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1.
Blood Adv ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621200

RESUMEN

Comprehensive international consensus on cytogenetic risk-group stratification of KMT2A-rearranged (KMT2A-r) pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is lacking. This retrospective (2005-2016) International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group study on 1,256 children with KMT2A-r AML aimed to validate the prognostic value of established recurring KMT2A fusions and additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACAs), and secondly, to define additional, recurring KMT2A fusions and ACAs, evaluating their prognostic relevance. Compared to our previous study, three additional, recurring KMT2A-r groups were defined: Xq24/KMT2A::SEPT6, 1p32/KMT2A::EPS15, 17q12/t(11;17)(q23;q12). Across 13 KMT2A-r groups, 5-year event-free survival probabilities varied significantly (21.8% to 76.2%; P<0.01). ACAs occurred in 46.8% of 1,200 patients with complete karyotypes, correlating with inferior overall survival (56.8% vs 67.9%; P<0.01). Multivariable analyses confirmed independent associations of 4q21/KMT2A::AFF1, 6q27/KMT2A::AFDN, 10p12/KMT2A::MLLT10, 10p11.2/KMT2A::ABI1, and 19p13.3/KMT2A::MLLT1 with adverse outcomes, but not those of 1q21/KMT2A::MLLT11 and trisomy 19 with favorable and adverse outcomes, respectively. Newly identified ACAs with independent adverse prognoses were monosomy 10, trisomies 1, 6, 16, and X, add(12p), and del(9q). Among patients with 9p22/KMT2A::MLLT3, the independent association of French-American-British-type M5 with favorable outcome was confirmed, and those of trisomy 6 and measurable residual disease at end of induction with adverse outcomes were identified. We provide evidence to incorporate the five adverse-risk KMT2A fusions into the cytogenetic risk-group stratification of KMT2A-r pediatric AML, to revise the favorable-risk classification of 1q21/KMT2A::MLLT11 to intermediate risk, and to refine risk-stratification of 9p22/KMT2A::MLLT3 AML. Future studies should validate the associations between the newly identified ACAs and outcome, and unravel the underlying biological pathogenesis of KMT2A fusions and ACAs.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e31006, 2024 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Myeloid neoplasms account for 50% of cases of pediatric leukemias in infants. Approximately 25%-50% of patients with newborn leukemia have cutaneous extramedullary disease (EMD). In less than 10% of patients, aleukemic leukemia cutis or isolated extramedullary disease with cutaneous involvement (cEMD) occurs when skin lesions appear prior to bone marrow involvement and systemic symptoms. Interestingly, in acute myeloid leukemia with cutaneous EMD (AML-cEMD) and cEMD, spontaneous remissions have been reported. METHOD: This is a multicentric retrospective cohort study aiming to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcome of infants with either cEMD or presence of cutaneous disease with involvement of the bone marrow (AML-cEMD). This study included patients born between 1990 and 2018 from Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States, diagnosed between 0 and 6 months of life with cEMD or AML-cEMD. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier method, and log rank test were applied. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of n = 50 patients, including 42 AML-cEMD and eight cEMD patients. The most common genetic mutation found was a KMT2A rearrangement (n = 26, 52%). Overall 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66% [confidence interval (CI): 51-78] and 75% [CI: 60-85], respectively. In two patients, complete spontaneous remission occurred without any therapy. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 25% of cEMD patients. No difference in outcomes was observed between the AML-cEMD and cEMD groups, but none of the latter patients included in the study died. KMT2A rearrangements were not associated with poorer prognosis. CONCLUSION: In the largest cohort to date, our study describes the characteristics of infants with cutaneous involvement of myeloid neoplasms including cytomolecular findings and survival rates. Further prospective biologic and clinical studies of these infants with myeloid neoplasms will be required to individualize therapy for this rare patient population.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 44, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Italy, there is a network of centres headed by the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) for the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric cancers on almost the entire national territory. Nevertheless, migration of patients in a hospital located in a region different from that of residence is a widespread habit, sometimes motivated by several reasons. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of migration of children with cancer to AIEOP centres in order to verify their optimal distribution throughout the national territory. METHODS: To this purpose, we used information on 41,205 registered cancer cases in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry from AIEOP centres, with age of less than 20 years old at diagnosis, diagnosed from 1988 to 2017. Patients' characteristics were analysed and compared using the X2 or Fisher's exact test or Mann-Whitney test, when appropriate. Survival distributions were estimated using the method of Kaplan and Meier, and the log-rank test was used to examine differences among subgroups. RESULTS: Extra-regional migration involved overall 19.5% of cases, ranging from 23.3% (1988-1997) to 16.4% (2008-2017) (p < 0.001). In leukaemias and lymphomas we observed a mean migration of 8.8% overall, lower in the North (1.2%) and Centre (7.8%) compared to the South & Isles (32.3%). In the case of solid tumours, overall migration was 25.7%, with 4.2% in the North, 17.2% in the Centre and 59.6% in the South & Isles. For regions with overall levels of migration higher than the national average, most migration cases opted for AIEOP centres of close or even neighbouring regions. Overall survival at 10 years from diagnosis results 69.9% in migrants vs 78.3% in no migrants (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is still a certain amount of domestic migration, the causes of which can be easily identified: migration motivated by a search for high specialization, migration due to lack of local facilities, or regions in which no AIEOP centres are present, which makes migration obligatory. Better coordination between AIEOP centres could help to reduce so-called avoidable migration, but technical and political choices will have to be considered, with the active participation of sector technicians.


