential applications in intracellular pH variation, ClO- sensing and cell imaging. The N-CDs were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method of neutral red (NR) and glutamine (Gln). N-CDs exhibited a pH-sensitive response in the range of 4.0-9.0 and a good linear relationship in the range of 5.6-7.4, which indicated that N-CDs are an ideal agent for monitoring pH fluctuations in living cells. In addition, ClO- was capable of reducing the photoluminescence of N-CDs based on static quenching. The linear range is 1.5-112.5 µM and 112.5-187.5 µM, and the LOD is 0.27 µM. Besides, the as-fabricated N-CDs have been smoothly achieved to monitor pH and ClO- in PC-12 living cells due to their great biocompatibility and lower cytotoxicity, demonstrating their promising applications in the biomedical field. Compared with other CD-based methods, the as-proposed N-CDs have a longer fluorescence emission, which makes them potentially valuable in biological systems. The results pave a way towards the construction of long-wavelength carbon-based nanomaterials for fluorescence sensing and cell imaging.

16.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533737

RESUMEN

Accurate methods for identifying pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) of prostate cancer (PCa) prior to surgery are still lacking. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of peripheral monocyte count (PMC) for LNM of PCa in this study. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients from three centers were divided into a training set (n = 125) and a validation set (n = 173). In the training set, the independent predictors of LNM were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the optimal cutoff value was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of the optimal cutoff were authenticated in the validation cohort. Finally, a nomogram based on the PMC was constructed for predicting LNM. Multivariate analyses of the training cohort demonstrated that clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and PMC were independent risk factors for LNM. The subsequent ROC analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of PMC for diagnosing LNM was 0.405 × 109 l-1 with a sensitivity of 60.0% and a specificity of 67.8%. In the validation set, the optimal cutoff value showed significantly higher sensitivity than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (0.619 vs 0.238, P < 0.001). The nomogram involving PMC, free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) was generated, which showed a robust predictive capacity for predicting LNM before the operation. Our results indicated that PMC as a single agent, or combined with other clinical parameters, showed a robust predictive capacity for LNM in PCa. It can be employed as a complementary factor for the decision of whether to conduct pelvic lymph node dissection.

17.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 48, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the most common polyglutamine disorders, leading to progressive dyskinesia, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychological problems. Besides the dysregulation of many protein-coding genes in HD, previous studies have revealed a variety of non-coding RNAs that are also dysregulated in HD, including several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, an integrated analysis of differentially expressed (DE) genes based on a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network is still currently lacking. METHODS: In this study, we have systematically analyzed the gene expression profile data of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from patients with HD and controls (healthy controls and the isogenic controls of HD patient cell lines corrected using a CRISPR-Cas9 approach at the HTT locus) to screen out DE mRNAs and DE lncRNAs and create a ceRNA network. To learn more about the possible functions of lncRNAs in the ceRNA regulatory network in HD, we conducted a functional analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and established a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for mRNAs interacting with these lncRNAs. RESULTS: We identified 490 DE mRNAs and 94 DE lncRNAs, respectively. Of these, 189 mRNAs and 20 lncRNAs were applied to create a ceRNA network. The results showed that the function of DE lncRNAs mainly correlated with transcriptional regulation as demonstrated by GO analysis. Also, KEGG enrichment analysis showed these lncRNAs were involved in tumor necrosis factor, calcium, Wnt, and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. Interestingly, the PPI network revealed that a variety of transcription factors in the ceRNA network interacted with each other, suggesting such lncRNAs may regulate transcription in HD by controlling the expression of such protein-coding genes, especially transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our research provides new clues for uncovering the mechanisms of lncRNAs in HD and can be used as the focus for further investigation.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 144972, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582333

RESUMEN

Toilet wastewater, a rich source of organic matter and nutrients, can be treated anaerobically to recover energy and resources at mesophilic conditions (35 °C) using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester. However, low organic loading rates (OLR) have often been reported, which may be attributed to the flocs biomass applied in previous studies. In the present study, CaP granules were developed in the UASB reactor during the reactor operation of 250 days, which accounted for 89.2% of the UASB sludge, and had high VSS (25.9 ± 0.3 g/L) and high methanogenesis rates (0.34 ± 0.04 g CH4-COD/(gVSS·d)). An OLR of 16.0 g/(L·d) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.25 days, were achieved, with a total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of 75.6 ± 6.0%, and a methane production rate of 8.4 ± 0.9 g CH4-COD/(L·d). The efficiency of the hydrolysis of organic substrates ranged from 32.6 ± 2.8% to 43.4 ± 1.4%. Microbial community analysis revealed that syntrophic bacteria Syntrophus, together with diverse H2-utilizing methanogens, proliferated; and eventually resulted in a hydrogenotrophic dominant pathway in the UASB reactor. The performance, mechanism of CaP granule formation, and the application of the process were discussed in detail. The present paper provided insight of high rate biomethane production from anaerobic toilet wastewater treatment.

20.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 226, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597714

RESUMEN

NKCC and KCC transporters mediate coupled transport of Na++K++Cl- and K++Cl- across the plasma membrane, thus regulating cell Cl- concentration and cell volume and playing critical roles in transepithelial salt and water transport and in neuronal excitability. The function of these transporters has been intensively studied, but a mechanistic understanding has awaited structural studies of the transporters. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the two neuronal cation-chloride cotransporters human NKCC1 (SLC12A2) and mouse KCC2 (SLC12A5), along with computational analysis and functional characterization. These structures highlight essential residues in ion transport and allow us to propose mechanisms by which phosphorylation regulates transport activity.

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