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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646947

RESUMEN

Pooling operations have shown to be effective on computer vision and natural language processing tasks. One challenge of performing pooling operations on graph data is the lack of locality that is not well-defined on graphs. Previous studies used global ranking methods to sample some of the important nodes, but most of them are not able to incorporate graph topology. In this work, we propose the topology-aware pooling (TAP) layer that explicitly considers graph topology. Our TAP layer is a two-stage voting process that selects more important nodes in a graph. It first performs local voting to generate scores for each node by attending each node to its neighboring nodes. The scores are generated locally such that topology information is explicitly considered. In addition, graph topology is incorporated in global voting to compute the importance score of each node globally in the entire graph. Altogether, the final ranking score for each node is computed by combining its local and global voting scores. To encourage better graph connectivity in the sampled graph, we propose to add a graph connectivity term to the computation of ranking scores. Results on graph classification tasks demonstrate that our methods achieve consistently better performance than previous methods.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4870, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649482

RESUMEN

Within the mountain altitudinal vegetation belts, the shift of forest tree lines and subalpine steppe belts to high altitudes constitutes an obvious response to global climate change. However, whether or not similar changes occur in steppe belts (low altitude) and nival belts in different areas within mountain systems remain undetermined. It is also unknown if these, responses to climate change are consistent. Here, using Landsat remote sensing images from 1989 to 2015, we obtained the spatial distribution of altitudinal vegetation belts in different periods of the Tianshan Mountains in Northwestern China. We suggest that the responses from different altitudinal vegetation belts to global climate change are different. The changes in the vegetation belts at low altitudes are spatially different. In high-altitude regions (higher than the forest belts), however, the trend of different altitudinal belts is consistent. Specifically, we focused on analyses of the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation on the nival belts, desert steppe belts, and montane steppe belts. The results demonstrated that the temperature in the study area exhibited an increasing trend, and is the main factor of altitudinal vegetation belts change in the Tianshan Mountains. In the context of a significant increase in temperature, the upper limit of the montane steppe in the eastern and central parts will shift to lower altitudes, which may limit the development of local animal husbandry. The montane steppe in the west, however, exhibits the opposite trend, which may augment the carrying capacity of pastures and promote the development of local animal husbandry. The lower limit of the nival belt will further increase in all studied areas, which may lead to an increase in surface runoff in the central and western regions.

4.
J Periodontal Res ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641180

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Periodontal pathogens initiate various diseases and induce inflammatory host responses. The activation of inflammasomes triggers caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1ß-mediated pyroptosis via gasdermin D (GSDMD). Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 2 (Dec2) is a transcription repressor that controls the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses. However, the effects of Dec2 on inflammasome-induced pyroptosis in periodontal tissues remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the activation of Dec2 inflammasomes that contribute to P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pyroptosis and its functional and regulatory importance in periodontal inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) were stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS in vitro. An experimental periodontitis mouse model (wild-type (WT) and Dec2KO) was established to profile periodontal pyroptosis. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that P. gingivalis LPS activates caspase-1, caspase-11, and NF-κB in HGFs and in HPDLFs. siRNA knockdown of Dec2 stimulated the induction and further upregulated LPS-induced pyroptosis in HGFs and HPDLFs, resulting in the release of IL-1ß. Further, a deficiency of Dec2 alleviated periodontal pyroptosis via the transcriptional induction of GSDMD. In addition, P. gingivalis-induced IL-1ß expression and Dec2-deficient mice subsequently increased the inflammatory effect of P. gingivalis in HGFs and in HPDLFs, confirming the importance of Dec2 in the activation of inflammasomes and the regulation of pyroptosis. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that Dec2 alleviates periodontal pyroptosis by regulating the expression of NF-κB, caspase-1 and GSDMD, suggesting that Dec2 is a crucial component of inflammasome activation and subsequent pyroptosis.

