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1.
FEBS J ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835690

RESUMEN

The C-X-C motif chemokine CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) and its receptor chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) mediate neutrophil migration during cell development and inflammatory responses and thus are related to numerous inflammatory diseases and cancers. We have determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of CXCL8 bound CXCR2 coupled to Gi protein, as well as the crystal structure of inactive CXCR2 in complex with a designed allosteric antagonist. These results reveal the binding modes between CXCL8 and CXCR2, CXCR2 and G protein, and the detailed binding pattern of the allosteric antagonist, 00767013. Further structural analysis of the inactive- and active- states of CXCR2 reveals the unique shallow-pocket activation mechanism of C-X-C chemokine receptors and promotes our understanding on how a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an endogenous protein molecule. In addition, the cholesterol molecule is observed in the activated CXCR2 structure, providing the structural basis of the potential allosteric modulation role of cholesterol in chemokine receptors.

2.
Anal Chem ; 93(15): 6223-6231, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826297

RESUMEN

Precise evaluation of breast tumor malignancy based on tissue calcifications has important practical value in the disease diagnosis, as well as the understanding of tumor development. Traditional X-ray mammography provides the overall morphologies of the calcifications but lacks intrinsic chemical information. In contrast, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy offers detailed chemical analysis but lacks the spatial profiles. Here, we applied hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to extract both the chemical and morphological features of the microcalcifications, based on the spectral and spatial domain analysis. A total of 211 calcification sites from 23 patients were imaged with SRS, and the results were analyzed with a support vector machine (SVM) based classification algorithm. With optimized combinations of chemical and geometrical features of microcalcifications, we were able to reach a precision of 98.21% and recall of 100.00% for classifying benign and malignant cases, significantly improved from the pure spectroscopy or imaging based methods. Our findings may provide a rapid means to accurately evaluate breast tumor malignancy based on fresh tissue biopsies.

3.
J Mol Biol ; : 166928, 2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713676

RESUMEN

Pontin is a AAA+ ATPase protein that has functions in various biological contexts including gene transcription regulation, chromatin remodeling, DNA damage sensing and repair, as well as assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes. Pontin is known to regulate the transcription of several important signaling pathways, including Wnt signaling. However, its role in early embryonic signaling regulation remains unclear. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a central role in vertebrate development. Using an in vivo biotin tagging technology, we mapped the genome-wide binding pattern of Pontin before and after RA-induced differentiation in the pluripotent embryo carcinoma cell line NTERA-2. Biotin ChIP-seq revealed significant changes in genome-wide Pontin binding sites upon RA stimulation. We also identified a substantial amount of overlapping binding peaks between Pontin and RARα, especially on all of the HOX gene loci (A-D clusters). Pontin knockdown experiments showed that its chromatin binding at the HOX gene clusters is required for RA-induced HOX gene expression. Furthermore, we performed Global Run-On sequencing (GRO-seq) to map de novo transcripts genome-wide and found that Pontin knockdown significantly diminished nascent HOX gene transcripts, indicating that Pontin regulates HOX gene expression at the transcriptional level. Finally, proteomic analysis demonstrated that Pontin associates with chromatin organization/remodeling complexes and various other functional complexes. Altogether, we have demonstrated that Pontin is a critical transcriptional co-activator for RA-induced HOX gene activation.

4.
J Immunol ; 206(8): 1844-1857, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712518

RESUMEN

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a devastating infectious disease in pigs, severely threatening the global pig industry. To efficiently infect animals, ASFV must evade or inhibit fundamental elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I IFN response. In this study, we identified that ASFV MGF-505-7R protein exerts a negative regulatory effect on STING-dependent antiviral responses. MGF-505-7R interacted with STING and inhibited the cGAS-STING signaling pathway at STING level. MGF-505-7R overexpression either degraded STING or STING expression was reduced in ASFV-infected cells via autophagy, whereas STING expression was elevated in MGF-505-7R-deficient ASFV-infected cells. We further found that MGF-505-7R promoted the expression of the autophagy-related protein ULK1 to degrade STING, whereas ULK1 was elevated in MGF-505-7R-deficient ASFV-infected cells. Moreover, MGF-505-7R-deficient ASFV induced more IFN-ß production than wild-type ASFV and was attenuated in replication compared with wild-type ASFV. The replicative ability of MGF-505-7R-deficient ASFV was also attenuated compared with wild-type. Importantly, MGF-505-7R-deficient ASFV was fully attenuated in pigs. Our results showed for the first time, to our knowledge, a relationship involving the cGAS-STING pathway and ASFV MGF-505-7R, contributing to uncover the molecular mechanisms of ASFV virulence and to the rational development of ASFV vaccines.