Asunto(s)
Hematología , Neoplasias , Niño , Humanos , Atención a la Salud , Italia/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente
5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551501

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common childhood malignant brain tumor, has a poor prognosis in about 30% of patients. The current standard of care, which includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, is often responsible for cognitive, neurologic and endocrine side effects. We investigated whether chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells directed towards the disialoganglioside GD2 can represent a potentially more effective treatment with reduced long-term side effects. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: GD2 expression was evaluated on primary tumor biopsies of MB children by flow-cytometry. GD2 expression in MB cells was evaluated also in response to an EZH2 inhibitor (Tazemetostat). In in vitro, as well as in in vivo models, GD2+MB cells were targeted by a CAR-GD2.CD28.4-1BBζ (CAR.GD2)-T construct, including the suicide gene inducible-caspase-9. RESULTS: GD2 was expressed in 73.17% of MB tumors. The SHH and G4 subtypes expressed the highest levels of GD2, while the WNT subtype the lowest. In in-vitro co-culture assays, CAR.GD2 T-cells were able to kill GD2+MB cells. Pre-treatment with Tazemetostat upregulated GD2 expression, sensitizing GD2dimMB cells to CAR.GD2 T-cells cytotoxic activity. In orthotopic mouse models of MB, intravenously injected CAR.GD2 T-cells significantly controlled tumor growth, prolonging overall survival of treated mice. Moreover, the dimerizing drug AP1903 was able to cross the murine blood brain barrier and to eliminate both blood circulating and tumor infiltrating CAR.GD2 T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental data indicate the feasibility of CAR.GD2 T-cell therapy. A phase I/II clinical trial will be conducted to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of CAR.GD2 therapy in high-risk MB patients.

6.
Mol Ther ; 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454604

RESUMEN

In recent years, a growing number of clinical trials have been initiated to evaluate gene therapy approaches for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). Therapeutic modalities being assessed in these trials utilize different molecular techniques, including lentiviral vectors to add functional copies of the gene encoding the hemoglobin ß subunit in defective cells and CRISPR-Cas9, transcription activator-like effector protein nuclease, and zinc finger nuclease gene editing strategies to either directly address the underlying genetic cause of disease or induce fetal hemoglobin production by gene disruption. Here, we review the mechanisms of action of these various gene addition and gene editing approaches and describe the status of clinical trials designed to evaluate the potentially for these approaches to provide one-time functional cures to patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and SCD.

7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 71(5): e30931, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433307

RESUMEN

Here we report efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety data obtained in treatment-naive, pediatric patients with newly diagnosed advanced MDS receiving azacitidine in the AZA-JMML-001 study. The primary endpoint was response rate (proportion of patients with complete response [CR], partial response [PR], or marrow CR, sustained for ≥4 weeks). Of the 10 patients enrolled, one had an unconfirmed marrow CR and none had confirmed responses after three cycles; the study was therefore closed after stage 1. Azacitidine was well tolerated. The lack of efficacy of azacitidine in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed advanced MDS highlights the need for effective new treatments in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicos , Humanos , Niño , Azacitidina/efectos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicos/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicos/diagnóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/efectos adversos
8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460729

