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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 32(8): 1704-1720, 2022 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476458

RESUMEN

Compositionality is a hallmark of human language and other symbolic systems: a finite set of meaningful elements can be systematically combined to convey an open-ended array of ideas. Compositionality is not uniformly distributed over expressions in a language or over individuals' communicative behavior: at both levels, variation is observed. Here, we investigate the neural bases of interindividual variability by probing the relationship between intrinsic characteristics of brain networks and compositional behavior. We first collected functional resting-state and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from a large participant sample (N = 51). Subsequently, participants took part in two signaling games. They were instructed to learn and reproduce an auditory symbolic system of signals (tone sequences) associated with affective meanings (human faces expressing emotions). Signal-meaning mappings were artificial and had to be learned via repeated signaling interactions. We identified a temporoparietal network in which connection length was related to the degree of compositionality introduced in a signaling system by each player. Graph-theoretic analysis of resting-state functional connectivity revealed that, within that network, compositional behavior was associated with integration measures in 2 semantic hubs: the left posterior cingulate cortex and the left angular gyrus. Our findings link individual variability in compositional biases to variation in the anatomy of semantic networks and in the functional topology of their constituent units.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Encefálico , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Sesgo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Vías Nerviosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Semántica
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e107, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588018

RESUMEN

The argument by Mehr et al. that music emerged and evolved culturally as a credible signal is convincing, but it lacks one essential ingredient: a model of signaling behavior that supports the main hypothesis theoretically and empirically. We argue that signaling games can help us explain how musical structures emerge as population-level phenomena, through sender-receiver signaling interactions.


Asunto(s)
Música , Humanos
3.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(6): 1943-1959, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050791

RESUMEN

The cultural transmission of spoken language and music relies on human capacities for encoding and recalling auditory patterns. In this experiment, we show that interindividual differences in this ability are associated with variation in the organization of cross-callosal white matter pathways. First, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) data were analyzed in a large participant sample (N = 51). Subsequently, these participants underwent a behavioral test that models in the laboratory the cultural transmission of auditory symbolic systems: the signaling game. Cross-callosal and intrahemispheric (arcuate fasciculus) pathways were reconstructed and analyzed using conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as a more advanced dMRI technique: fixel-based analysis (FBA). The DTI metric of fractional anisotropy (FA) in auditory callosal pathways predicted-weeks after scanning-the fidelity of transmission of an artificial tone system. The ability to coherently transmit auditory signals in one signaling game, irrespective of the signals learned during the previous game, was predicted by morphological properties of the fiber bundles in the most anterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study is the first application of dMRI in the field of cultural transmission, and the first to connect individual characteristics of callosal pathways to core behaviors in the transmission of auditory symbolic systems.


Asunto(s)
Cuerpo Calloso , Sustancia Blanca , Vías Auditivas/diagnóstico por imagen , Cuerpo Calloso/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Humanos , Sustancia Blanca/diagnóstico por imagen
4.
Brain Res ; 1754: 147248, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417893

RESUMEN

Evoked cortical responses (ERs) have mainly been studied in controlled experiments using simplified stimuli. Though, an outstanding question is how the human cortex responds to the complex stimuli encountered in realistic situations. Few electroencephalography (EEG) studies have used Music Information Retrieval (MIR) tools to extract cortical P1/N1/P2 to acoustical changes in real music. However, less than ten events per music piece could be detected leading to ERs due to limitations in automatic detection of sound onsets. Also, the factors influencing a successful extraction of the ERs have not been identified. Finally, previous studies did not localize the sources of the cortical generators. This study is based on an EEG/MEG dataset from 48 healthy normal hearing participants listening to three real music pieces. Acoustic features were computed from the audio signal of the music with the MIR Toolbox. To overcome limits in automatic methods, sound onsets were also manually detected. The chance of obtaining detectable ERs based on ten randomly picked onset points was less than 1:10,000. For the first time, we show that naturalistic P1/N1/P2 ERs can be reliably measured across 100 manually identified sound onsets, substantially improving the signal-to-noise level compared to <10 trials. More ERs were measurable in musical sections with slow event rates (0.2 Hz-2.5 Hz) than with fast event rates (>2.5 Hz). Furthermore, during monophonic sections of the music only P1/P2 were measurable, and during polyphonic sections only N1. Finally, MEG source analysis revealed that naturalistic P2 is located in core areas of the auditory cortex.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos/fisiología , Música , Sonido , Acústica , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(4): 941-952, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146455