5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e14, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583471

RESUMEN

AIMS: Although the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and transport accidents has been shown, there is limited information on the relationship between medication and dose-response effects and transport accident risk. This study aims to determine whether young people with ADHD, including adolescents, are more prone to transport accidents than those without, and the extent to which methylphenidate (MPH) prescription in these patients reduces the risk. METHODS: We identified 114 486 patients diagnosed with ADHD from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2013. Using a Cox regression model, we compared the risk of transport accidents between ADHD and non-ADHD groups and estimated the effect of MPH on accidents. Furthermore, we applied a self-control case-series analysis to compare the risk of accidents during the medication periods with the same patients' non-medication periods. RESULTS: Male ADHD patients had a higher risk of transport accidents than non-ADHD individuals (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.24, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.39]), especially for those comorbid with epilepsy, oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), and intellectual disabilities (ID). Female ADHD patients showed no relationship, except for comorbid with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ID. We found a reduced risk of transport accidents in patients with ADHD with MPH medication than those without MPH, with a plausible dose-response relationship (aHR of 0.23 to 0.07). A similar pattern was found in self-controlled case-series analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with ADHD, especially those comorbid with epilepsy, ODD/CD, or ID, were at high risk of transport accidents. Female patients, when comorbid with ASD or ID, also exhibited a higher risk of accidents. MPH treatment lowered the accident risk with a dose-response relationship.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/tratamiento farmacológico , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/efectos adversos , Metilfenidato/efectos adversos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Adolescente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Trastorno de la Conducta/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/epidemiología , Masculino , Metilfenidato/uso terapéutico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales
6.
Stem Cell Res ; 52: 102220, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550136

RESUMEN

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a rare X-linked urea cycle disorder. Maternal OTCD can lead to life-threatening hyperammonemia if untreated. Here, we report the Generation of an iPSC line from a patient with OTCD carrying a deletion involving 3-9 exons of OTC gene using non-integrating plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, KLF4, and BCL-XL. The SDQLCHi036-A showed normal karyotype, pluripotent state, and potential to differentiate into three germ layers. Our approach offers a useful model to explore pathogenesis and therapy of OTCD.

7.
Stem Cell Res ; 52: 102212, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550137

RESUMEN

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in NAGLU gene, and characterized by progressive cognitive decline and behavioral difficulties and motor function retardation. A human induced pluripotent stem cell line, SDQLCHi041-A was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a 4 years and 9 months old patient with MPS IIIB, who carried compound heterozygous mutation of c.1336G > A and c.608G > A in NAGLU gene. SDQLCHi041-A offers a useful cell model to investigate pathogenic mechanisms in MPS IIIB.

8.
Stem Cell Res ; 52: 102217, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550138

RESUMEN

Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, autosomal recessive type 1 (PHOAR1, MIM259100) is caused by mutations in the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase gene (HPGD, MIM601688) on chromosome 4q34. An induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) line was generated in our lab from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 2-year-7-month-old girl with PHOAR1 carrying a homozygous mutation of c.310_311del in HPGD. The expression of pluripotency markers, absence of episomal vectors, preservation of normal karyotype, the potential of trilineage differentiation in vitro, were confirmed in the obtained iPSCs line.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(17): 2128-2131, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588430

RESUMEN

In this study, we report a novel synthetic strategy to prepare a highly (110)-oriented ZIF-7 film possessing superior anti-corrosion properties via oriented epitaxial growth. Our work provides insights into facile preparation of oriented uniform MOF single seed layers and films with rod-shaped MOF seeds as building blocks.

10.
Nature ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618348

RESUMEN

The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood due to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people1,2. We report genome-wide data from 166 East Asians dating to 6000 BCE - 1000 CE and 46 present-day groups. Hunter-gatherers from Japan, the Amur River Basin, and people of Neolithic and Iron Age Taiwan and the Tibetan plateau are linked by a deeply-splitting lineage likely reflecting a Late Pleistocene coastal migration. We follow Holocene expansions from four regions. First, hunter-gatherers of Mongolia and the Amur River Basin have ancestry shared by Mongolic and Tungusic language speakers but do not carry West Liao River farmer ancestry contradicting theories that their expansion spread these proto-languages. Second, Yellow River Basin farmers at ~3000 BCE likely spread Sino-Tibetan languages as their ancestry dispersed both to Tibet where it forms up ~84% to some groups and to the Central Plain where it contributed ~59-84% to Han Chinese. Third, people from Taiwan ~1300 BCE to 800 CE derived ~75% ancestry from a lineage also common in modern Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic speakers likely deriving from Yangtze River Valley farmers; ancient Taiwan people also derived ~25% ancestry from a northern lineage related to but different from Yellow River farmers implying an additional north-to-south expansion. Fourth, Yamnaya Steppe pastoralist ancestry arrived in western Mongolia after ~3000 BCE but was displaced by previously established lineages even while it persisted in western China as expected if it spread the ancestor of Tocharian Indo-European languages. Two later gene flows affected western Mongolia: after ~2000 BCE migrants with Yamnaya and European farmer ancestry, and episodic impacts of later groups with ancestry from Turan.