RESUMEN

Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, the outcomes of pediatric patients with high-risk (HR) neuroblastoma (NB) remain poor. The rationale for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) to treat NB was based on the possible graft-versus-tumor effect; however, toxicity limits its efficacy. We sought to prospectively assess the feasibility and efficacy of allo-HCT using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in pediatric patients with HR NB in a multicenter phase II trial. Primary endpoints were the rate of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, 5-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM), and disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary endpoint measures included the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD. Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The 5-year cumulative incidence (CuI) of TRM was 29.4 ± 6.4%, and that of DFS was 11.8 ± 4.5%. Patients undergoing allo-HCT within 1 year of diagnosis or with bone marrow as their stem cell source had a higher DFS probability. The CuI of neutrophil engraftment, platelet engraftment, and grade II-IV aGVHD was 97.9 ± 2.1%, 93.8 ± 3.5%, and 47.1 ± 7.0%, respectively. The development of new therapeutic strategies could further improve disease control.

9.
Cancer Lett ; 588: 216711, 2024 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423245

RESUMEN

Five-year glioblastoma (GBM) survivors (LTS) are the minority of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wild-type GBM patients, and their molecular fingerprint is still largely unexplored. This multicenter retrospective study analyzed a large LTS-GBM cohort from nine Italian institutions and molecularly characterized a subgroup of patients by mutation, DNA methylation (DNAm) and copy number variation (CNV) profiling, comparing it to standard survival GBM. Mutation scan allowed the identification of pathogenic variants in most cases, showing a similar mutational spectrum in both groups, and highlighted TP53 as the most commonly mutated gene in the LTS group. We confirmed DNAm as a valuable tool for GBM classification with a diagnostic refinement by using brain tumor classifier v12.5. LTS were more heterogeneous with more cases classified as diffuse pediatric high-grade glioma subtypes and having peculiar CNVs. We observed a global higher methylation in CpG islands and in gene promoters of LTS with methylation levels of distinct gene promoters correlating with prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Niño , Glioblastoma/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Isocitrato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patología , Mutación , Pronóstico , Metilación de ADN , Sobrevivientes
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338689

RESUMEN

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological cancer characterized by the infiltration of immature T-cells in the bone marrow. Aberrant NOTCH signaling in T-ALL is mainly triggered by activating mutations of NOTCH1 and overexpression of NOTCH3, and rarely is it linked to NOTCH3-activating mutations. Besides the known critical role of NOTCH, the nature of intrathymic microenvironment-dependent mechanisms able to render immature thymocytes, presumably pre-leukemic cells, capable of escaping thymus retention and infiltrating the bone marrow is still unclear. An important challenge is understanding how leukemic cells shape their tumor microenvironment to increase their ability to infiltrate and survive within. Our previous data indicated that hyperactive NOTCH3 affects the CXCL12/CXCR4 system and may interfere with T-cell/stroma interactions within the thymus. This study aims to identify the biological effects of the reciprocal interactions between human leukemic cell lines and thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-derived soluble factors in modulating NOTCH signaling and survival programs of T-ALL cells and TECs. The overarching hypothesis is that this crosstalk can influence the progressive stages of T-cell development driving T-cell leukemia. Thus, we investigated the effect of extracellular space conditioned by T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, TALL1, and Loucy) and TECs and studied their reciprocal regulation of cell cycle and survival. In support, we also detected metabolic changes as potential drivers of leukemic cell survival. Our studies could shed light on T-cell/stroma crosstalk to human leukemic cells and propose our culture system to test pharmacological treatment for T-ALL.


Asunto(s)
Leucemia de Células T , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/metabolismo , Timo/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Leucemia de Células T/metabolismo , Apoptosis , Proliferación Celular , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Blood ; 2024 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215390