RESUMEN

Learning of complex auditory sequences such as music can be thought of as optimizing an internal model of regularities through unpredicted events (or "prediction errors"). We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and parametric empirical Bayes on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to identify modulation of effective brain connectivity that takes place during perceptual learning of complex tone patterns. Our approach differs from previous studies in two aspects. First, we used a complex oddball paradigm based on tone patterns as opposed to simple deviant tones. Second, the use of fMRI allowed us to identify cortical regions with high spatial accuracy. These regions served as empirical regions-of-interest for the analysis of effective connectivity. Deviant patterns induced an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response, compared to standards, in early auditory (Heschl's gyrus [HG]) and association auditory areas (planum temporale [PT]) bilaterally. Within this network, we found a left-lateralized increase in feedforward connectivity from HG to PT during deviant responses and an increase in excitation within left HG. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find frontal activity, nor did we find modulations of backward connections in response to oddball sounds. Our results suggest that complex auditory prediction errors are encoded by changes in feedforward and intrinsic connections, confined to superior temporal gyrus.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Conectoma , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Lóbulo Temporal/fisiología , Adulto , Corteza Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Modelos Teóricos , Música , Red Nerviosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto Joven
6.
Elife ; 82019 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658945

RESUMEN

Music producers, whether original composers or performers, vary in their ability to acquire and faithfully transmit music. This form of variation may serve as a mechanism for the emergence of new traits in musical systems. In this study, we aim to investigate whether individual differences in the social learning and transmission of music relate to intrinsic neural dynamics of auditory processing systems. We combined auditory and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an interactive laboratory model of cultural transmission, the signaling game, in an experiment with a large cohort of participants (N=51). We found that the degree of interhemispheric rs-FC within fronto-temporal auditory networks predicts-weeks after scanning-learning, transmission, and structural modification of an artificial tone system. Our study introduces neuroimaging in cultural transmission research and points to specific neural auditory processing mechanisms that constrain and drive variation in the cultural transmission and regularization of musical systems.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva/anatomía & histología , Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva , Red Nerviosa/anatomía & histología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Vías Nerviosas/anatomía & histología , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Música , Adulto Joven
7.
Eur J Neurosci ; 49(12): 1597-1609, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589481

RESUMEN

The human brain's ability to extract and encode temporal regularities and to predict the timing of upcoming events is critical for music and speech perception. This work addresses how these mechanisms deal with different levels of temporal complexity, here the number of distinct durations in rhythmic patterns. We use electroencephalography (EEG) to relate the mismatch negativity (MMN), a proxy of neural prediction error, to a measure of information content of rhythmic sequences, the Shannon entropy. Within each of three conditions, participants listened to repeatedly presented standard rhythms of five tones (four inter-onset intervals) and of a given level of entropy: zero (isochronous), medium entropy (two distinct interval durations), or high entropy (four distinct interval durations). Occasionally, the fourth tone was moved forward in time that is it occurred 100 ms (small deviation) or 300 ms early (large deviation). According to the predictive coding framework, high-entropy stimuli are more difficult to model for the brain, resulting in less confident predictions and yielding smaller prediction errors for deviant sounds. Our results support this hypothesis, showing a gradual decrease in MMN amplitude as a function of entropy, but only for small timing deviants. For large timing deviants, in contrast, a modulation of activity in the opposite direction was observed for the earlier N1 component, known to also be sensitive to sudden changes in directed attention. Our results suggest the existence of a fine-grained neural mechanism that weights neural prediction error to the complexity of rhythms and that mostly manifests in the absence of directed attention.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Adulto , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Periodicidad , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
8.
Front Comput Neurosci ; 12: 86, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555314

RESUMEN

One curious aspect of human timing is the organization of rhythmic patterns in small integer ratios. Behavioral and neural research has shown that adjacent time intervals in rhythms tend to be perceived and reproduced as approximate fractions of small numbers (e.g., 3/2). Recent work on iterated learning and reproduction further supports this: given a randomly timed drum pattern to reproduce, participants subconsciously transform it toward small integer ratios. The mechanisms accounting for this "attractor" phenomenon are little understood, but might be explained by combining two theoretical frameworks from psychophysics. The scalar expectancy theory describes time interval perception and reproduction in terms of Weber's law: just detectable durational differences equal a constant fraction of the reference duration. The notion of categorical perception emphasizes the tendency to perceive time intervals in categories, i.e., "short" vs. "long." In this piece, we put forward the hypothesis that the integer-ratio bias in rhythm perception and production might arise from the interaction of the scalar property of timing with the categorical perception of time intervals, and that neurally it can plausibly be related to oscillatory activity. We support our integrative approach with mathematical derivations to formalize assumptions and provide testable predictions. We present equations to calculate durational ratios by: (i) parameterizing the relationship between durational categories, (ii) assuming a scalar timing constant, and (iii) specifying one (of K) category of ratios. Our derivations provide the basis for future computational, behavioral, and neurophysiological work to test our model.