5.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 3870-3884, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761251

RESUMEN

We report the development of novel cannabinergic probes that can stabilize the cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) through tight binding interactions. Ligand design involves the introduction of select groups at a judiciously chosen position within the classical hexahydrocannabinol template (monofunctionalized probes). Such groups include the electrophilic isothiocyanato, the photoactivatable azido, and the polar cyano moieties. These groups can also be combined to produce bifunctionalized probes potentially capable of interacting at two distinct sites within the CBR-binding domains. These novel compounds display remarkably high binding affinities for CBRs and are exceptionally potent agonists. A key ligand (27a, AM11245) exhibits exceptionally high potency in both in vitro and in vivo assays and was designated as "megagonist," a property attributed to its tight binding profile. By acting both centrally and peripherally, 27a distinguishes itself from our previously reported "megagonist" AM841, whose functions are restricted to the periphery.

6.
Virol Sin ; 36(2): 187-195, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689140

RESUMEN

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of African swine fever (ASF), an often lethal disease in domestic and wild pigs. ASF represents a major threat to the swine industry worldwide. Currently, no commercial vaccine is available because of the complexity of ASFV or biosecurity concerns. Live attenuated viruses that are naturally isolated or genetically manipulated have demonstrated reliable protection against homologous ASFV strain challenge. In the present study, a mutant ASFV strain with the deletion of ASFV MGF-110-9L (ASFV-Δ9L) was generated from a highly virulent ASFV CN/GS/2018 parental strain, a genotype II ASFV. Relative to the parental ASFV isolate, deletion of the MGF-110-9L gene significantly decreased the ability of ASFV-Δ9L to replicate in vitro in primary swine macrophage cell cultures. The majority of animals inoculated intramuscularly with a low dose of ASFV-Δ9L (10 HAD50) remained clinically normal during the 21-day observational period. Three of five ASFV-Δ9L-infected animals displayed low viremia titers and low virus shedding and developed a strong virus-specific antibody response, indicating partial attenuation of the ASFV-Δ9L strain in pigs. The findings imply the potential usefulness of the ASFV-Δ9L strain for further development of ASF control measures.

7.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101677, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549977

RESUMEN

Anaplasma ovis, a tick-borne intra-erythrocytic Gram-negative bacterium, is a causative agent of ovine anaplasmosis. It is known that Dermacentor ticks act as biological vectors for A. ovis. VirD4 is the machine component of Type IV Secretion System of A. ovis. To better understand the pathogen-vector interaction, VirD4 was used as a bait protein for screening midgut proteins of Dermacentor silvarum via yeast two-hybrid mating assay. As a result, a ribosomal protein RL12 was identified from the midgut cDNA library of D. silvarum. For further validation, using in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, interaction between the proteins, GST-RL12 and HIS-VirD4, was observed in Western blot analysis. The study is first of its kind reporting a D. silvarum midgut protein interaction with VirD4 from A. ovis. Functional annotations showed some important cellular processes are attributed to the protein, particularly in the stringent response and biogenesis. The results of the study suggest the involvement of the VirD4-RL12 interaction in the regulation of signaling pathways, which is a tool for understanding the pathogen-vector interaction.

8.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417580

RESUMEN

This article focuses on flexible single-link manipulators (FSLMs) under boundary control and in-domain control. The actuators of the system include the dc motor at the end of the joint and m piezoelectric controllers installed at the flexible link, which is regarded as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The problem of the infinite number of actuator failures, including the partial loss of the effectiveness and total loss of effectiveness, is solved by the adaptive compensation method. By introducing the relative threshold strategy, the event-triggered control (ETC) scheme is proposed to achieve angle regulation and vibration suppression while reducing the communication burden between the controllers and the actuators. The Lyapunov direct method is utilized to prove that the system is uniformly ultimately bounded and both the angular tracking error and elastic displacement converge to a neighborhood of zero. Numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 141, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420048