RESUMEN

In the effort to improve immunophenotyping and minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the international Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (iBFM) Flow Network introduced the myelomonocytic marker CD371 in 2014, for a large prospective characterization with a long follow-up. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and biological features of CD371-positive (CD371pos) pediatric BCP-ALL. From June 2014 to February 2017, 1812 pediatric patients with newly diagnosed BCP-ALLs enrolled in trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 were evaluated as either screening (n=843, Italian centers) or validation cohort (n=969, other iBFM centers). Laboratory assessment at diagnosis consisted of morphological, immunophenotypic, and genetic analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples. Response assessment relied on morphology, multiparametric flow-cytometry (MFC), and PCR-MRD. Overall, 160/1812 (8.8%) BCP-ALLs were CD371pos at diagnosis. This finding correlated with older age (p<0.001), lower ETV6::RUNX1 frequency (p<0.001), immunophenotypic immaturity (p<0.001), strong expression of CD34 and of CD45 (p<0.05). During induction therapy, CD371pos BCP-ALLs showed a transient myelomonocytic switch (mm-SW: up to 65.4% of samples at Day 15) and frequently an inferior response to chemotherapy [Slow Early Response by PCR-MRD, p<0.001]. However, the 5-year event-free survival was 88.3%. Among 420 patients from the validation cohort, 27/28 (96.4%) cases positive for DUX4-fusions were CD371pos. In conclusion, we comprehensively characterized CD371pos BCP-ALL in the largest pediatric cohort. CD371 is the most sensitive marker of transient mm-SW, whose recognition is essential for proper MFC-MRD assessment. CD371pos is associated to poor early-treatment response, although a good outcome can be reached after MRD-based ALL-related therapies.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 16(1): 9, 2024 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178234

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) account for 3-10% of pediatric sarcomas, 50% of which occur in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Sporadic MPNSTs diagnosis may be challenging due to the absence of specific markers, apart from immunohistochemical H3K27me3 loss. DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling is a useful tool for brain and mesenchymal neoplasms categorization, and MPNSTs exhibit a specific DNAm signature. An MPNST-like group has recently been recognized, including pediatric tumors with retained H3K27me3 mark and clinical/histological features not yet well explored. This study aims to characterize the DNAm profile of pediatric/juvenile MPNSTs/MPNST-like entities and its diagnostic/prognostic relevance. RESULTS: We studied 42 tumors from two groups. Group 1 included 32 tumors histologically diagnosed as atypical neurofibroma (ANF) (N = 5) or MPNST (N = 27); group 2 comprised 10 tumors classified as MPNST-like according to Heidelberg sarcoma classifier. We performed further immunohistochemical and molecular tests to reach an integrated diagnosis. In group 1, DNAm profiling was inconclusive for ANF; while, it confirmed the original diagnosis in 12/27 MPNSTs, all occurring in NF1 patients. Five/27 MPNSTs were classified as MPNST-like: Integrated diagnosis confirmed MPNST identity for 3 cases; while, the immunophenotype supported the change to high-grade undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma in 2 samples. The remaining 10/27 MPNSTs variably classified as schwannoma, osteosarcoma, BCOR-altered sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)-MYOD1 mutant, RMS-like, and embryonal RMS or did not match with any defined entity. Molecular analysis and histologic review confirmed the diagnoses of BCOR, RMS-MYOD1 mutant, DICER1-syndrome and ERMS. Group 2 samples included 5 high-grade undifferentiated sarcomas/MPNSTs and 5 low-grade mesenchymal neoplasms. Two high-grade and 4 low-grade lesions harbored tyrosine kinase (TRK) gene fusions. By HDBSCAN clustering analysis of the whole cohort we identified two clusters mainly distinguished by H3K27me3 epigenetic signature. Exploring the copy number variation, high-grade tumors showed frequent chromosomal aberrations and CDKN2A/B loss significantly impacted on survival in the MPNSTs cohort. CONCLUSION: DNAm profiling is a useful tool in diagnostic work-up of MPNSTs. Its application in a retrospective series collected during pre-molecular era contributed to classify morphologic mimics. The methylation group MPNST-like is a 'hybrid' category in pediatrics including high-grade and low-grade tumors mainly characterized by TRK alterations.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas , Neurofibrosarcoma , Rabdomiosarcoma , Sarcoma , Humanos , Niño , Neurofibrosarcoma/diagnóstico , Neurofibrosarcoma/genética , Neurofibrosarcoma/patología , Histonas/metabolismo , Metilación de ADN , Estudios Retrospectivos , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/patología , Proteínas Tirosina Quinasas , Ribonucleasa III , ARN Helicasas DEAD-box
14.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 30(4): 433.e1-433.e10, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176654