11.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 12, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronary hyper-intense plaque (CHIP) detected on T1-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been shown to associate with vulnerable plaque features and worse outcomes in low- and intermediate-risk populations. However, the prevalence of CHIP and its clinical significance in the higher-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS) population have not been systematically studied. This study aims to assess the relationship between CHIP and ACS clinical severity using intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) as the reference. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were prospectively enrolled including a clinically diagnosed ACS group (n = 50) and a control group with stable angina pectoris (n = 12). The ACS group consisted of consecutive patients including unstable angina pectoris (n = 27), non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) (n = 8), and ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (n = 15), respectively. All patients underwent non-contrast coronary CMR to determine the plaque-to-myocardium signal intensity ratio (PMR). RESULTS: Among the four groups of patients, a progressive increase in the prevalence of CHIPs (stable angina, 8%; unstable angina, 26%; non-STEMI, 38%; STEMI, 67%; p = 0.009), and PMR values (stable angina, 1.1; unstable angina, 1.2; non-STEMI, 1.3; STEMI, 1.6; median values, P = 0.004) were observed. Thrombus (7/8, 88% vs. 4/22, 18%, p = 0.001) and plaque rupture (5/8, 63% vs. 2/22, 9%, p = 0.007) were significantly more prevalent in CHIPs than in plaques without hyper-intensity. Elevated PMR was associated with high-risk plaque features including plaque rupture, thrombus, and intimal vasculature. A positive correlation was observed between PMR and the number of high-risk plaque features identified by OCT (r = 0.44, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CHIPs and PMR are positively associated with the disease severity and high-risk plaque morphology in ACS.

12.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580961

RESUMEN

Mangroves are the main intertidal ecosystems with varieties of root types along the tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. The typical characteristics of mangrove habitats, including the abundant organic matter and nutrients, as well as the strong reductive environment, are favor for the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S, as a pivotal signaling molecule, has been evidenced in a wide variety of plant physiological and developmental processes. However, whether H2S functions in the mangrove root system establishment is not clear yet. Here, we reported the possible role of H2S in regulation of Kandelia obovata root development and growth by TMT-based quantitative proteomic approaches coupled with bioinformatic methods. The results showed that H2S could induce the root morphogenesis of K. obovata in a dose-dependent manner. The proteomic results successfully identified 8,075 proteins, and 697 were determined as differentially expressed proteins. Based on the functional enrichment analysis, we demonstrated that H2S could promote the lateral root development and growth by predominantly regulating the proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism, sulfur metabolism, glutathione metabolism and other antioxidant associated proteins. In addition, transcriptional regulation and brassinosteroid signal transduction associated proteins also act as important roles in lateral root development. The protein-protein interaction analysis further unravels a complicated regulation network of carbohydrate metabolism, cellular redox homeostasis, protein metabolism, secondary metabolism, and amino acid metabolism in H2S-promoted root development and growth of K. obovata. Overall, our results revealed that H2S could contribute to the morphogenesis of the unique root system of mangrove plant K. obovata, and play a positive role in the adaption of mangrove plants to intertidal habitats.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2920, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536471