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses spike (S) glycoproteins mediate viral entry into host cells by binding to host receptors. However, how the S1 subunit undergoes conformational changes for receptor recognition has not been elucidated in Alphacoronavirus. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of the HCoV-229E S trimer in prefusion state with two conformations. The activated conformation may pose the potential exposure of the S1-RBDs by decreasing of the interaction area between the S1-RBDs and the surrounding S1-NTDs and S1-RBDs compared to the closed conformation. Furthermore, structural comparison of our structures with the previously reported HCoV-229E S structure showed that the S trimers trended to open the S2 subunit from the closed conformation to open conformation, which could promote the transition from pre- to postfusion. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms involved in S glycoprotein-mediated Alphacoronavirus entry and have implications for vaccine and therapeutic antibody design.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD13/metabolismo , Coronavirus Humano 229E/fisiología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Internalización del Virus , Línea Celular Tumoral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Microscopía por Crioelectrón , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformación Proteica en Hélice alfa , Multimerización de Proteína/fisiología , Estructura Cuaternaria de Proteína , Subunidades de Proteína/metabolismo , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/ultraestructura
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(1): 187-195, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501800

RESUMEN

In order to screen African swine fever virus (ASFV) diagnostic antigen with the best enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactivity. By establishing the ELISA method, the diagnostic antigen of ASFV p30 protein expressed by baculovirus-insect cell expression system as reference, we explored the antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of ASFV p35 protein expressed by prokaryotic expression system as a diagnostic antigen. The results of Western blotting and immunofluorescence show that the molecular weight of the recombinant p35 protein and p30 protein obtained was 40 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, and these two proteins had good immuno-reactivity with ASFV positive serum. Recombinant p30 and p35 proteins were used as diagnostic antigens to establish ELISA, and the sensitivity and repeatability of these methods were tested. The results show that although the detection sensitivity of the p30-ELISA established in this study was higher than that of the p35-ELISA, the sensitivity of p35-ELISA was 95.8%, and variations in intra- and inter-assay repeatability of the two methods were less than 10%. The coincidence rate between the p35-ELISA and the imported kit was 97.2%. Results show that p35-ELISA was sensitive and stable, and could detect specific antibodies against ASFV.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana/diagnóstico , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Porcinos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202845

RESUMEN

Autophagy is a conserved pathway that plays a key role in cell homeostasis in normal settings, as well as abnormal and stress conditions. Autophagy dysfunction is found in various neurodegenerative diseases, although it remains unclear whether autophagy impairment is a contributor or consequence of neurodegeneration. Axonal injury is an acute neuronal stress that triggers autophagic responses in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we investigate the injury-triggered autophagy response in a C. elegans model of tauopathy. We found that transgenic expression of pro-aggregant Tau, but not the anti-aggregant Tau, abolished axon injury-induced autophagy activation, resulting in a reduced axon regeneration capacity. Furthermore, axonal trafficking of autophagic vesicles were significantly reduced in the animals expressing pro-aggregant F3ΔK280 Tau, indicating that Tau aggregation impairs autophagy regulation. Importantly, the reduced number of total or trafficking autophagic vesicles in the tauopathy model was not restored by the autophagy activator rapamycin. Loss of PTL-1, the sole Tau homologue in C. elegans, also led to impaired injury-induced autophagy activation, but with an increased basal level of autophagic vesicles. Therefore, we have demonstrated that Tau aggregation as well as Tau depletion both lead to disruption of injury-induced autophagy responses, suggesting that aberrant protein aggregation or microtubule dysfunction can modulate autophagy regulation in neurons after injury.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e037150, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172940