RESUMEN

Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematologic malignancies during childhood have an increased risk of developing long-term sequelae that are in part attributable to the conditioning regimen. The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of long-term toxicities in a population of children who underwent HSCT for hematologic malignancies using either treosulfan or busulfan in the conditioning regimen. The cumulative incidences of growth impairment, altered gonadal function, altered thyroid function, cataracts, secondary malignant neoplasia, and altered pulmonary function were evaluated retrospectively by univariable and multivariable analyses in a population of 521 pediatric patients with acute leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes treated in 20 Italian transplant centers affiliated with the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP). The median duration of follow-up for the entire study population was 7.1 years (range, 1 to 16 years). Overall, a larger proportion of patients given busulfan developed long-term toxicities compared to patients treated with treosulfan (34% versus 20%; P = .01). In univariable analysis, gonadal toxicity developed in 10% of patients who received treosulfan (95% confidence interval [CI], 3% to 15%), compared with 38% (95% CI, 24% to 39%) of busulfan-treated patients (P = .02), and this finding was confirmed by multivariable analysis (relative risk, .51; 95% CI, .34 to .76; P = .0009). We did not find any statistically significant associations between the occurrence of other long-term toxicities and the use of either busulfan or treosulfan. This study provides evidence that the use of treosulfan is correlated with a reduced incidence of gonadal toxicity in children undergoing HSCT for hematologic malignancies.


Asunto(s)
Busulfano/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicos , Humanos , Niño , Busulfano/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Acondicionamiento Pretrasplante/efectos adversos , Acondicionamiento Pretrasplante/métodos , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/efectos adversos , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicos/terapia
15.
Haematologica ; 2024 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186333

RESUMEN

Inotuzumab Ozogamicin (InO) is a CD22-directed antibody conjugated with calicheamicin. The Phase 1B of the ITCC-059 trial tested InO combined with chemotherapy in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Relapsed /refractory CD22+ BCP-ALL pediatric patients were enrolled. The primary objective was to establish the Recommended Phase 2 Dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives included preliminary efficacy and tolerability. InO was combined with 1.5 mg/m2 of vincristine (days 3, 10, 17, 24), 20 mg/m2 of dexamethasone (two 5-day blocks, then amended), and intrathecal therapy. A rolling-6 design was used testing InO from 0.8 to 1.8 mg/m2/cycle. Between May-2020 and Apr-2022, 30 patients were treated, and 29 were evaluable for dose limiting toxicities (DLTs). At 1.1 mg/m2/cycle, two out of four patients had DLTs (liver toxicity). InO was de-escalated to 0.8 mg/m2/cycle (n=6) without DLTs while awaiting a protocol amendment to reduce dexamethasone dose to 10 mg/m2. Post amendment, InO was re-escalated to 1.1 mg/m2/cycle (n=6, 1 DLT), then to 1.4 mg/m2/cycle (n=3, no DLTs), and finally to 1.8 mg/m2/cycle (n=7, 1 DLT). Three additional patients were treated in an expansion cohort. The pooled response rate was 80% (24/30; 95%CI: 61.4% to 92.3%) and, among responders, 66.7% achieved minimal residual disease negativity. The RP2D of InO combined with vincristine, dexamethasone and IT therapy was declared at 1.8 mg/m2/cycle (1.5 mg/m2/cycle after remission) in a fractionated schedule. This combination showed an response rate similar to the single agent cohorts of this trial, with liver toxicity issues at the initial higher dexamethasone dose. #NTR5736.

17.
EMBO Mol Med ; 16(1): 64-92, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177531

RESUMEN

Chromosomal instability (CIN) lies at the core of cancer development leading to aneuploidy, chromosomal copy-number heterogeneity (chr-CNH) and ultimately, unfavorable clinical outcomes. Despite its ubiquity in cancer, the presence of CIN in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cB-ALL), the most frequent pediatric cancer showing high frequencies of aneuploidy, remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the presence of CIN in aneuploid cB-ALL subtypes using single-cell whole-genome sequencing of primary cB-ALL samples and by generating and functionally characterizing patient-derived xenograft models (cB-ALL-PDX). We report higher rates of CIN across aneuploid than in euploid cB-ALL that strongly correlate with intraclonal chr-CNH and overall survival in mice. This association was further supported by in silico mathematical modeling. Moreover, mass-spectrometry analyses of cB-ALL-PDX revealed a "CIN signature" enriched in mitotic-spindle regulatory pathways, which was confirmed by RNA-sequencing of a large cohort of cB-ALL samples. The link between the presence of CIN in aneuploid cB-ALL and disease progression opens new possibilities for patient stratification and offers a promising new avenue as a therapeutic target in cB-ALL treatment.