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of arterial input function (AIF) selection on the quantification of vertebral perfusion using axial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In this study, axial DCE-MRI was performed on 2 vertebrae in each of eight healthy volunteers (mean age, 36.9 years; 5 men) using a 1.5-T scanner. The pharmacokinetic parameters Ktrans, ve, and vp, derived using a Tofts model on axial DCE-MRI of the lumbar vertebrae, were evaluated using various AIFs: the population-based aortic AIF (AIF_PA), a patient-specific aortic AIF (AIF_A) and a patient-specific segmental arterial AIF (AIF_SA). Additionally, peaks and delay times were changed to simulate the effects of various AIFs on the calculation of perfusion parameters. Nonparametric analyses including the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test with a Dunn-Bonferroni post hoc analysis were performed. In simulation, Ktrans and ve increased as the peak in the AIF decreased, but vp increased when delay time in the AIF increased. In humans, the estimated Ktrans and ve were significantly smaller using AIF_A compared to AIF_SA no matter the computation style (pixel-wise or region-of-interest based). Both these perfusion parameters were significantly greater using AIF_SA compared to AIF_A.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540786

RESUMEN

Hand gesture recognition and hand pose estimation are two closely correlated tasks. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning based approach which jointly learns an intermediate level shared feature for these two tasks, so that the hand gesture recognition task can be benefited from the hand pose estimation task. In the training process, a semi-supervised training scheme is designed to solve the problem of lacking proper annotation. Our approach detects the foreground hand, recognizes the hand gesture, and estimates the corresponding 3D hand pose simultaneously. To evaluate the hand gesture recognition performance of the state-of-the-arts, we propose a challenging hand gesture recognition dataset collected in unconstrained environments. Experimental results show that, the gesture recognition accuracy of ours is significantly boosted by leveraging the knowledge learned from the hand pose estimation task.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124860, 2021 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639385

RESUMEN

An in-depth understanding of peanut shell pyrolysis reaction is essential for its efficient utilization. Detailed analysis of thermodynamics, kinetics, and reaction products can provide valuable information about pyrolysis reaction. In this work, pyrolytic reaction mechanism was elucidated with the analysis of thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry and the structural characterization of the derived biochar. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of three sub-stages were matched well in different model-free methods. The positive ΔH and ΔG values indicated that the pyrolysis reactions for three stages were endothermic and nonspontaneous. The reaction mechanism predicted by integral master-plots were F3 (f(α) = (1-α)3), F1 (f(α) = (1-α), and F3 (f(α) = (1-α)3) for the three sub-stages, respectively. The negative ΔS in the third stage was related to the reduced releasing of low-molecular weight gases and ordered graphite-like carbon structure. This study provides a prospective approach to understand the pyrolysis mechanism of biomass.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112030, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601175

RESUMEN

It is little known about the lncRNA-PVT1 effect on occupational pulmonary fibrosis, although researches show it plays an essential role in cancer. Studies reveal that lung fibroblast activation is one of the key events in silica-induced fibrosis. Here, we found that lncRNA-PVT1 promoted the proliferation, activation, and migration of lung fibroblasts. The isolation of cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiment showed that lncRNA-PVT1 was abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm. Luciferase reporter gene assay and RNA pull-down experiment indicated that the cytoplasmic-localized lncRNA-PVT1 could competitively bind miR-497-5p. MiR-497-5p was further observed to attenuate silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by targeting Smad3 and Bcl2. Moreover, the transcription factor FOXM1 acted as a profibrotic factor by elevating lncRNA-PVT1 transcription in lung fibroblasts. Inhibition of FOXM1 expression with thiostrepton alleviated silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, we revealed that FOXM1-facilitated lncRNA-PVT1 activates lung fibroblasts via miR-497-5p during silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which may provide potential therapeutic targets for pulmonary fibrosis.

17.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 203: 106538, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607582