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Geographical disparities have been identified as a specific barrier to cancer screening and a cause of worse outcomes for patients with cancer. In the present study, our aim was to assess the influence of geographical disparities on the survival outcomes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1002 adult patients with NPC (724 males and 278 females) who were classified by area of residence (rural or urban) received IMRT from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014, at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Following propensity score matching (PSM), 812 patients remained in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We used PSM to reduce the bias of variables associated with treatment effects and outcome prediction. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: In the matched cohort, 812 patients remained in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the rural group was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, p<0.001), disease-free survival (DFS, p<0.001), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS, p=0.003) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, p<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression showed worse OS (HR=3.126; 95% CI 1.902 to 5.138; p<0.001), DFS (HR=2.579; 95% CI 1.815 to 3.665; p<0.001), LRRFS (HR=2.742; 95% CI 1.359 to 5.533; p=0.005) and DMFS (HR=2.461; 95% CI 1.574 to 3.850; p<0.001) for patients residing in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The survival outcomes of patients with NPC who received the same standardised treatment were significantly better in urban regions than in rural regions. By analysing the geographic disparities in outcomes for NPC, we can guide the formulation of healthcare policies.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23068, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a systemic inflammatory disease with poor outcomes, and several studies have suggested that the mutation of the interleukin 36 receptor antagonist gene (IL36RN) is related to GPP, where the polymorphism c.115+6T>C is reported to be the most common mutation of IL36RN. This study was performed to clarify and comprehensively evaluate the relationship between IL36RN gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of GPP subtypes. METHODS: To conduct a thorough literature review, studies were obtained using databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Wanfang database. Only studies published up to December 2019 were included. The quality of the research studies was estimated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The total odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled and analysed using STATA 14. The publication bias was evaluated through the Egger test, performed using the aforementioned software. Five common gene models were built and analysed to assess the association between the polymorphism c.115+6T>C and subtypes of GPP. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were selected, including 683 cases of GPP patients. Meta-analyses showed that there was a significant statistical correlation of IL36RN mutation between GPP with or without psoriasis vulgaris (OR = 3.82, 95%CI 2.63-5.56) and between adult GPP and paediatric GPP (OR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.23-0.77). No obvious discrepancy between European patients (OR = 4.03, 95%CI 2.23-7.26) and Asian patients was found. The gene models showed clear associations between the polymorphism c.115+6T>C and GPP through the dominant model (CC+ TC vs TT, OR 2.74, 95%CI 2.06-3.64), recessive model (CC vs CT + TT, OR 4.33, 95%CI 2.84-6.60), homozygote model (CC vs TT, OR 4.37, 95%CI 2.88-6.62), heterozygote model (CT vs TT, OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.32-3.85) and allelic model (C vs T, OR 3.35, 95%CI 2.63-4.27). CONCLUSION: The IL36RN mutation is strongly related to GPP without psoriasis vulgaris and the early onset of GPP. Furthermore, the single-nucleotide polymorphism c.115+6T>C of the IL36RN gene plays a significant role in GPP vulnerability, especially in homozygous mutation. GPP could be a different inflammatory disease, independent of psoriasis.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Psoriasis/genética , Adolescente , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , China/epidemiología , Manejo de Datos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/etnología , Heterocigoto , Homocigoto , Humanos , Mutación/genética , Psoriasis/microbiología , Psoriasis/patología , Adulto Joven
15.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 10669-10678, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149674

RESUMEN

Purpose: In order to investigate the role of miR-15b-5b in the progression of prostate cancer. Methods: We employed RT-qPCR assay to analyze the transcriptional level of miR-15b-5b in cell lines including PC-3, prostate cancer tissues as well as normal prostate tissues. The protein level of large tumor suppressor factor 2 (LATS2) was detected by Western blot in similar specimens. Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict the targets of miR-15b-5p, and dual-luciferase assay was performed to confirm the relationship of miR-15b-5p with LATS2. Cell proliferation assay and colony formation assay were used to assess the effects of miR-15b-5b on the proliferation of PC-3 cells. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with overall survival using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: MiR-15b-5b was up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues as well as cell lines, and increased expression of miR-15b-5b was highly correlated with the poor prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. Ectopic expression of miR-15b-5b promoted the proliferation of PC-3 cells. Reciprocally, silence of miR-15b-5b elicited opposite effects on cell proliferation. Mechanistically, we identified LATS2 as the target of miR-15b-5b, which in turn limited LATS2 expression in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of miR-15b-5b on cell proliferation can be attenuated by overexpression of LATS2. Conversely, inhibition of LATS2 promoted the proliferation of PC-3 cells induced by miR-15b-5b. Our data thus demonstrate that dysregulation of miR-15b-5b exacerbates prostate cancer progression via suppression of LATS2. Conclusion: The identification of the oncogenic role of miR-15b-5b in prostate cancer thus proposes that miR-15b-5p might be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5699, 2020 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177502

RESUMEN

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in cellular functions. However, their intracellular organization is largely unknown. Through investigation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), we discovered periodically repeating clusters of CB1 hotspots within the axons of neurons. We observed these CB1 hotspots interact with the membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS) forming a complex crucial in the regulation of CB1 signaling. Furthermore, we found that CB1 hotspot periodicity increased upon CB1 agonist application, and these activated CB1 displayed less dynamic movement compared to non-activated CB1. Our results suggest that CB1 forms periodic hotspots organized by the MPS as a mechanism to increase signaling efficacy upon activation.