Asunto(s)
Aneuploidia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Niño , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Inestabilidad Cromosómica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Progresión de la Enfermedad
18.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 59(4): 451-458, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225386

RESUMEN

Poor-risk (PR) cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities generally direct pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We assessed the predictive value of cytogenetic risk classification at diagnosis with respect to post-HSCT outcomes in pediatric patients. Patients younger than 18 years at the time of their first allogeneic HSCT for AML in CR1 between 2005 and 2022 who were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were subgrouped into four categories. Of the 845 pediatric patients included in this study, 36% had an 11q23 abnormality, 24% had monosomy 7/del7q or monosomy 5/del5q, 24% had a complex or monosomal karyotype, and 16% had other PR cytogenetic abnormalities. In a multivariable model, 11q23 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, P = 0.03) and other PR cytogenetic abnormalities (HR = 0.55, P = 0.02) were associated with significantly better overall survival when compared with monosomy 7/del7q or monosomy 5/del5q. Patients with other PR cytogenetic abnormalities had a lower risk of disease relapse after HSCT (HR = 0.49, P = 0.01) and, hence, better leukemia-free survival (HR = 0.55, P = 0.01). Therefore, we conclude that PR cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis predict overall survival after HSCT for AML in pediatric patients.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Niño , Trasplante Homólogo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Deleción Cromosómica , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Pronóstico , Cromosomas Humanos Par 7
19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 59(4): 505-512, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272999

RESUMEN

Letermovir prophylaxis revolutionized the approach to Cytomegalovirus infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT), while data in pediatric setting are still lacking. We retrospectively analyzed 87 HCT children transplanted in 11 AIEOP centers receiving letermovir as off-label indication between January 2020 and November 2022. Letermovir was used as primary, secondary prophylaxis or CMV treatment in 39, 26 and 22 cases, respectively; no discontinuation due to toxicity was reported. Median duration was 100 days (14-256) for primary and 96 days (8-271) for secondary prophylaxis, respectively. None of the patients experienced CMV-clinically significant reactivation during Letermovir primary prophylaxis; one patient developed breakthrough infection during secondary prophylaxis, and 10 and 1 patient experienced asymptomatic CMV-reactivation and CMV-primary infection after drug discontinuation, respectively. Median duration of letermovir in CMV treatment was 40 days (7-134), with 4/22 patients suffering CMV-pneumonia, with an overall response rate of 86.4%. With a median follow-up of 10.7 months (8.2-11.8), estimated 1-year overall survival was 86%; no CMV-related deaths were reported in prophylaxis groups. This is the largest report on Letermovir use in pediatric HCT; real-life data confirm an excellent toxicity profile, with high efficacy as CMV prophylaxis; results in CMV-infection treatment should be investigated in larger, prospective trials.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus , Hematología , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Quinazolinas , Adulto , Humanos , Niño , Citomegalovirus , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Prospectivos , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/etiología , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/prevención & control , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/efectos adversos , Italia
20.
Br J Haematol ; 204(2): 595-605, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945316

RESUMEN

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) is characterized by gene variants that deregulate the RAS signalling pathway. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) carry a defective NF1 allele in the germline and are predisposed to JMML, which presumably requires somatic inactivation of the NF1 wild-type allele. Here we examined the two-hit concept in leukaemic cells of 25 patients with JMML and NF-1. Ten patients with JMML/NF-1 exhibited a NF1 loss-of-function variant in combination with uniparental disomy of the 17q arm. Five had NF1 microdeletions combined with a pathogenic NF1 variant and nine carried two compound-heterozygous NF1 variants. We also examined 16 patients without clinical signs of NF-1 and no variation in the JMML-associated driver genes PTPN11, KRAS, NRAS or CBL (JMML-5neg) and identified eight patients with NF1 variants. Three patients had microdeletions combined with hemizygous NF1 variants, three had compound-heterozygous NF1 variants and two had heterozygous NF1 variants. In addition, we found a high incidence of secondary ASXL1 and/or SETBP1 variants in both groups. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of JMML/NF-1 reliably indicates a NF1-driven JMML subtype, and that careful NF1 analysis should be included in the genetic workup of JMML even in the absence of clinical evidence of NF-1.


Asunto(s)
Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Niño , Humanos , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/genética , Neurofibromatosis 1/genética , Mutación , Transducción de Señal , Genes Supresores de Tumor
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