9.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 13(8): 877-888, 2018 09 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016510

RESUMEN

A core design feature of human communication systems and expressive behaviours is their temporal organization. The cultural evolutionary origins of this feature remain unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that regularities in the temporal organization of signalling sequences arise in the course of cultural transmission as adaptations to aspects of cortical function. We conducted two experiments on the transmission of rhythms associated with affective meanings, focusing on one of the most widespread forms of regularity in language and music: isochronicity. In the first experiment, we investigated how isochronous rhythmic regularities emerge and change in multigenerational signalling games, where the receiver (learner) in a game becomes the sender (transmitter) in the next game. We show that signalling sequences tend to become rhythmically more isochronous as they are transmitted across generations. In the second experiment, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) and two-player signalling games over 2 successive days. We show that rhythmic regularization of sequences can be predicted based on the latencies of the mismatch negativity response in a temporal oddball paradigm. These results suggest that forms of isochronicity in communication systems originate in neural constraints on information processing, which may be expressed and amplified in the course of cultural transmission.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Comunicación , Cultura , Conducta Social , Estimulación Acústica , Adaptación Fisiológica , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Entropía , Femenino , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Música , Detección de Señal Psicológica , Adulto Joven
10.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 246, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713263

RESUMEN

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the biological and cultural evolution of music, and specifically in the role played by perceptual and cognitive factors in shaping core features of musical systems, such as melody, harmony, and rhythm. One proposal originates in the language sciences. It holds that aspects of musical systems evolve by adapting gradually, in the course of successive generations, to the structural and functional characteristics of the sensory and memory systems of learners and "users" of music. This hypothesis has found initial support in laboratory experiments on music transmission. In this article, we first review some of the most important theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of music evolution. Next, we identify a major current limitation of these studies, i.e., the lack of direct neural support for the hypothesis of cognitive adaptation. Finally, we discuss a recent experiment in which this issue was addressed by using event-related potentials (ERPs). We suggest that the introduction of neurophysiology in cultural transmission research may provide novel insights on the micro-evolutionary origins of forms of variation observed in cultural systems.

11.
Artif Life ; 24(2): 154-156, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664349

RESUMEN

In their commentary on our work, Ravignani and Verhoef (2018) raise concerns about two methodological aspects of our experimental paradigm (the signaling game): (1) the use of melodic signals of fixed length and duration, and (2) the fact that signals are endowed with meaning. They argue that music is hardly a semantic system and that our methodological choices may limit the capacity of our paradigm to shed light on the emergence and evolution of a number of putative musical universals. We reply that musical systems are semantic systems and that the aim of our research is not to study musical universals as such, but to compare more closely the kinds of principles that organize meaning and structure in linguistic and musical systems.


Asunto(s)
Música , Juegos Recreacionales , Lenguaje , Semántica , Transducción de Señal
12.
Artif Life ; 23(3): 406-423, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786724

RESUMEN

It has been proposed that languages evolve by adapting to the perceptual and cognitive constraints of the human brain, developing, in the course of cultural transmission, structural regularities that maximize or optimize learnability and ease of processing. To what extent would perceptual and cognitive constraints similarly affect the evolution of musical systems? We conducted an experiment on the cultural evolution of artificial melodic systems, using multi-generational signaling games as a laboratory model of cultural transmission. Signaling systems, using five-tone sequences as signals, and basic and compound emotions as meanings, were transmitted from senders to receivers along diffusion chains in which the receiver in each game became the sender in the next game. During transmission, structural regularities accumulated in the signaling systems, following principles of proximity, symmetry, and good continuation. Although the compositionality of signaling systems did not increase significantly across generations, we did observe a significant increase in similarity among signals from the same set. We suggest that our experiment tapped into the cognitive and perceptual constraints operative in the cultural evolution of musical systems, which may differ from the mechanisms at play in language evolution and change.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Evolución Cultural , Teoría del Juego , Aprendizaje , Música , Humanos
13.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 11(12): 1970-1979, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27510496

RESUMEN

It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing capacity account for aspects of 'variation' observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing. We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days. On day 1, participants listened to standard and deviant five-tone sequences: as in previous oddball studies, an mismatch negativity (MMN) was elicited by deviant tones. On day 2, participants learned an artificial signaling system from a trained confederate of the experimenters in a coordination game in which five-tone sequences were associated to affective meanings (emotion-laden pictures of human faces). In a subsequent game with identical structure, participants transmitted and occasionally changed the signaling system learned during the first game. The MMN latency from day 1 predicted learning, transmission and structural modification of signaling systems on day 2. Our study introduces neurophysiological methods into research on cultural transmission and evolution, and relates aspects of variation in symbolic systems to individual differences in neural information processing.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados Visuales/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Learn Mem ; 18(9): 554-7, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21844188

RESUMEN

Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic (ILC) cortices 36 d following contextual fear conditioning. Upon extinction, aCC spine density returned to baseline, but the enhanced proportion of large spines did not. Differently, ILC spine density remained elevated, but the size of spines decreased dramatically. Thus, extinction partially erases the remote memory network, suggesting that the preserved network properties might sustain reactivation of extinguished conditioned fear.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje por Asociación/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Condicionamiento Clásico/fisiología , Espinas Dendríticas/fisiología , Extinción Psicológica/fisiología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Corteza Cerebral/citología , Miedo , Giro del Cíngulo/citología , Giro del Cíngulo/fisiología , Masculino , Memoria/fisiología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Vías Nerviosas/citología , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología
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