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting implantation is an important rescue treatment for the management of intracranial atherosclerosis-related occlusion (ICAS-O) after mechanical thrombectomy failure, but its safety and efficacy remain unclear. We investigated the safety and efficacy of rescue intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting for emergent large artery occlusion (LAO) with underlying ICAS. METHODS: We searched for relevant full-text articles in EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to March 1, 2020. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) using random-effects models for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), mortality, recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcome at 90 days between ICAS-O group treated by rescue therapy and Non ICAS-O group. RStudio software 1.3.959 was used to perform this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Ten studies were included with a total of 1639 patients, of which 450 (27.5 %) were in the ICAS-O group treated with intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting, and 1189 (72.5 %) were in the Non ICAS-O group. Overall, intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting did not improve the recanalization rate (OR, 0.67 [0.26-1.76]; p = 0.419) or favorable functional outcome (OR, 1.01 [0.64-1.58]; p = 0.97) in patients with underlying ICAS-O, and the risk of sICH (OR, 0.99 [0.59-1.68]; p = 0.983) and mortality (OR, 1.26 [0.87-1.83]; p = 0.225) did not significantly differ between ICAS-O and Non ICAS-O. CONCLUSIONS: From these observational study results, rescue intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting seems safe in patients with emergent LAO after attempted thrombectomy, but further rigorous studies are warranted to confirm its efficacy.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 718, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531484

RESUMEN

Ficus (figs) and their agaonid wasp pollinators present an ecologically important mutualism that also provides a rich comparative system for studying functional co-diversification throughout its coevolutionary history (~75 million years). We obtained entire nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast genomes for 15 species representing all major clades of Ficus. Multiple analyses of these genomic data suggest that hybridization events have occurred throughout Ficus evolutionary history. Furthermore, cophylogenetic reconciliation analyses detect significant incongruence among all nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial-based phylogenies, none of which correspond with any published phylogenies of the associated pollinator wasps. These findings are most consistent with frequent host-switching by the pollinators, leading to fig hybridization, even between distantly related clades. Here, we suggest that these pollinator host-switches and fig hybridization events are a dominant feature of fig/wasp coevolutionary history, and by generating novel genomic combinations in the figs have likely contributed to the remarkable diversity exhibited by this mutualism.


Asunto(s)
Ficus/fisiología , Avispas/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Hibridación Genética , Filogenia , Polinización/fisiología , Simbiosis/fisiología
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562752

RESUMEN

In this paper, a polyimide (PI)/Si/SiO2-based piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor was developed to achieve a trace level detection for aflatoxin B1. To take advantage of both the high piezoresistance coefficient of single-crystal silicon and the small spring constant of PI, the flexible piezoresistive microcantilever was designed using the buried oxide (BOX) layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer as a bottom passivation layer, the topmost single-crystal silicon layer as a piezoresistor layer, and a thin PI film as a top passivation layer. To obtain higher sensitivity and output voltage stability, four identical piezoresistors, two of which were located in the substrate and two integrated in the microcantilevers, were composed of a quarter-bridge configuration wheatstone bridge. The fabricated PI/Si/SiO2 microcantilever showed good mechanical properties with a spring constant of 21.31 nN/µm and a deflection sensitivity of 3.54 × 10-7 nm-1. The microcantilever biosensor also showed a stable voltage output in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) buffer with a fluctuation less than 1 µV @ 3 V. By functionalizing anti-aflatoxin B1 on the sensing piezoresistive microcantilever with a biotin avidin system (BAS), a linear aflatoxin B1 detection concentration resulting from 1 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL was obtained, and the toxic molecule detection also showed good specificity. The experimental results indicate that the PI/Si/SiO2 flexible piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor has excellent abilities in trace-level and specific detections of aflatoxin B1 and other biomolecules.

20.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112040, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571854

RESUMEN

Waste animal fats and proteins (WAFP) are rich in various animal by-products from food industries. On one hand, increasing production of huge amounts of WAFP brings a great challenge to their appropriate disposal, and raises severe risks to environment and life health. On the other hand, the high fat and protein contents in these animal wastes are valuable resources which can be reutilized in an eco-friendly and renewable way. Sustainable enzymatic technologies are promising methods for WAFP management. This review discussed the application of various enzymes in the conversion of WSFP to value-added biodiesel and bioactivate hydrolysates. New biotechnologies to discover novel enzymes with robust properties were proposed as well. This paper also presented the bio-utilization strategy of animal fat and protein wastes as alternative nutrient media for microorganism growth activities to yield important industrial enzymes cost-effectively.


Asunto(s)
Administración de Residuos , Animales , Biocombustibles , Biotecnología , Grasas , Industria de Alimentos , Residuos Industriales
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