17.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152401

RESUMEN

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) originates in the nasopharyngeal epithelium and has the highest metastatic rate among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the main reason for treatment failure with the underlying mechanisms remaining unclear. By comparing the expression profiling of NPCs versus non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues, we found LACTB was highly expressed in the tumor tissues. We found that elevated expression of the LACTB protein in primary NPCs correlated with poorer patient survival. LACTB is known to be a serine protease and a ubiquitous mitochondrial protein localized in the intermembrane space. Its role in tumor biology remains controversial. We found that the different methylation pattern of LACTB promoter led to its differential expression in NPC cells. Overexpressing LACTB in NPC cells promoted their motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. While knocking down LACTB reduced the metastasis capability of NPC cells. However, LACTB did not influence cellular proliferation. We further found the role of LACTB in promoting NPC metastasis depended on the activation of ERBB3/EGFR-ERK signaling, which in turn, affected the stability and the following acetylation of histone H3. These findings may shed light on unveiling the mechanisms of NPC metastasis.

18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(23): 127602, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038544

RESUMEN

G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which is upregulated in the failing heart, appears to play a critical role in heart failure (HF) progression in part because enhanced GRK2 activity promotes dysfunction of ß-adrenergic signaling and myocyte death. An orally bioavailable GRK2 inhibitor could offer unique therapeutic outcomes that cannot be attained by current heart failure treatments that directly target GPCRs or angiotensin-converting enzyme. Herein, we describe the discovery of a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable GRK2 inhibitor, 8h, through high-throughput screening, hit-to-lead optimization, structure-based design, molecular modelling, synthesis, and biological evaluation. In the cellular target engagement assays, 8h enhances isoproterenol-mediated cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production in HEK293 cells overexpressing GRK2. Compound 8h was further evaluated in a human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (HSC-CM) contractility assay and potentiated isoproterenol-induced beating rate in HSC-CMs.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111487, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126181

RESUMEN

Combined toxicity is a critical issue in risk assessment of contaminants. However, very little is known about the joint effects of graphene oxide (GO, a crucial 2-dimensional carbon material) and hexavalent chromium (Cr6+, a widespread heavy metal), particularly with respect to the critical period of embryogenesis. In this study, the combined toxicity of GO and Cr6+ was evaluated through embryo-larval toxicity test in Danio rerio (zebrafish). Results indicated that the co-exposure of Cr6+ (1 mg/L) and GO (0.01 mg/L) inhibited hatching and spontaneous movement of embryos, but no significant changes were found in the single Cr6+ or GO group. Compared with the single GO or Cr6+ exposure, their co-exposure (GO+Cr6+) significantly enhanced the teratogenicity in a concentration-dependent pattern, and the spinal curvature was observed as the main deformity. GO+Cr6+ changed the protein secondary structures of embryos result of the generation of ROS and oxidative stress. The degradations of vertical myosepta and cartilages were observed in co-exposure group, suggesting that GO+Cr6+ disrupted the development of musculoskeletal system. The genes col11a1a, col2a1a and postnb were down-regulated but the genes acta1b and mmp9 were up-regulated by GO+Cr6+. The interactions between Cr6+ and GO demonstrated that the morphology, structure, and surface properties of GO were modified by Cr6+. The enhanced defects and O-containing groups of GO could trap more ß-sheets, induced oxidative stress, disturbed the development of skeletal muscles and cartilages in zebrafish. These data suggested that GO+Cr6+ enhanced their joint toxicity due to the variation of nanoparticle properties. This finding is important for assessing the ecological risk of graphene family nanomaterials in the natural environment.

20.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 30, 2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087699

RESUMEN

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious side effect of bone-modifying agents and inhibits angiogenesis agents. Although the pathogenesis of MRONJ is not entirely clear, multiple factors may be involved in specific microenvironments. The TGF-ß1 signalling pathway may have a key role in the development of MRONJ. According to the clinical stage, multiple variables should be considered when selecting the most appropriate treatment. Therefore, the prevention and management of treatment of MRONJ should be conducted in patient-centred multidisciplinary team collaborative networks with oncologists, dentists and dental specialists. This would comprise a closed responsibility treatment loop with all benefits directed to the patient. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to summarise the pathogenesis, risk factors, imaging features, clinical staging, therapeutic methods, prevention and treatment strategies associated with MRONJ, which may provide a reference that can inform preventive strategies and improve the quality of life for patients in the future.

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